Drunk Driving Annotated Bibliography

Table of Content

Kerr, Joanne, and Jack Elwell. “A Drunk Driving Prevention Program for Your Students.” The American Biology Teacher, vol. 65, no. 3, 1 Mar. 2003, pp. 199–205., doi:10.2307/4451474.

Joanne Kerr and Jack Elwell’s journal offers honest material on the Problem of drunk driving, especially on youngsters complete with its laws and consequences. Taking a thought-provoking advance to the realities and Facts on Drunk Driving, sections in their journal offer vital advice on everything from, alcohol abuse among adolescents to analyses of several drunk driving fatalities. According to a study by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, more than half of all the accidents happened over the years included a drunk driver with a BAC of 0.08 or more. The writers clarified differences between the body mass, proficiency with alcohol, and judgments in adults and teenagers. According to the journal, teenagers are more vulnerable than adults to problems associated with sporadic consumption. Those BAC levels that may have no problem for adults can be threatening for youths.

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Writers explained how the adolescents often lack the experience in considering by what means alcohol affects them. Alcohol ingestion by juvenile drinkers continues to be a glitch in our society. One of the facts this journal stated was that Adolescents who have dunk one to two drinks with a BAC between 0 and 0.05 face twice the risk of death from drunk driving compared to non-drinkers, Those who have drunk three to five drinks with a BAC between 0.05 and 0.10 faces 10-times increase in risk and finally those who have consumed six or more drinks with a BAC over 0.10, face 100 times more risk of death, then a typical non-drinker. These aren’t just assumptions, these are real facts that show some real data on how the young generation, a big part of our society is getting affected by driving under the influence of alcohol. To preclude it from happening laws must be hard enough for Adolescents to think twice before making the bad decision of driving drunk.

Writers gave us an example of the Californian zero-tolerance law that took effect on 1 January 1994. According to this law any juvenile driver (less than 21 years of age) who is stopped by the police and found to have a detectable blood alcohol level (BAC 2 0.01%) could have their driver’s license immediately confiscated. 0.01% is the tiniest amount of BAC level for a person to be considered drunk, but still it makes people consider the consequences. In the end the writers informed us about their Drunk Driving Prevention Forum, an operative intervention technique based on student remarks, replies, and the number of completed Pledged Agreements. All the students in this forum were given a graphic representation of the risk and consequences of drinking alcohol when operating a motor vehicle. Each forum is attended by Over 200 students and staff members. Every student attending this forum gets a Commitment Contract and key chain. Numerous lives are saved through the impact of this event. All the teachers, fire fighters, paramedics, and police officers appearing in the forum found it quite gratifying and each one of them appreciated the fact this forum creates a lifelong impression for these adolescents.

Hansen, Benjamin. Punishment and Deterrence: Evidence from Drunk Driving. American Economic Association, 2015.

Research conducted by Hasen, examined the impact of drunk driving and the laws made to prevent it. Hasen investigated key channels related to delinquency that could explain the reductions in repetition. Back then in order seize drunk drivers’ police officers relied mostly on field abstemiousness tests and their own personal experiences. In 1956, the first Breathalyzer were created, an accurate method of measuring the BAC in a moderately noninvasive way. As the drunk drivers boosted, Accidents rose as-well. Crashes started occurring mostly in the nights and early mornings, and most of these drunk drivers are usually in the age group of 21-24. This was a clear sign that the young people were reckless and bumptious, acting without thinking about the grim repercussions of circumstances, they were getting themselves in. Even more restrictions were placed on underage drinkers, many states started implementing “zero-tolerance” laws. Any underage driver caught with BAC exceeding low thresholds, that normally ranging from 0.01 to 0.02.3 will automatically loose his driver’s license. This threshold was stricter for underage drinkers.

Hasen also investigated several mechanisms that explained the reductions in repeat drunk driving, associated with a BAC level over the legal thresholds. Unfolding the BAC tests with governmental records, He found evidence, that a range of restrictions and punishments increased the strictness at each of the BAC legal limits. This research explained the percentage increase in approvals and a decline in drunk driving into an elasticity, according to the evidence found, there was a 10 percent increase in restrictions and punishments linked with a 2.3 percent decline in drunk driving. It was clear that the higher chastisement meant a lower percentage of people driving drunk. Although the average number of losses has been lessened today, that sum is still not low enough. Most of these drunk drivers are repeat offenders and because of the inconsiderate approach of drunk drivers, many Lives are being taken away. Undoubtedly drunk driving is selfish, and the apparent punishment is worth the consequences.

In conclusion this Paper will be an invaluable research tool that uses expert study and scientific reports to help establish the idea of the laws placed in different states to stop drunk driving, since it is such an inclusive work, I will reference it often in my paper. Also, I can use this source to respond to the opposing view that the laws are too strict when caught driving under the influence or that we should increase the BAC limit for drivers caught under the influence of alcohol. This paper offers several evidences concerning the efficiency of the punishments and restrictions in reducing repetition among drunk drivers. These estimates clearly suggest that having a BAC legal limit over the 0.08 matches with a 2 percent point decline in repeat drunk driving over the next four years. In 2002 the BAC limit was 0.10 evidently not strong enough, but since the limit was reduced to 0.08, research clearly shows the decline of repeat drunk drivers. This clearly explained that higher the penalty, more people start obeying laws.

‘Drunk Driving Prevention 101.’ UWIRE Text, 7 Aug. 2012, p. 1. Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A336986814/AONE?u=txshracd2512&sid=AONE&xid=2880ed2e.

Allison ‘s text delivers a detailed amount of facts on the numerous accidents that happen due to an alcohol-impaired driving fatality. including their roles in hunting, agriculture, domestic arts like weaving, the household, and death. Writer explains an important statistic by the U.S. Department of Transportation that, in every 51 minutes an individual is killed due to somebody driving under the influence of alcohol. Writer continues to explain his point by describing the college atmosphere and talking about the peer pressure students face when they are attending a party or just relaxing with friends. As long as we make the clever decision of ensuring our safety and of others, there should be no concern. Yet it is a problem. Writer has argued that this issue had been taken too lightly, writer is elucidating how our friends make us drink more alcohol even when we make the right choice of denying it, Allison has described different phrases that are being used among adolescents with the intent to have fun, but it’s clear that this sort of mindset must not be endorsed. There is a time and place for everything, they shouldn’t be pressured in any way to drink more or little alcohol, what if that person is driving? Hence, it’s important to stop putting pressure on people into drinking more alcohol.

The writer is chiefly trying to explain us that we shouldn’t be afraid to turn down drinks at any occasion. Although if we are already prepared for it or have a friend as a designated driver we can comfortably drink any amount we want since we have made the smart decision of preparing in advance and Granting that we have a friend who is volunteering to be our designated driver, we should thank that friend not only because he is looking out of you, but also because he is also looking out for the other people on the roads. He is saving a lot of lives just by taking a clever decision. Writer has given some more facts such as in 2010, 31% of the total motor vehicle accidents which is 10,228 fatalities, happened due to drunk driving.

In the end the writer is explaining our judgement that most people make before taking the erroneous decision of drunk driving. We think we have done this a lot of times, what’s so different now. Then we drive in a drunken state, and we forget to think about the consequences, will we be able to live with the fact that we harmed someone’s life or ruined our own. In conclusion we learned that everyday is a new day and that there are no guarantees of anything transpiring. But if there is anything we can do about it is that we can make our clever decision and let others make theirs. We also learned some important evidences that are being going on in our society and some important choices that we can make so that we do not become a part of these facts but instead we become an impressive example for others to follow. So that we can make these disturbing facts a past to make a safe present and future.

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