Cultural Distance Assignment Essay

Can you explain the example given in the lecture in your own words? - Cultural Distance Assignment Essay introduction?? The mean is a weighted average of the possible values a certain variable can take. The mean provides the long-run average of a variable. The variance of a variable measures the spread or variability of the distribution. The example given in the lecture can be explained like this: if the mean increases, the graph moves to the right, because a higher mean is a higher average. Increase in variance however, does not makes the graph move, but it changes the shape of the graph.

This is due to the fact that the values of the graph become more spread, as a result of the variance increase. 3. Calculate the distance on each dimension between Germany (our home country) and a specific host country using the Excel program. The host country we chose is Mexico. The distances between Germany and this host country on each dimension are: PDP 46 JAVA 17 MIND -37 MASS 3 4. The Gout-Sings index of cultural distance also contains the variance of each dimension. Answer the following questions: a. In the bottom row of the columns you will find the variance for each culture dimension.

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What dimension has the highest variance? The Individualism/Collectivism (MIND) dimension is the dimension with the highest variance. B. What does a high variance mean? That there is high variation in the values included in the calculation. 5. Calculate the cultural distance using Gout and Sings formula while using Germany as the home country. The cultural difference between our chosen host country Mexico and the home country Germany is 1,73. 6. Which four countries have the lowest cultural distance to Germany? 1. Switzerland 0,03 2. Italy 0,20 3.

South Africa 0,22 4. Luxembourg 0,24 7. Which country has the highest cultural distance? Guatemala has the highest cultural distance with Germany: 4,49 8. What is the average cultural distance between Germany and these 57 other Mounties? The average cultural distance between Germany and these countries is 1,63. 9. Pick a host country and relate the cultural distance score between Germany and that host country to the 7 points of critique raised by Sheehan as discussed in the lecture. We pick South Africa as our host country, the cultural distance is therefore 0,22. . The illusion of symmetry: the culture distance is pretty low, but it does not mean that it is therefore easy to do business. For Germany it may be easy to do business in South Africa, but the other way around, it is very difficult for South Africa to do business in Germany. This is the illusion of symmetry. 2. The illusion of stability: the CD is measured at a single point in time, but a lot has changed and is still changing. This makes the CD not always realistic, because it can be easily outdated. 3.

The illusion of linearity: Cultural Distance is not linear, that is just an illusion. It is different for all the different approaches a German firm can choose to enter the South African market, but also the other way round, when South Africa enters Germany. 4. The illusion of causality: distance is multidimensional and therefore isolating cultural distance from geographic stance and institutional distance is not correct. In this case, the low cultural distance between South Africa and Germany suggests that these countries are not very distant.

We all know that that is not true, because geographically speaking they are distant. 5. The illusion of discordance: Some dimensions of culture matter way more than others. The different languages in Germany and South Africa for example, but also the difference between employee acceptance to power and control. 6. The assumption of corporate homogeneity: there are big differences between the national cultural level and the corporate cultural bevel, especially in South Africa, and this is not included in the current Cultural Distance score.. . The assumption of spatial homogeneity: difference in location and spread around the country is not included in the cultural distance score. Especially in South Africa, but also in Germany (Our area) firms are centralized in certain areas where the CD differs to the other locations. This means that the general CD is not representative for all the areas in the country. 10. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the Gout and Sings measure of cultural distance. It is really difficult to measure the cultural distance between countries, but

Gout and Sings did a good job by using Hypotheses dimensional framework and transforming these scores into a formula and eventually a cultural distance score. At first sight it indeed looks like a good measure to compare the cultural distance between countries, but when we take a better look we find out that there are some problematic aspects of the Gout and Sings CD measure. Sheehan made a critique list with seven weaknesses, described in the previous question. We can therefore conclude that it is great that there is a system to compare the cultural distance between countries, but that this system has some real problems.

Cultural Distance Assignment

What is the difference between mean and variance? - Cultural Distance Assignment introduction?? Can you explain the example given in the lecture in your own words? The mean is the weighted average of all the potential values of a certain variable, whereas the variance of a variable measures the spread or variability of the distribution. This is easier explainable by using it in an example, for instance the lecture example. When the mean increases, so the weighted average increases, the graph will move to the right. However, when the variance increases only the shape of the graph will change, because the values become more spread. . Calculate the distance on each dimension between Germany (our home entry) and a specific host country using the Excel program. The country we decided to compare Germany with, is Spain. PDP 22 VA 21 MIND -16 MASS -24 4. The Gout-Sings index of cultural distance also contains the variance of each dimension. Answer the following questions: a. In the bottom row of the columns you will find the variance for each culture dimension. What dimension has the highest variance? The Individualism/Collectivism has the highest variance. MIND dimension). B. What does a high variance mean? It means that there is a high spread in the values of the variables calculated. . Calculate the cultural distance using Gout and Sings formula while using Germany as the home country. The cultural distance between the home country Germany and the host country (chosen by us) Spain is 0,975339. 6. Which four countries have the lowest cultural distance to Germany? Switzerland 0,034929 Italy 0,200216 south Africa 0,219359 Luxembourg 0,237383 7. Which country has the highest cultural distance?

Guatemala has the highest cultural distance with the home country Germany, namely: 4,48705. 8. What is the average cultural distance between Germany and these 57 other countries? The average cultural distance between Germany and these 57 other countries is 1,60. 9. Pick a host country and relate the cultural distance score between Germany and that host country to the 7 points of critique raised by Sheehan as discussed in the lecture. 1. The illusion of symmetry: the culture distance is low. It will be fairly easy for Germany to do business with Spain and vice versa.

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Spain can provide Germany with fruits and wine, and Germany can provide Spain with all sorts of industrial goods. Germany’s economy however is way more successful than Spain’s economy. If Spain will therefore be able o successfully invest in Germany is not sure. Probably not. 2. The illusion of stability: The CD is considered to be a stable and constant. However, cultures change. Spain did not directly participate in World War II but after 1945 cultures between Germany and the rest of the European countries have greatly changed. 3.

The illusion of linearity: Cultural distance is not linear, that is an illusion. There are lots of different approaches and perspectives to be kept in mind when Germany enters the Spain market, but also for Spain entering the German market. 4. The illusion of causality: In the calculation one should not forget the geographical distance. Spain is fairly close to Germany which would lower their cultural distance. They both do have a very different culture however. One should therefore not focus on the cultural difference only, but should also keep geographical distance in mind. . The illusion of discordance: Not all cultural dimensions have the same value. Some matter more than others. In Spain it is for example very common to have Siesta. German businessmen/women will have to keep in mind to not expect any phone calls being answered during the midday, because Siesta is valued very highly by the Spanish culture, whereas the German culture knows nothing like Siesta. Besides, in Spain they work longer, until about 8 to 10 pm. In the German culture it’s more common to stop at 5 pm. 6.

The assumption of corporate homogeneity: The CD does not include the variance of corporate differences. Some Spanish companies for example could be very domestic with a high level of location bound Fess, which will not work out when doing business abroad. On the other hand there will be Spanish companies that do succeed in doing business abroad because of their internationally transferable Fess. It can sometimes differ between companies to a certain extent hat you cannot just use national cultural measures. 7.

The assumption of spatial homogeneity: Difference in location within a country is not taken into account in the CD score. However, in Spain there is an enormous difference whether a company is located at the sea, or in the north below the Presses. It will make a huge difference in logistics and that is not used to measure the CD. 10. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the Gout and Sings measure of cultural distance. Gout and Sings succeeded in generalizing cultural differences between several countries.

Cultural Distance Assignment Essay

1 - Cultural Distance Assignment Essay introduction. What is the formula developed by Kogut and Singh in 1988 in the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS)? Explain the formula in your own words.

〖CD〗_j=∑_(i=1)^4▒{ (I_ij-I_iDE )^2/V_i}/4

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CDj is the cultural distance between the host country and the home country (in this case Germany). The I’s are the scores on the ith cultural dimensions from Hofstede, so in this case the four scores for PD, UAV, IND and MAS. Vi is the variance of the score of this dimensions. The variances for all dimensions can be calculated in excel.

2. What is the difference between mean and variance? Can you explain the example given in the lecture in your own words?

The mean is a weighted average of the possible values a certain variable can take. The mean provides the long-run average of a variable. The variance of a variable measures the spread or variability of the distribution. The example given in the lecture can be explained like this: if the mean increases, the graph moves to the right, because a higher mean is a higher average. Increase in variance however, does not makes the graph move, but it changes the shape of the graph. This is due to the fact that the values of the graph become more spread, as a result of the variance increase.

3. Calculate the distance on each dimension between Germany (our home country) and a specific host country using the Excel program.
The host country we chose is Mexico.
The distances between Germany and this host country on each dimension are: PD 46
UAV 17
IND -37
MAS 3

4. The Kogut-Singh index of cultural distance also contains the variance of each dimension. Answer the following questions:
a. In the bottom row of the columns you will find the variance for each culture dimension. What dimension has the highest variance?
The Individualism/Collectivism (IND) dimension is the dimension with the highest variance. b. What does a high variance mean?
That there is high variation in the values included in the calculation.

5. Calculate the cultural distance using Kogut and Singh formula while using Germany as the home country.
The cultural difference between our chosen host country Mexico and the home country Germany is 1,73.

6. Which four countries have the lowest cultural distance to Germany? 1. Switzerland0,03
2. Italy 0,20
3. South Africa0,22
4. Luxembourg0,24

7. Which country has the highest cultural distance?
Guatemala has the highest cultural distance with Germany: 4,49

8. What is the average cultural distance between Germany and these 57 other countries? The average cultural distance between Germany and these countries is 1,63.

9. Pick a host country and relate the cultural distance score between Germany and that host country to the 7 points of critique raised by Shenkar as discussed in the lecture. We pick South Africa as our host country, the cultural distance is therefore 0,22.

1. The illusion of symmetry: the culture distance is pretty low, but it does not mean that it is therefore easy to do business. For Germany it may be easy to do business in South Africa, but the other way around, it is very difficult for South Africa to do business in Germany. This is the illusion of symmetry. 2. The illusion of stability: the CD is measured at a single point in time, but a lot has changed and is still changing. This makes the CD not always realistic, because it can be easily outdated. 3. The illusion of linearity: Cultural Distance is not linear, that is just an illusion. It
is different for all the different approaches a German firm can choose to enter the South African market, but also the other way round, when South Africa enters Germany. 4. The illusion of causality: distance is multidimensional and therefore isolating cultural distance from geographic distance and institutional distance is not correct. In this case, the low cultural distance between South Africa and Germany suggests that these countries are not very distant. We all know that that is not true, because geographically speaking they are distant. 5. The illusion of discordance: Some dimensions of culture matter way more than others. The different languages in Germany and South Africa for example, but also the difference between employee acceptance to power and control. 6. The assumption of corporate homogeneity: there are big differences between the national cultural level and the corporate cultural level, especially in South Africa, and this is not included in the current Cultural Distance score.. 7. The assumption of spatial homogeneity: difference in location and spread around the country is not included in the cultural distance score. Especially in South Africa, but also in Germany (Ruhr area) firms are centralized in certain areas where the CD differs to the other locations. This means that the general CD is not representative for all the areas in the country.

10. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the Kogut and Singh measure of cultural distance.
It is really difficult to measure the cultural distance between countries, but Kogut and Singh did a good job by using Hofstede’s dimensional framework and transforming these scores into a formula and eventually a cultural distance score. At first sight it indeed looks like a good measure to compare the cultural distance between countries, but when we take a better look we find out that there are some problematic aspects of the Kogut and Singh CD measure. Shenkar made a critique list with seven weaknesses, described in the previous question. We can therefore conclude that it is great that there is a system to compare the cultural distance between countries, but that this system has some real problems.

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