Chemistry is frequently regarded as a hard topic, an observation which sometimes repels scholars from larning this topic. In recent old ages, teachers and instructors try to convey new methods of learning in the scientific discipline and chemical science field to do them more interesting and more apprehensible for scholars. In fact, conveying engineering to classrooms for easing instruction and acquisition procedure is one of the most popular methods these yearss. This paper seeks to convey together the general findings obtained from some researches over the past few old ages to find whether the usage of life in chemical science instruction particularly for secondary school pupils can lend to student accomplishment in better apprehension of this topic.
The popularity of utilizing lifes to assist pupils to understand and retrieve information has greatly increased since the coming of powerful graphics-oriented computing machines. In recent old ages engineering allows lifes to be produced much more easy and cheaply than in former old ages.
These yearss teachers use life in their instruction instructions particularly in those topics that are hard for pupils to understand. Science is one of these topics. In the field of scientific discipline there should be an indispensable scheme to make an environment for pupils to hold an extended apprehension together with deep involvement to better the overall quality of scientific discipline instruction.
One of the most of import topics in the field of scientific discipline is chemical science. This field includes so many complicated constructs and hard topics to larn at all degree of schooling. Concepts such as the particulate nature of affair, physical and chemical alteration, chemical equilibrium, solutions, acids and bases, chemical bonding, and preservation of mass are subjects that pupils have troubles in visualising at sub microscopic degree ( Tyson, Treagust, & A ; Bucat, 1999 ). Assorted learning stuffs and methods should be utilized in order to learn the topics efficaciously and set those into pattern.
High engineering increases the options in the stuff used for the instruction processes in educational institutes ( Dasdemir, Doymus, Azimsek & A ; Karacop,2008 ). The usage of visual image is of import for learning chemical science constructs. Teachers have been utilizing presentations in the schoolroom as a instruction technique for many old ages. Presentations in chemical science are visual images at a macroscopic degree that enable the pupil to detect phenomena, as they would be experienced in an experimental research lab scene ( Vel A?azquez-Marcano et Al., 2004 ).
Animations and simulations visually help pupils understand hard constructs related to the kineticss of complex chemical systems including molecules and reactions ( Kozma & A ; Russell, 2005 ). Teachers for conveying of import scientific constructs in chemical science and molecular biological science, usage animated visual images that show both constructions and procedures. Interior designers of these lifes benefit from cognizing how pupils perceive and comprehend such visual images. Specifically, instructional interior decorators attempt to plan visual images that allow pupils to larn critical constructs and relationships between these constructs. Uniting lifes with personal computer based research lab experiments supports pupil integrating of multiple representations of chemical science constructs ( Suits, Kunze, & A ; Diack, 2005 ).
There are many benefits of implementing life in scientific discipline instruction particularly chemistry learning. Therefore, there have been Numberss of surveies done in this field to happen the advantages and disadvantages of this technique. In this paper some of these researches about usage of life in instruction and acquisition of chemical science, have been reviewed.
2.ANIMATIONS FOR CHEMICAL EDUCATION
To turn to the different acquisition manners of pupils, the usage of digital life in learning scientific discipline and particularly in chemical science has become progressively popular. Animation is a Latin word that means to resuscitate. Animation is an alive, stripped and elaborate signifier of computing machine. Because of their dynamic features, lifes indicate the alteration in figures or colorss, outgrowth and extinction of some state of affairss in realisation procedure of the events. These alterations may be either in writing, image or imitation. Animations are effectual AIDSs for learning constructs that involve gesture in the molecular degree.
Students make mental theoretical account based on observation that are personal, qualitative and frequently in complement. The usage of dynamic ocular theoretical accounts ocular representations of chemical procedures help pupils develop conceptual apprehension, promote meaningful acquisition by create dynamic mental theoretical accounts of particulate phenomena. Computer theoretical accounts permit pupils to associate their microscopic accounts of chemical phenomena with their macroscopic observations and when pupils can visualise microscopic procedures in chemical science, they have better apprehension of chemical cognition ( Ebenezer, 2001 ).Computer life, in peculiar, is a new educational tool that fosters long-run acquisition by naming attending to objects during the early stairss of direction ( GagneA?, 1985 ; Rieber, 1994 ).
2.1 Troubles in Teaching of Chemistry
Chemistry is one of the most of import subdivisions of scientific discipline ; it facilitates scholars ‘ understanding about what happened around them. Because chemical science subjects are by and large related to or based on the construction of affair, chemical science proves a hard topic for many pupils. The grounds for pupils ‘ troubles vary from the abstract nature of many chemical science constructs to the trouble of the linguistic communication of chemical science ( Ozmen, DemirciogE?lu & A ; DemirciogE?lu,2009 ).
To understand chemical science deeply, pupils should be able to do connexion or dealingss among the degrees. Chemistry cognition is classified to three degrees ; the macroscopic, the bomber microscopic, and the symbolic. Structure between molecules and atoms which take topographic point at a sub microscopic degree must be illustrated by teachers. ( H. Ozmen, Ayas, A., & A ; Costu, B., 2002 ) ( H. Ozmen, Ayas, A., & A ; Costu, B., 2002 ). Numerous studies support the position that the interplay between macroscopic and microscopic universes is a beginning of trouble for many chemical science scholars.
Coll & A ; Treagust ( 2003 ) supported point of position that the trouble for many chemical science scholars is the interaction between macroscopic and a microscopic universe. Gabel ( 1993 ) found that associating the peculiar nature of affair to other degrees ( macroscopic and symbolic degrees ) is effectual in assisting pupils to do connexions between the three degrees. Gabel concluded that pupils have trouble in using their cognition and they do non widen their cognition into the existent universe. The job that many pupils encounter while analyzing structural chemical science is the demand to use a sort of spacial signifier and visualise the molecule in 3-dimention that are shown by planar diagrams in the books.
In chemical science, three- dimensional visual image is an of import accomplishment. Students do n’t hold the ability to larn spacial form in text book or blackboard in 2-dimention diagram.. When pupils do n’t hold good conceptualized from constructs of scientific discipline and acquire less Markss in scientific discipline tests ; they do n’t bask chemical science category, hence, the category become drilling for them that it leads to decrease in their attitude toward chemical science lessons. Students seem fighting to do the signifiers of mental theoretical account which is necessary to understand and grok the actions of the unobservable things such as atoms and molecules in chemical equations. Digital and computing machine life is one of the effectual schemes for meaningful chemical science direction.
2.2 Previous Surveies on Implementing Animation in Teaching Chemistry
It is universally accepted that the quality of instruction depends on the quality of instructions imparted in the category room. To better quality of scientific discipline instruction, utilizing the exciting technique of life will convey a better apprehension of scientific rules for scholars. There is batch of research done in this part.
Simsek ( 2009 ) investigated the effectivity of life, dynamic three and two dimension in writing representation, and concerted acquisition method on pupils ‘ comprehension of chemical science constructs affecting aqueous solution. The participants were first twelvemonth undergraduate of general chemical science class. They were divided into three groups ; life, concerted, and traditional group. The concerted group pupils learned their subtopic by research and experiment in little groups. The life group was taught by dynamic life. The consequence of analyses of trials tonss showed both experimental groups had significantly higher understanding conceptual tonss than the control group.Those pupils that participated in the life group had fewer misinterpretation.
Eun-mi Yang and Thomas Andre ( 2003 ) assessed the impact of computing machine lifes exemplifying the chemical reactions that occur inside a battery ( electrochemistry ) on pupils in a college chemical science class. Subjects divided to Computer Animation Group ( CAG ) who received the dynamic visual image and the Still Diagrams Group ( SDG ) who received same talk but still diagrams replaced the dynamic lifes. The consequence of analysis on station trial shows important consequence of intervention. Animations, with parallel verbal narrative provided by an teacher, allow pupils to visually follow the motion of ions and negatrons and thereby make a better apprehension of electrochemical procedures.
A survey was conducted by Dasdemir, Doymu & A ; Karako ( 2008 ) to find the consequence of computing machine lifes in learning acid and base subjects in chemical science and engineering classs on the academic public presentation of the primary school pupils and the sentiments of pupils related to learning with the lifes. Research had a quasi-experimental design. Animation group was taught by computing machine lifes in acids bases subject, and control group was taught by traditional method in same subject. After an test, findings showed that average tonss of life group trial significantly was better than the control group. Besides life group had positive sentiment about learning with the aid of life instructional method.
Ozmen, Demirciolu & A ; Demircio ( 2009 ) find the consequence of conceptual alteration texts accompanied with computing machine lifes on 11th grade pupils ‘ apprehension and alternate constructs related to chemical bonding. Students in were divided into two groups as experimental group and comparing group and involved in a quasi experimental design by pre-test post-test. The consequence has shown that experimental group had significantly better understanding on chemical bonding than comparing group. Besides conceptual alteration texts accompanied with lifes, lessening alternate constructs or misconstruing in experimental group.
DoymuAY, AzimAYek and Karacop ( 2009 ) investigated the effects of computing machine lifes and concerted acquisition on pupils ‘ comprehension of chemical science subjects at the macro, micro, and symbolic degrees. University pupils enrolled in three categories of the general chemical science class as concerted group life group and control group. Their accomplishments are evaluated in experimental design by post-test tonss. The consequence showed that pupils in life group and concerted group had significantly difference than traditional group in microscopic degree. There was no important differences in footings of apprehension at the non micro degree ( macro and symbolic ). The mean average tonss of the life group were higher than those of the concerted group. The maximal efficiency was achieved when both computing machine lifes and concerted acquisition methods are used.
Akp nar and Ergin ( 2007 ) studied the consequence of computing machine lifes accompanied with experiments over traditionally designed Instruction in 6th grade pupils ‘ natural philosophies accomplishment and attitudes toward scientific discipline. The survey carried out in quasi-experimental design by pre-test/post-test. Analysiss of happening show that utilizing synergistic computing machine life accompanied with existent scientific discipline experiments was significantly more effectual in pupils ‘ accomplishment compared to utilizing merely existent scientific discipline experiments in primary scientific discipline class. Besides he showed that the attitudes of the experimental group toward scientific discipline as a school topic became more positive than those of the control group after intervention.
In another survey Ebenezer ( 2001 ) was analyzing about “ a interactive multimedia environment to research and negociate pupil ‘s constructs: life of solution procedure of table salt ” with 11th grade pupils. Hypermedia environment consists of text, artworks, photographic images, lifes, sound, and sound or picture sequences. The information concerning pupils ‘ apprehensions and dialogue of significances were collected through HyperCard. In this survey lifes in the interactive multimedia environment enabled pupils to visualise how thaw is different from fade outing, how ions are formed, and how hydration took topographic point. They were able to compose the corresponding ionic equations. So life can be used to research, negociate, and assess pupils ‘ constructs of the bomber microscopic facets of solution chemical science.
Velazquez-Marcano et. Al. ( 2004 ) investigated whether video presentations or particulate lifes helped the pupils ‘ conceptual apprehension, and if the order of visual images ( picture or life foremost ) produced any differences. General chemical science pupils of university were assigned in two groups: “ intervention VA ” ( video foremost, so life ), and “ intervention AV ” ( life firs picture ). The consequence showed that picture entirely was non plenty to arouse the maximal pupil public presentation. The visual image of picture after the life resulted in statistically important betterment in pupil public presentation over demoing the life by itself. This work showed the importance of uniting both types of visual images.
Marbach, Rotbain and Stavy ( 2008 ) studied the impact of utilizing dynamic lifes or illustration activities on pupils ‘ apprehension of dynamic procedures ( written text interlingual rendition and DNA reproduction ) versus pupils ‘ apprehension of inactive constellations ( the construction of DNA and RNA molecules ). High school pupils from eleventh- and twelfth-grade schoolrooms were divided into a control group which was taught in the traditional talk format, and two experimental groups which received instructions that integrated a computing machine life or illustration activities. Consequences of survey showed that the computing machine life by motivating the formation of dynamic mental theoretical accounts was significantly more effectual than the illustration activity. The utilizing illustration activities can still better pupils ‘ accomplishment in comparing to traditional direction.
Chang and Quintana ( 2006 ) studied two functions of lifes to back up 7th class pupils ‘ acquisition of chemical science constructs: ( 1 ) life as a constructivist tool that supports pupils ‘ visual image and reading of abstract procedures, and ( 2 ) life as a job work outing tool that supports pupils ‘ logical thinking procedures. For this intent a new computer-based plan, Chemation, was developed. It provides characteristics to enable and present student-generated lifes, allows pupils ( 1 ) visual image of a chemical procedure, ( 2 ) reading of a chemical procedure, ( 3 ) concluding about a chemical phenomenon. The pre- and post trial consequence shows important difference of pupils ‘ content cognition and positive gross consequence of the acquisition environment.
Based on the old researches it has been proven that compared to still plot, instructor-guided lifes facilitated pupils ‘ acquisition of chemical science, most likely by leting pupils to visualise chemical reactions at the microscopic degree and to make inventive representations of those reactions. It seems that lifes should be ideal for showing dynamic content like chemical science subjects. Harmonizing to the mentioned surveies implementing life in learning chemical science procedure can be one of the most effectual methods in this field. Instructor-guided lifes help pupils get a better apprehension of targeted chemical science constructs ( Yang et al., 2003 ).
Computer life activities that demonstrate the dynamic procedures allowed pupils to be more synergistic, learn from test and mistake, and reiterate their test over and over-none of which were possible with the illustration activity ( Marbach-Ad, et al., 2008 ). With alive word pictures, information about the alterations involved is available to be read directly from the show without the scholar necessitating to execute mental life. With computing machine life plan, pupils may construct appropriate lifes and utilize them to carry on higher-order thought such as logical thinking and reading ( Chang & A ; Quintana, 2006 ).
When conceptual alteration texts combine with computing machine lifes are effectual instructional tools to better pupils ‘ conceptual apprehension of chemical concepts. ( H. Ozmen, et al., 2009 ). The maximal effects in larning pupils were achieved when both computing machine lifes and concerted acquisition methods are used ( Simsec, 2009 ). Uniting the computing machine life method and other methods may be a utile manner for learning scientific discipline, and instructors may utilize this or another combination when learning chemical science constructs. Using synergistic life accompanied with existent scientific discipline experiments is more effectual compared to utilizing merely existent scientific discipline experiments in primary scientific discipline class ( Akp nar & A ; Ergin, 2007 ).Overall it has been shown that appropriate animated learning stuffs were perceived as being more utile than tantamount inactive acquisition stuffs by pupils.
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