A person-centered approach changes the way we understand and respond to behaviors in dementia. Person-centered care looks at behaviors as a means of communication of needs for the person with dementia, and helps to figure out what unmet needs are causing the behaviors. It also enables the care provider to see the person with dementia as an individual with personal beliefs, abilities, life experiences and relationships. Person centered care has proven to be effective in reducing challenging behaviors in people with dementia.
Person centered care helps the client to easily respond to the care provided which in turn provides a better quality of life for dementia clients. Person centered care s all about treating the client as normal human being rather than based on the behaviors the person displays. It is all about caring for the person rather than the illness. Treatment and care should take into account patients’ needs and preferences. People with dementia should have the opportunity to make informed decisions about their care and treatment, in partnership with their healthcare professionals.
If patients do not have the capacity to make decisions, healthcare professionals should follow the Department of Health’s advice on consent and the code of practice that accompanies the Mental Capacity Act. The views of people with dementia concerning who should and should not be involved in their care are important and should be respected. With the permission of the person with dementia, career and relatives should normally have the opportunity to be involved in decisions about care and treatment.
If the person lacks the capacity to decide who should and should not be involved, health and social care professionals must act in his or her best interests(www. Nice. Org. UK) Difference between person centered and non person centered approach: Scenario 1: Mr.. Thomas was looked after by his wife since 3 years following his dementia diagnosis. Mrs.. Thomas had a fall and had a fracture due to which she is now unable to look after Mr.. Thomas. Mr.. Thomas is then admitted to a nursing home. The staff in the nursing home is able to meet his needs better than what Mrs..
Thomas did. In the morning, he is made to wake up and is given a shower at am, he is then assisted by two staff to walk from his room to the dining room, half the he walks and stops walking and tries to sit on the floor, the two staff holds him tightly and makes him walk to the dining room, he shouts and screams t the staff, he is made to sit for breakfast and is given cornflakes and tea, he refuses to eat the cornflakes and then he is fed by the staff. Scenario 2: Mr.. Thomas is admitted to nursing home. On admission the nurse speaks to Marathons and finds out Mr..
Thomas’ likes and dislikes on various aspects such as food, personal hygiene, activities, dressing, etc. Before Mr.. Thomas goes to bed, the staff asks him what time he would like to wake up, he says 10 am. Next morning he sleeps till 10 am and wakes up to have a shower. He then walks to the dining room, but half way he stops walking, on asking him why he says he is feeling tired. A staff then gets a wheelchair and wheels him to the dining room, the staff displays a choice of cereals and other items for breakfast and asks him what he would like to have, he says he would like to have whitebait and a cup of coffee.
He is then offered the same and he eats the full amount given, the staff asks him if he wants more, he says no. Considering both the scenarios, in the second one Mr.. Thomas is more compliant than scenario 1. The scenario 2 is a person centered approach and scenario 1 is a non person centered approach. 3. – Describe a range of different techniques that can be used to meet the fluctuating abilities and needs of the individual with dementia People with dementia experience different levels of fluctuating abilities and needs.
It is therefore important that career understand the different range of techniques that can be used to meet these varying needs. There are various techniques to meet the fluctuating abilities and needs of dementia clients: Reality Orientation: It is all about orientating the client about time, place, person in order to help a person understand their surroundings and situation. This information is to be repeated at regular intervals. Reality orientation is used for people living with memory loss due to dementia and may forget time , place and person.
It is not suitable for people who are fixed on believing they are in a certain place or situation and are settled in that belief, it could make them more distressed. There are people living in nursing homes, but believe that they live in a ship or live in a hotel, there is no point in orienting them that they live in nursing home, it will make them more distressed and worse. Sign boards can be kept in the iridous showing the name of the rooms and direction to lounge and dining room. Photographs can be displayed on doors of own rooms.
Date, Day, Time, Season display boards can be kept on areas well visible to the residents. Physical Activity: What’s good for your heart is good for your head. Physical exercise can help reduce some of the symptoms of dementia. Exercise classes, physical games like skittles or bowling, or simply walking are good examples. Physical activity can reduce stress and anxiety which are common problems in dementia. “Walking just one mile a day could keep dementia at bay” (The Daily Express). Physical activities can involve simple repetitive movement such as sweeping or raking or even gentle exercises.
Physical activities such as a walk in the garden or in the woods can be a great way of getting to know people and provide care accordingly it also serves as a great communication aid and also relieves stress in dementia clients. Validation Approach: Validation is all about stepping in to the world of the person living with memory loss. All opinions must be acknowledged, respected and heard (regardless of whether or not the listener actually agrees with the content) The person’s mint of view is treated with genuine respect and communication takes place from their perspective.
Validation therapy is suitable for people in all stages of memory loss but particularly useful for people who are often disorientated to time and place and are distressed about their experience. For example, if a client with dementia says he is looking for his dad, we can respond to him that dad has gone out and will be back soon, which will settle the person. Social Interaction: All humans have a need for social interaction; spending time with other humans and this can sometimes become more difficult when emanate affects communication.
Socializing with peers and participating in groups and clubs are beneficial in maintaining self-esteem and self-worth. For example Dementia cafes is a group organized to provide social interaction for dementia clients. They can be taken to religious groups of their own beliefs. Reminiscence : Reminiscence uses people’s strengths in long term memory to help with solicitation and sharing of thoughts and ideas. Talking about a time in the past e. G. School days or a person’s first job is an example. Music and props can be used to assist the person in recalling memories.
It is suitable for mild to moderate stages of dementia and can also be adapted for the later stages. Photographs of their holidays can be used, they will remember of their good times in their life. Relaxation Techniques: Relaxation can take many forms but the aim is always to De-stress the body and mind. What is relaxing for one individual may not be for another. Gentle music with a hand massage, or a walk in the woods, sensory rooms and pets as therapy, singing or listening to music, reading to someone are all good examples of relaxation interventions. Relaxation techniques can e useful in all stages of dementia.
With information gleaned from a person’s life history you should be able to find something that will aid relaxation for an individual. Creative Activity: Creative activity can be singing, music, looking at art, creating a picture or baking a cake. The scope is endless. The process of creating is always more important that the finished result. Creative activity is often very successful for people living with dementia. Medication: There are drugs available to treat Alchemists. These drugs can slow the progress of Alchemists in some people. To access these you will need to be referred to a consultant by your GAP.
Various medication include O’Donnell, Meantime and for behavioral issues Tradeoff is generally used. 3. 3 – Describe how myths and stereotypes related to dementia may affect the individual and their career There are a lot of myths related to dementia in the society like: Memory loss is just a natural part of growing older. Alchemists disease is the only condition that causes dementia An x-ray of the brain can diagnose Alchemists disease. If you suspect a loved one has Alchemists disease, you shouldn’t bring it up ?just wait and watch Alchemists disease can be caused by the aluminum in cooking pans, deodorant, etc.
There is nothing you can do about dementia once you have it. If someone in your family has dementia, you will have it too Myths and stereotypes related to dementia affect the individual and their career in many ways, some are: Stigma and its impact on relationships: Stigmas about Dementia impacts negatively on relationships. We can see that the society might isolate the individual and the family, thinking Dementia is contagious. Assumption of automatic loss of independence: Once a person is diagnosed emanate, people think he loses his independence completely.
For example a the family and community does not allow a person to drive if he is diagnosed dementia, but the reality is not so, in early stages of dementia the person can drive, it should be stopped and notified to DIVA when the dementia progresses. Also if a person is diagnosed dementia, people think he no longer can make any decisions, but actually the capacity varies person to person and during each phase of dementia. Dissatisfying interactions with medical community: There can be difficulties in obtaining an early diagnosis of dementia. This loud be due to proper identification of symptoms.
When the family notices signs and symptoms of dementia, they tend to ignore the sings and due to not reporting those there can be a delay in diagnosing dementia. Uncertainty about availability of support services and treatments: People are still unaware of the support services provided by the government for dementia clients. Due to this they fail to receive proper support and care Importance of person centered values: People still unaware of person centered approach toward care of dementia. People think once a person is demented, he loses his self and he is treated by he society not as an individual.
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