Customer Satisfaction Towards Taman Awam Teluk Likas Kota Kinabalu

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his chapter will give an overview of literature and model that are related to the research problem stated in the previous chapter. The concept definition about customer satisfaction is also being introduced in this chapter. Definition of Customer Satisfaction The definition of customer satisfaction has been widely debated as organizations increasingly attempt to measure it.

Customer satisfaction can be experienced in a variety of situations and connected to both goods and services. It is a highly personal assessment that is greatly affected by customer expectations. Satisfaction also is based on the customer’s experience of both contact with the organization (the “moment of truth” as it is called in business literature) and personal outcomes. Some researchers define a satisfied customer within the private sector as “one who receives significant added value” to his/her bottom line—a definition that may apply just as well to public services.

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Customer satisfaction differs depending on the situation and the product or service. A customer may be satisfied with a product or service, an experience, a purchase decision, a salesperson, store, service provider, or an attribute or any of these. Some researchers completely avoid “satisfaction” as a measurement objective because it is “too fuzzy an idea to serve as a meaningful benchmark. ” Instead, they focus on the customer’s entire experience with an organization or service contact and the detailed assessment of that experience.

For example, reporting methods developed for health care patient surveys often ask customers to rate their providers and experiences in response to detailed questions such as, “How well did your physicians keep you informed? ” These surveys provide “actionable” data that reveal obvious steps for improvement. Customer satisfaction is a highly personal assessment that is greatly influenced by individual expectations. Some definitions are based on the observation that customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction results from either the confirmation or disconfirmation of individual expectations regarding a service or product.

To avoid difficulties stemming from the kaleidoscope of customer expectations and differences, some experts urge companies to “concentrate on a goal that’s more closely linked to customer equity. ” Instead of asking whether customers are satisfied, they encourage companies to determine how customers hold them accountable (Danial Mike February 2007 ). Review of Past and Current Literature Customer satisfaction has been a popular topic in marketing practice and academic research since Cardozo’s (1965) initial study of customer effort, expectations and satisfaction.

Despite many attempts to measure and explain customer satisfaction, there still does not appear to be a consensus regarding its definition (Giese and Cote, 2000). Customer satisfaction is typically defined as post consumption evaluative judgments concerning a specific product or service (Gundersen, Heide and Olsson, 1996). It is the result of an evaluative process that contrasts prepurchase expectations with perceptions of performance during and after the consumption experience (Oliver, 1980).

The most widely accepted conceptualization of the customer satisfaction concept is the expectancy disconfirmation theory (McQuitty, Finn and Wiley, 2000). The theory was developed by Oliver, who proposed that satisfaction level is a result of the difference between expected and perceived performance. Satisfaction (positive disconfirmation) occures when product or service is better than expected. On the other hand, a performance worse than expected results is dissatisfaction (negative disconfirmation). Studies show that customer satisfaction may have direct and indirect impact on business results.

Luo and Homburg (2007) concluded that customer satisfaction positively affects business profitability. The majority of studies have investigated the relationship with customer behaviour patterns (Dimitriades, 2006; Olorunniwo et al. , 2006; Chi and Qu, 2008; Faullant et al. , 2008). According to these findings, customer satisfaction increases customer loyalty, influences repurchase intentions and leads to positive word-of-mouth. Given the vital role of customer satisfaction, it is not surprising that a variety of research has been devoted to investigating the determinants of satisfaction.

Satisfaction can be determined by subjective (e. g. customer needs, emotions) and objective factors (e. g. product and service features). Applying to the hospitality industry, there have been numerous studies that examine attributes that travelers may find 360 important regarding customers. Customer satisfaction has been the subject of considerable research and has been defined and measured in various ways (Oliver, 1997). Customer satisfaction may be defined as the customer’s fulfillment response to a consumption experience, or some part of it.

Customer satisfaction is a pleasurable fulfillment response while dissatisfaction is an unpleasurable one (Buttle, 2004). Independent Variables (Facilities) Definition of Facilities According to Freedictionary. com, facility is something ease in moving, acting, or doing aptitude or something that facilitates an action or process and created to serve a particular function. Review of Past and Current Literature Products and services are two common categories in analyzing competition, particularly in the field of marketing (Kotler and Keller, 2012; Kotler and Armstrong, 2004; Peter and Olson, 2010).

In much greater definitions related to products and services, nonetheless, the general conditions of the building and all forms of facilities, which are available in the building, may become interesting combinations to represent product or services for a particular building. It is, undoubtedly, perceived that the conditions of the building and all forms of available facilities in a building have potential to be considered as contributing factors toward customer satisfaction (Baucell, et al, 2007).

When the service quality exceeds the expectations, the service provider has won a delighted customer. Dissatisfaction will occur when the perceived overall service quality does not meet expectations (Looy, Gemmel & Dierdonck, 2003). Sometimes customer’s expectations are met, yet the customer is not satisfied. This occurs when the expectations are low (Buttle, 2005). For example, the customer expects the flight to be late and it gets late. Customer satisfaction is considered to be one of the most important outcomes of all marketing activities in a market-oriented firm.

The obvious need for satisfying the firm’s customer is to expand the business, to gain a higher market share, and to acquire repeat and referral business, all of which lead to improved profitability (Barsky, 1992). Independent Variables of Community Awareness According to Dictionary. com, awareness is the state or condition of being aware, having knowledge, consciousness. It is more about knowledge or understanding of a subject, issues or situation. The awareness from the local community and tourist who comes visit to Taman Awam Teluk Likas are important to get the level of customer satisfaction.

Review of Past and Current Literature Local community and also tourist should play a role in the awareness in way to get the level of customer satisfaction. According to Godfrey & Clarke 2000, communities are the focal point for the supply of accommodation, catering, information, transport, facilities and services for tourism development. Environmental education involves learning about the natural systems that sustain life and how those systems are affected by human activity. Environmental education raises public awareness of the environmental consequences of our actions.

During the last decades the trend for environmental protection has expanded in various areas, including the realm of education. The underlying assumptions of this inclusion are that if people are aware of the need for and the ways of protecting the environment they will act to preserve it, schools should assume responsibility for educating about environmental protection, and environmental education can be effective as a part of a school curriculum. (Paraskevopoulos et. al, 1998).

Several educators and environmentalists have produced a rich variety of education models, instructional packages and materials, and theoretical guidelines that have constituted EE. All these efforts have underlined the importance of education in promoting environmental awareness and protection. Many teachers in high schools develop and apply EE materials and activities. Furthermore, environmentally aware teachers tried to acquire both knowledge and training in EE (Carre & Carter, 1993). However, few researchers were active in providing the required research base for a scientific approach to the field.

The existing lack of research in EE, especially with regard to children in elementary schools, is not only a Turkish phenomenon. Most international studies have focused on the environmental knowledge and education of high school students, leaving the elementary level untouched (Jaus, 1982; Littledyke, 1997) However, the significance of EE is highlighted by research findings suggesting that students at the elementary (Froud, 1994; Gorodetsky, & Keiny 1995) level acquire most of their knowledge about the environment from classes in school.

Furthermore, it is becoming evident to all agents involved in EE that the significance of the old idea of building upon the prior knowledge and experience of each student acquires new meaning in the context of EE (Paraskevopoulos et. al, 1998). Walsh (1994) discussed extensively the need to consider the specific local experience of students before EE programs are implemented; the need for local research on environmental knowledge of students has been underlined by other researchers as well. Independent Variables (safety)

Definitions According to Merriam – Webster Dictionary, the definition of safety is not causing harm or injury. It means that having a low incidence of adverse reactions and significant side effects when adequate instructions for use are given and having a low potential for harm under conditions of widespread availability. The word safety means a complete understanding of your work and knowledge of every step that must be taken and the realization that mistakes could be costly to own self and the company.

Safety is one of the main concerns of the tourist when deciding on a tour therefore it is up to the service provider and managers to keep up with the safety expectation from the tourist. In the tourism perspective, the tourist mostly concern about the issue on general safety on the destination, food and water hygiene, being able to travel from certain place without feeling not secure and the access to emergency care in case something bad happened ((Duncan and Lawson, 1997) Review of past and current literature.

In today’s hectic and unpredictable lifestyle, people are getting more and more concern about personal safety, this also includes in the travel sector. Sonmez and Graefe (1998) had examined that the issue of safety in international travel and found out that the risk of terrorism directly influencing the tourist’s decision. Other than that, there is evidence that if a nation is suffering a deteriorating law and order problem this will cause the demand for tourism to that nation to be adversely affected ( Levantis and Gani, 2000).

The safety issue has been a great deal in the recent years, academics and practitioner had taken into consideration about crisis management in order to find solution that can negates the safety and security bad impact in the tourism industry and the affected destination. A less developed nation which are suffering from law and order problem will be at risk for the development of tourism because the primary concern for the tourist when choosing their travel destination is the potential exposure to rime, in which the poorer nation usually poses the bigger risk Due to this affect, the provider of tourist service such as restaurant, hotels, hire car companies and so on, there will be cost increase by way of higher insurance premium, and higher losses against businesses due to the criminal activities and this will lead into the increase of provision for security measure (Levantis and Gani, 2000).

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