a. A description of cooperative learning. i. The idea of students working together in small groups, and by working together each student is able to bring each his or her own originality to the task; while also working with the teacher to keep the students on track. b. A brief history of CL. ii. “Prior to World War II, social theorists such as Allport, Watson, Shaw, and Mead began establishing cooperative learning theory after finding that group work was more effective and efficient in quantity, quality, and overall productivity when compared to working alone.
However, it wasn’t until 1937 when researchers May and Doob found that people who cooperate and work together to achieve shared goals, were more successful in attaining outcomes, than those who strived independently to complete the same goals. Furthermore, they found that independent achievers had a greater likelihood of displaying competitive behaviours. Philosophers and psychologists in the 1930s and 40’s such as John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Morton Deutsh also influenced the cooperative learning theory practiced today.
4] Dewey believed it was important that students develop knowledge and social skills that could be used outside of the classroom, and in the democratic society.
This theory portrayed students as active recipients of knowledge by discussing information and answers in groups, engaging in the learning process together rather than being passive receivers of information (e. g. teacher talking, students listening). ” (wiki) c. Examples of CL activities iii. Jigsaw – Groups with five students are set up. Each group member is assigned some unique material to learn and then to teach to his group members.
To help in the learning students across the class working on the same sub-section get together to decide what is important and how to teach it. After practice in these “expert” groups the original groups reform and students teach each other. iv. Think-Pair-Share – Involves a three step cooperative structure. During the first step individuals think silently about a question posed by the instructor. Individuals pair up during the second step and exchange thoughts. In the third step, the pairs share their responses with other pairs, other teams, or the entire group. v.
Three-Step Interview – Each member of a team chooses another member to be a partner. During the first step individuals interview their partners by asking clarifying questions. During the second step partners reverse the roles. For the final step, members share their partner’s response with the team. vi. RoundRobin Brainstorming (Kagan)- Class is divided into small groups (4 to 6) with one person appointed as the recorder. A question is posed with many answers and students are given time to think about answers. After the “think time,” members of the team share responses with one another round robin style.
The recorder writes down the answers of the group members. The person next to the recorder starts and each person in the group in order gives an answer until time is called. d. Limitations of CL vii. Cooperative Learning has many limitations that could cause the process to be more complicated than first perceived. Sharan (2010) describes the constant evolution of cooperative learning as a threat. Due to the fact that cooperative learning is constantly changing, there is a possibility that teachers may become confused and lack complete understanding of the method.
Teachers implementing cooperative learning may also be challenged with resistance and hostility from students who believe that they are being held back by their slower teammates or by students who are less confident and feel that they are being ignored or demeaned by their team. (wiki) e. Benefits of CL viii. Students who engage in cooperative learning learn significantly more, remember it longer, and develop better critical-thinking skills than their ix. counterparts in traditional lecture classes. x. Students enjoy cooperative learning more than traditional lecture classes, so they are more likely to attend classes and finish the course. i. Students are going to go on to jobs that require teamwork. Cooperative learning helps students develop the skills necessary to work on projects too difficult and complex for any one person to do in a reasonable amount of time.
References 1. Kagan, Spencer. Cooperative Learning. San Clemente, CA: Kagan Publishing, 1994. www. KaganOnline. com 2. Gilles, R. M. , & Adrian, F. (2003). Cooperative Learning: The social and intellectual Outcomes of Learning in Groups. London: Farmer Press. 3. May, M. and Doob, L. (1937). Cooperation and Competition. New York: Social Sciences Research Council. . Sharan, Y. (2010). Cooperative Learning for Academic and Social Gains: valued pedagogy, problematic practice. European Journal of Education, 45,(2), 300-313. 5. Cooperative Learning. (n. d. ). In Wikipedia. Retrieved september 9, 2012, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/cooperativelearning. 6. Rebecca Teed, John McDaris, and Cary Roseth, Cooperative Learning, starting point. September 9, 2012, from http://serc. carleton. edu/introgeo/cooperative/index. html. Author, A. (Date Published). Article name. Name of website. [Retrieved] Date, [from] URL of Website 7.
Cite this Description of Cooperative Learning
Description of Cooperative Learning. (2016, Oct 26). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/description-of-cooperative-learning/