This survey will prove the consequence of orange and calamondin on fruit fly. The research worker used these stuffs because of some proven related surveies. The research worker started carry oning this research last November 2012. This survey used the undermentioned stuffs and specimen: The research worker prepared 500ml hot H2O. 1 cup of rancid orange Peels. and 11 pieces of calamondin juiced. liquidizer and 2 pieces of doodly-squat fruit. The following were grouped into two and labeled each as A and B. The Artocarpus heterophylluss were used to prove the merchandise. The orange Peels and hot H2O was assorted in the liquidizer so set aside for 12 hours so added the calamondin juice.
The infusion was sprayed on the Artocarpus heterophyllus in group A so set aside for 30 proceedingss same with group B except that it didn’t receive any infusion. The fruit flies that went on each group were counted after 30 proceedingss. The procedure was repeated 3 times to prove more if it will be effectual. On the consequences. the research worker found out that there is more fruit flies went over group B than group A. The trial used the Analysis of Variance or ANOVA to prove if there is a/no important difference between the 2 groups. Based on the ANOVA tabular array. there is a F-value computed of 8. 7 and F-value tabular of 3. 68. The computed was higher than the tabular value. The research worker concluded that there is a important difference in utilizing orange and calamondin to fruit fly and there is a important differencebetween the merchandise and the commercially used repellant.
This investigatory undertaking will non be complete with merely difficult work. Thankss for those back uping people who helped me so much. First of all I want to thank God of doing this possible. Second. to my parents that helped me the most. I want to admit this to the principal of Sapang Palay National High School. Mr. Eduardo Cruz. to my advisor. Mrs. Carolina Abarilles for moral support. to my capable instructor in this undertaking. Mrs. Esperanza Espanola who thought and help me in doing this. I want to give thanks to Janelle Morales. Angelica Lorenzo and to all pupils of Particular Science Class Curriculum/ ESEP who supported me. Particularly to Marleth Temporal. who helped me out of the jobs I encountered. Without these people I will non be able to complete this Investigatory Project. Thank a batch!
Chapter I: Introduction
A. Background of the StudyInsects are common job today. Fruit flies are our day-to-day job in our place. These insects are said to be repelled by strong olfactory property. Citrus fruit has strong olfactory properties that may drive insects. The most common citrous fruit fruit that is used as insect repellant is Lemon. The research worker used other citrus fruits. The said fruits are the orange and calamondin. Oranges have strong aroma particularly its Peels. Calamondin or calamansi juice have these excessively. So. the research worker used these two fruits as insect repellant.
B. Statement of the ProblemThis survey tested the consequence of orange and calamondin to fruit fly. Specifically. this survey aims to reply the undermentioned inquiries:
1. Be at that place any important difference in utilizing orange and calamondin on fruit fly? 2. Be at that place any important difference between the insect repellant made to commercially used repellant? 3. Is sensible to used organic repellant than to commercially used repellant?
C. HypothesesThis survey tested the undermentioned hypotheses at 0. 5 degree of significance:
Holmium: There is no important difference in utilizing orange and calamondin on fruit fly. Hour angle: There is a important difference in utilizing orange andcalamondin on fruit fly. Holmium: There is no important difference between the insect repellant made to commercially used repellant. Hour angle: There is a important difference between the insect repellant made to commercially used repellant. . D. Significance of the Problem
In the survey. it may work out our jobs about fruit fly and because this will utilize organic stuffs. we can drive these insects without taking hazard of our wellness because of harmful chemicals from the commercially used repellant. Since these fruits are non difficult to happen and it is non that expensive. it will non utilize much energy and money. Even though it takes clip to do it. it is safe.
Chapter II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREA. Conceptual LiteratureAs the research worker surf the net. many people said that they tried lemon Peels to drive insects that bother them and it’s effectual for them. Research was conducted and found out that Lemon is proven to be an insect repellant by many research workers around the Earth. So the research worker of this survey tried to happen out what repels the insects and it is the olfactory property. The research worker made a decision of utilizing other citrous fruit fruit. The research worker idea of utilizing sweet orange and calamondin since it is a comparative household of lemons. Orange Peels are more powerful repellant compared to its mush. It would be better because it will utilize extra from fruits so it will be cheaper than commercially used insect repellant. The calamondin has something that repel some sort of flies. Orange or sweet oranges to distinguish it from rancid orange is bright orange to yellow orange in colour. its tree grows 9 – 10m in tallness with ellipse shaped foliages that are 4 – 10cm long. The orange is an offspring perchance between Citrus reticulata ( Citrus reticulate ) and pummelo ( Citrus Maxima ) .
It has sweetly fragrant white flower about 5cm broad. have a disk shaped. 5-pointed calyx and 5 oblong petals and 20-25 stamens with xanthous anthers. The fruit is pumpkin-shaped or slightly egg-shaped. 6. 5-9. 5cm broad. The calamondin tree. runing from 2-7. 5 thousand high. is vertical. slender. frequently rather cylindrical. dumbly branched get downing near to the land. somewhat thorny. and develops an inordinately deep taproot. The evergreen foliages are alternate. aromatic. broad-oval. greenish. slick on the upper surface. yellowish-green beneath. 4-7. 5 centimeter long. faintly toothed at the vertex. with short. The sweetly fragrant flowers. holding 5 elliptic-oblong. pure-white petals. are about 2. 5 cm broad and borne singly or in 2’s or 3’s terminally or in the foliage axils near the subdivision tips. The showy fruits are round or pumpkin-shaped and to 1 3/4 in ( 4. 5 centimeter ) broad. with really aromatic. orangish-red Peel. slick. and dotted with legion little oil secretory organs ; stamp. thin. easily-removed. Sweet. and comestible.
The mush. in 6 to 10 sections. is orangish. really juicy. extremely acerb. and seedless or with 1 to 5 little. seeds. green within. Based on some researches and experiments. lemon is normally used as insect repellant because of its strong olfactory property that some insects don’t like. Lemon’s aroma is from limonene which it has. Limonene gives its aroma that can be smelled in other citrous fruit fruit. Oranges ( Citrus Sinensis ) and calamondin obtains limonene excessively. D- Limonene is more common to citrus fruits particularly to oranges. Orange oils are used in decorative merchandises and aromas. It is besides used in manus sanitizer to give lemon-orange aroma. Limonene is used as dissolver for cleansing. theoretical account aeroplane gum and it’s considered as biofuel. Calamondin is used to lather or confects. Since the research worker didn’t find out any conducted research about utilizing these fruits to fruit fly. the research worker will prove its effectivity with fruit fly. B. Research Literature
Based on the survey of Herrera. Alberto and Vieto. Sebastian. orange oils can be made as. Lavicide by adding isoctyl phenoxy polyethoxy ethyl alcohol to it. aerosol spray in this instance the orange oils was assorted with piperonyl butoxide and insect powders that is made out of kerosine and orange oils. These were tested in a botanical garden. And it was said that it is truly effectual. Some research conducted found out that orange oils are annoying to research lab animate beings. It was tested to guinea hogs and mice. It was tested besides to worlds. A voluntary survey affecting repeated exposures to this identified no sensitising potency. In the research of Luc Leblanc. Jonah William and Allan J. Allwood about Mangifera indica fly that it attacks citrus fruits. Particularly mature. But rancid fruit are non often attacked. One of these is the calamondin. Based on the research of Mun-wai Cheong. Zhi Soon Chong. Weibiao Zhou and Shao-Quan Liu. The volatile composing of calamansi Peel from Malaysia. were examined. It is found out that the distinc olfactory property intoxicants. aldehydes. and esters.
Methodological Research Design:
Chapter III: MethodologyThe method that was used by the research worker. though some of it was changed. was the method of Brian Airman which is the ant slayer. A. Gathering of Materials and Specimens
The research worker will acquire 500ml hot H2O. 1 cup of rancid orange Peels. and 11 pieces of calamondin juiced. liquidizer and 2 pieces of doodly-squat fruit. Group the two with A and B. The Artocarpus heterophylluss will be used to prove the merchandise. The group A is the experimental group. The group B is the control group. B. Preparation of Infusions
Add hot H2O and citrous fruit Peels to a liquidizer. Remove the palpebra or centre blowhole in the palpebra. Cover the gap with a folded kitchen towel. Before intermixing the ingredients set aside for a solid two proceedingss. This will avoid force per unit area inside the liquidizer.
Cover the liquidizer and go forth it sit at room temperature for 12 hours. Add the calamondin juice. Pour the citrous fruit ant repellant through a towel into a container. C. Preparation of Treatment
Spray the infusion to group A. The Group B will non have any intervention. The set ups will be set aside for 30 proceedingss. After puting aside. observe. Count the fruit flies that will travel over the fruits. Get the consequences. D. Repeat of Tests
Trial 1There are 5 fruit flies that went on the fruit on group A and there are 8 fruit flies went on the fruit on group B after 30 proceedingss. Some fruit flies are remaining on the container which is the Group A. It seems that other fruit flies merely went near the fruit but non on the fruit itself.
Trial 2There are 2 fruit flies that went on the group A and there are 6 fruit flies on group B after 30 proceedingss. The consequences are about the same with the test 1 but merely differ by the figure.
Trial 3There are 9 fruit flies that went on group A and there are 15 fruit flies on group B after 30 proceedingss.
As stated. the merchandise is an effectual repellant for fruit flies. Some will merely remain near the set up on which the research worker applied intervention. The merchandise may non be that strong but it repels more.
Chapter IV: RESULTS. AND DISCUSSIONSA. FindingssThe tabular array shows the consequences and findings from test 1 after puting aside the 2 groups for 30 proceedingss in an unfastened air.
Set ups| No. of fruit flies went on the fruit|A| 5|B| 8|Table 1 – Trial 1
It was shown that A is lesser of 3 points than in B. The infusion is effectual on the first test.
The tabular array shows the consequences and findings from test 2 after puting aside the 2 groups for 30 proceedingss in an unfastened air.
Set ups| No. of fruit flies went on the fruit|A| 2|B| 6|Table 2 – Trial 2
It can be good seen that the infusion is still working decently and still effectual on the 2nd test. The tabular array shows the consequences and findings from test 3 after puting aside the 2 groups for 30 proceedingss in unfastened air.
Set ups| No. of fruit flies went on the fruit|A| 9|B| 15|Table 3 – Trial 3Up to the 3rd and last test. still the infusion is still effectual. After summing up the consequences. the research worker used F-test and made an ANOVA tabular array to prove if the void hypothesis accepted or rejected.
ANOVA TABLE|Beginnings of variation| Degrees of Freedom ( df ) | Sum ofSquares ( US Secret Service ) | Mean Square ( MS ) | F- ValueComputed| F – ValueTabular| Between Groups ( k – 1 ) | 2| 136. 5| 68. 25| 8. 87| 3. 80| Within Groups ( N – 1 ) ( k – 1 ) | 13| 100| 7. 69| | |
Total| 15| | | | |Table 4 – ANOVAIn this tabular array the research worker used the analysis of variance tabular array to compare the control group and the experimental group mensurating the figure of fruit flies went over the fruit. It can be good seen that there is a important difference in utilizing orange and calamondin for fruit flies. B. Analysis
Based on the comparing of the following groups I can reason that there is a important difference in utilizing orange and calamondin as repellant to fruit flies.
Chapter V: SUMMARY. CONCLUSION. RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the trials and experiments the undermentioned jobswere answered:
1. Be at that place any important difference in utilizing orange and calamondin on fruit fly? There is a important difference in utilizing orange and calamondin on fruit fly. Based on the consequences. there are fewer fruit flies attracted by the doodly-squat fruit with the infusion than with no infusion.
2. Be at that place any important difference between the fruit fly repellant made to commercially used repellant? There is a important difference between the fruit fly repellant made to commercially used repellant. The repellant made of the research worker is organic and does non incorporate harmful chemicals since it came from fruits’ Peels and juices other than commercially used repellant. Even though there is a long procedure to do for this repellant. it is cheaper and safe since the undermentioned ingredients are typically used to our nutrient.
The research worker rejected the void hypotheses and accepts the surrogate hypotheses based on the consequences and findings.
The research worker recommends proving it to other insects and seeking if it can be insect powders. The repellant made by the research worker may be made as lotion or set it into something that can be worn so it may non annoy the tegument of the user and non destroying the colourss of what she/he Idaho have oning without decreasing the effectivity of the merchandise.
Fig. 5 – pull outing juices from 11 pieces of calamondin
Fig. 6 – The infusion
Fig. 7 – straining of the infusion utilizing towel
Fig. 8 – Observation of the set ups
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