Heating and lighting during english and baroque renaissance

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Heating and lighting have been of major concern to human life. Heating and lighting are too much closely related such that they are inseparable. [4]These phenomenon of heating and began as early as the time of creation. It is believed that sun was first object to bring illumination for the benefit of man. The processes of heating and lighting have undergone some dynamic changes from generation to another. These transitions have been remarkable with the advancement of technology and economic ability to invest in the research work. Due to the diversity of people’s ability and knowledge, heating and lighting has been done in quite different ways at different place. This varied from one community to another. The working of heating may be affected by customs and the culture of the community.

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Heating and lighting has been useful in to providing comfortable environment to the man’s life. The heating and lighting were found to be of paramount importance in providing safety to the mankind. Heating and lighting is thus an activity that is inevitable for the survival of man. [5]Heating and lighting were mainly accompanied by ventilation and therefore, they achieve their purpose by combining the three factors at once.

Historically, man has enjoyed heating and lighting from the sun. The primitive man utilized this best kind of, natural heating and lighting in many places. However, sun being one of the best sources of heat and light, men thought and feel much more of permittivity than any other source.

Despite this feeling of heating and lighting being of primitive nature, the sun itself has treasured by most races on the earth. Sun has formed a centre stone in the development of some of the religious faith. The sun has been worshipped by a number of races and community in the earth. This was also a common practice in the early days of the English renaissance. The sun and the skies were main part of sun worshippers who would provide impressing invocations to them during the days of worship.

In addition to worship of the sun and the skies, many people in the English renaissance would dedicate their life to the centric fireplaces. This involved offering of certain deities so that their supernatural being would guard the household. This led the Germany archeologist to develop their Assyro-Babylonian building with decoration of certain features of uniqueness.[6] The house was magnificent and well decorated having an eye that was a sign of defense to the   enemies of the nomads.  The building of worship was much impressive to show defense of enemies such as wild beasts by being with fortifications which were highly set. More than this, there was an indicative symbol of holy place by ensuring that the courtyards were paved. The house was designed such that it had a quadrangular shape in which with the centre part was the point of lighting the fire.

The lighting and heating of the early period was done almost through the nature means. This was not in the western countries but most people used this allover the world. This is evident with a good number of examples such as the prehistorically design cave of man, the braziers fires of the Greek palaces, the hypocausts of Romans, the Norman Castle and the English cottages. The above examples shows how light and heating were an ingenuity activity of the society and communities from the early times.

Heating was sometime necessary to maintain the place of living warm. However, this was not a usual activity. Due to some conditions of weather, open fire was light for people to get the radiant heat from the fire. Although this was a primitive way of coping with the situations, it was of great advantages to the community by providing lighting and heating at the same time. The real advantage of this open fire was that there optimization of the heating with plenty of light. In addition, such kind of heating was important by allowing free circulation of air. In the confinement of most building air circulation was also adequate. This was made possible since from the time of designing by the building as well as with the realistic process of constructing the building.[7]Most buildings which were built based on the early technology would provide adequate light and ventilation through leaving some crevices and other opening holes of the house. As the weather changes with time, the need for interior heating became quite necessary. This led to the invention of heat facilities such as the stove, radiators and furnace

The open fire in those Anglo Saxon houses was mostly lit at the centre of the rooms. This was done with the help of charcoal device facilities. The Spain had developed their charcoal braziers. These charcoal braziers were well modified such that they were used easily within the rooms. The charcoal facilities were wheeled to allow the efficiency of moving them around the rooms.  Parts from the charcoal facilities, other devices were developed to create the necessary comfort for living. Porcelain stoves were one of the pioneer products in bringing changes to the open heating and lighting. It was a great facility in the Sweden and then later on in the Germany part.  [8]The development of these stoves was accompanied anther kind of stove invention that was of iron in nature. As there were some challenges of using this kind of stoves especially within enclosed room, buildings were installed with chimneys in the fireplaces so as allow elimination of poisonous gases. The chimney development was not only for removing of hazardous gases but it also a way of modifying and decorating the houses.

The English and the baroque renaissance had also wide application of reflection method as way of heating the rooms. A pile of stones were arranged and heated from underneath fire. These formed the basis of furnaces. The use of this system allowed change of environment in houses especially during the bitter weather. This method was seen to have been utilized in most castles where they were used as central heaters. Moreover, this was advancement on the heating while the lighting was taken to a higher level by cutting holes at different point. Ventilating and lighting holes were set as square holes at the corners of the ceiling. Enough ventilation was attained by including valve funnels above the holes. [9]The communities used this method so that they would increase the light and bring in enough air circulation. From the increased circulation of air through the holes, the people thought that cold draughts would be eliminated.

The heating was enhances by development of buildings from those materials which were believed to be heat conversant. The mansions which were developed during these eras were generally had some great similarities. The houses which were developed by the people at this time were generally small sized. The design indicates that the houses had central hall which extended to one side. This kind of extensions was of use especially as kitchen. This allowed the building to get heated as the cooking in the kitchens was taking place. The small buildings were further having some extension from the central kitchen hall that was for official attendance. This made the offices also warm through the heat transfers from the kitchen part. Third side of the central hall was being utilized for the extension of living rooms   which needed to be also at the right temperatures. This shows that the communities had a culture of making the kitchen as the main hub of heat source.  The design was therefore very crucial in the development of housing during the English renaissances as well as baroque period.

The design for the large house was a bit complex in its shape. The houses had the accommodation of similar extension. However, there were some complications due to increased number of rooms. These houses were quadrangular in shape whose accommodation was similar to that of the small rooms. [10]The major difference was that they accommodated additional rooms that were in clusters around the court. One significant feature is that the building had to include a gatehouse at the main entrance point. The final evolvement of this kind of house led to the adoption of the E-shape plan in the future designs.

There were also a number of differences in design to allow adequate heating and lighting during the eras. There were some houses which show great hall in the central part but with major other parts connected to it. [11] The amazing features which were demonstrated in these building of the English renaissance were an enormous dog grate. This was a large column which was highly decorated to show the treasure of artistic work. In order to ensure that comfort matched the decoration it had, the architectural builders put the work on covering the hall with a roof of open timber. In other cases, the roof was to be made from molded plaster panels of intricate nature.

The central heating is one of the oldest methods which were being used in Britain. It well associated with the roman hypocausts of their first arrival in England. The system has remained to be seen as primitive till the 19th century.[12] The system being considered as unnatural and unhealthy and thus it was disliked by most people in England. Although the system being of low quality, the poor could not afford it, while the rich men were happy as it was a convenient to them.


1.      Borsay, P. (1996): The English Urban Renaissance: Culture and Society in the Provincial Town 1660-1770: Oxford University Press

2.      Hines, T. (1988): the gallery without end: almanac

3.      Lechner, N. (1991): heating, cooling, lighting: design    methods for architects:   John Wiley and sons

4.      Michaelis, A. (1882) ancient marbles in great britian: Cambridge University

[4] Lechner, N. (1991): heating, cooling, lighting: design    methods for architects:   John Wiley and sons

[5]Lechner, N. (1991): heating, cooling, lighting: design    methods for architects:   John Wiley and sons

[6] Lechner, N. (1991): heating, cooling, lighting: design    methods for architects:   John Wiley and sons

3.  Hines, T. (1988): the gallery without end: almanac

4.  Lechner, N. (1991): heating, cooling, lighting: design    methods for architects:   John Wiley and sons

2 Hines, T. (1988): the gallery without end: almanac

2. Hines, T. (1988): the gallery without end: almanac

4.  Michaelis, A. (1882) ancient marbles in great Britain: Cambridge University
1.       Borsay, P. (1996): The English Urban Renaissance: Culture and Society in the Provincial Town 1660-1770: Oxford University Press


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