Biology SSL Internal Assessment What is the effect of heat on vitamin C concentrated in lemon Juice? Introduction: Vitamins are complex organic substances that are needed in very small amounts for many of the essential processes carried out in the body. ” 1 It is estimated and supported scientifically that only a few MGM are filling the daily recommendation, which is essential for a healthy living. As most of vitamins cannot be produced by our bodies, we need to obtain them from the food, supplements etc.
Called Ascorbic acid, Vitamin C is found in many products such as fruits, vegetables and diary products. It is needed in humans for a correct function of tissues in our body as well as ascorbic acid is involved in production of collagen- protein in connective tissues. It is involved in humans healing process, normal structure and function of blood vessels and neurological. Vitamin C also supports the absorption of iron, from plant sources and has anti-oxidant manners where it is potentially protecting cells from “free radical oxidative damage”.
It is soluble in water. 2 It’s deficiency can cause serious health problems such as scurvy, which is characterized by bleeding gums and damage to one and other tissues that’s why any possible factors which cause it’s decrease should be tested. 3 If the body is under stress, ascorbic acid is used up more quickly. Smoking is one such stress, and smokers should ensure they eat foods and drinks containing vitamin C. 4 Some people take very large concentrations of ascorbic acid (several grams), which can also lead to many problems.
Ascorbic acid is found almost exclusively in foods from plant sources, although fresh milk and liver contain small quantities. Products, which contain Vitamin C: Milk & dairy products, 5% Fruit, Fruit Juices, 19% Leafy green vegetables, 6% Salad & raw vegetables, 7% Cereals products, 5% Potatoes, 1 Vegetables and fruits should be a part of our diet for healthy living, because they contain lots of vitamins and minerals. They are consumed in many different ways. Vegetables can be cooked or baked and added to many different snacks and meals.
The question is whether the vitamin C keeps the same quantity under certain conditions. 6 My research question is focusing on the effect of heat on vitamin C. This experiment has also some sentimental meaning to me, especially since I was born in Poland the cultural affiliation is strongly inculcated. As far as my grandmother has told me, drinking the popular tea with a slice of lemon does not improve the healthiness of the drink because the Vitamin C is decreased by heat. My hypothesis is: as the heat increases the temperature of lemon Juice the concentration of vitamin C will decrease.
If vitamin C, which is a good reducing agent, is present, the blue dye, which turns pink in acid conditions, is reduced to a colorless compound by ascorbic acid. “baby using DUCKPIN I will be able to determine whether my hypothesis should be accepted or rejected. Variables in my experiment Variables Independent Temperature Was changed each time tort 20 co by using the electric kettle. Time gap between boiling the water and pouring the lemon Juice into it was controlled, by checking the temperature of water. Dependent Amount of vitamin C Measured by oxidized DUCKPIN. Controlled Variables Why they should be controlled?
How they are controlled? Amount of water The amount of water had to be the same each time, and similar to one in a cup of tea to be able to determine whether heat influences vitamin C in a water based drink. I used a mill beaker so that I could see on the scale how much water in ml it contains. Each time I was pouring the same amount of water. Amount of lemon Juice It should be kept constant to see whether the temperature can affect vitamin C and have reliable results. I liquids lemon and kept the Juice in a plastic cup, and by a ml syringe I was taking a certain amount.
Amount of DUCKPIN The amount of DUCKPIN is a main chemical substance which will help me to determine the amount of vitamin C. It’s constant amount will support my experimental study from any deviations and uncertainties. By using a Mil syringe I was pouring DUCKPIN into 5 tubes each time before I took any measurements. Time Time should be controlled in accordance to the constantly decreasing temperature. Keeping the time delays as short as possible can improve my results and protects from deviations. I did not exceed over 2 minutes while examining my experimental conditions.
Lemon type As now we have a possibility to gain different types of food, this includes lemons. Different types of lemon could be grown in different conditions therefore their nutrition contents could be affected. Lemons were bought in the same store, at the same time. They were bought in a 4-pack; therefore I expected them to be the same yep lemons. Using the same lemon type prevents us from having uncertainties in the experiment. Age of lemon The time that lemon spends in unnatural conditions could affect their contents, including their freshness and also vitamin C amount.
Lemons were bought at the same day, and I have check whether they were rather hard than soft, according to my senses and belief that if they are hard therefore should be fresh. After feeling their hardness, according to common knowledge I have assumed that they are fresh. Equipment: Gloves, Thermometer oxidized DUCKPIN 10 glass tubes Knife Cutting board 10 ml syringe x Mil syringe Plastic cup 4 lemons Fruit squeezer mill beaker Electric kettle Water boiler Procedure: 1 . Collect and set the equipment by placing the equipment on the table in right sequence of use and importance. 2.
Put on the scientific coat and gloves to avoid danger of getting burned by hot water. 3. Cut the lemon into slices, and approximately weigh one slice and liquids it to see how many ml one slice contains, use a 10 ml syringe to take your measurements. 4. Pour 1 ml DUCKPIN into tubes by a 1 ml syringe. 5. Use electric kettle to boil the water and pour mill into a mill beaker and wait ill the temperature decrease 6. When the expected temperature is reached, pour ml off lemon Juice into the glass. 7. Then take a Mil syringe and take a sample of water and lemon Juice inside it. 8.
Into already prepared tubes with DUCKPIN, dispense as many drops of the water with lemon Juice as you need to transform DUCKPIN from blue colour into transparent and clear. Write down the amount of drops. 9. Use this procedure with temperatures ICC, ICC, ICC. 10. With 100 co, we need to boil the water on a specific form off boiler. 11. Place a 500 ml beaker with mill of water already on the boiler, and wait ill the water reaches 100 degrees. 12. When the water is boiling and we measure it with a thermometer to determine whether it reached mill, we can pour ml of lemon Juice into it, and wait till the temperature goes down to get the sample. 3. Then we do the same procedure, and when the sample is taken into syringe, we pour as many drops as we need the blue colour to transform into transparent (see that the DUCKPIN becomes clear and transparent) 14. ICC is easy to obtain; we simply pour mill from the tap and leave it till it reaches the room temperature or add a bit of warm water to combine he temperatures of water. We take the measurement with thermometer and when the water reaches ICC uses the same procedure as before. Write down the results.