Within this paper 6 scholarly research articles focusing on infant and/or toddler development will be discussed. These articles will cover physical, cognitive, and social or psychosocial development. A 30 minute observation of a 1month old (Willow) and a 13month old (Emmett) will be conversed, with particular focus on physical development including body shape and motor skills, cognitive development, and social development. The information obtained in the observations will be compared to the information obtained from the scholarly articles.
The first article explains how music plays a big role in social, physical, thinking and language development. Music quite often provides opportunities to practice patterns, math concepts and thinking skills. The second article tells how children profit not only from better nourishment but also from enriched learning prospects in the first years of life. The particle defines how arrangements to improve top infant and toddler nourishment can be connected with child development interferences for kids fewer than 3 years of age.
The third article covers how the surroundings must offer balance and assortment of age fitting sensory ideas. The newborn and or toddler must have chances to hear, see, smell, taste, and touch. An infant caring atmosphere offers a quiet place to sleep, nontoxic place to watch others, and precise child development training and support for caregivers of infants and toddlers. The forth article went into how eighty full-term newborns were followed from 3 days until 6 years.
Neonatal behavior was assessed by the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale at 3 days postpartum, infant mental and psychomotor development was assessed by the Bayley Scales for Infant Development at 4 and 12 months, and child intelligence was assessed by the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence at 6 years. Neonatal general irritability was the predictor of mental development at 12 months. Self-regulation behaviors were predictors of psychomotor development at 4 and 12 months and verbal and total intelligence quotient at 6 years.
Neonatal orientation was a predictor of performance Wechsler subtests related to vasomotor abilities and attention. Neonatal self-regulation behaviors were the best predictors of infant development and intelligence. We suggest that the NBAS could be a useful tool to observe behaviors related to later development in healthy infants. (Canals, Hernandez-Martinez, Fernandez-Ballart, 2011). The fifth article stated that, research is coming to a consensus that nutritional intervention can have a positive impact at potentially any stage.
Some nutrient deficiencies, such as iron, can have long-term effects, and these nutrient deficiencies affect young children, especially fetuses, more drastically. The opportunity for repair is greater when deficiencies start later in life. In children who have iron-deficient cognitive decline related to their nutrition, they can potentially show some improvement when they participate in a structured nutritional replacement program, in addition to educational intervention. Younger children are more susceptible to the negative cognitive effects of iron deficiency anemia.
Therefore, early intervention is critical. Finally article six researched how many factors influence child’s growth and development such as heredity, nutrition, illness and disease, physical, emotional and social environment, age and gender, birth process and others. Family with close environment factor strongly influences child’s growth, timing and the achievement of developmental milestones are vital indicators of neurologic integrity, and the documentation of developmental delay may be significant for the avoidance of resulting difficulties, such as unusual manners and lasting disability.
A previous study found that there were no significant differences of development status perception according to child’s age, parents’ schooling, parent’s occupation, and sum of brothers or sisters. The way we nurture our kids intensely effects their future childhood and grown-up conduct. A number of individuals feel they obligate a natural sense of child-rearing with “instinctive” impulses in reaction to child actions. Some feel they knowingly or automatically modified child-rearing styles and methods from their individual mothers and fathers or other caregivers Observation: Willow 4 weeks old Willow smiles a lot for a baby of 4 weeks.
She lifts her head when lying on her tummy, reacts to sound and gazes at faces. While her vision is not so well she will track things temporarily with her eyes voices oohs and coos. Willow will suck her thumb and or fist, when removed she will whimper and fuss. She will cry to let her Mom know that she is hungry, wet, dirty or uncomfortable. Willow does not move much, mostly involuntary movement. She has not started to explore her surrounds at this point in her development. Willow is learning trust through her parent’s consistent and patient response to her cries. She is quietly alert. Willow can display distress and being content.
Willow will respond to her mother’s voice. When her mother’s voice is heard she begins to move her eyes around and respond with little kicks and flailing of her tiny arms. Willow is becoming more sensitive to her surroundings. Her vision and hearing is improving she is noticing more of what’s going on around her. Willows interaction with people, really has no effect on her. She can be passed from person to person with no change in temperament. Emmett is a very active 13 month old. Just learning to walk few weeks ago, he is still walking with his chunky legs spread apart and his equally chunky arms held up to help maintain support.
Emmett has just started eating table for within the last month and his infant body is no more, He now has the chunky toddler body that better supports his need for exploring. Emmett can understand easy instructions such as, “go to daddy”. He can speak several words Mama, Dada, sis, ball, baba, hi and bye. Emmett will communicate his needs with gestures, holding arms out to be picked up. Emmett will turn his head away from something he doesn’t want. He is very curious of his surroundings, with his new mode of transpiration (walking). Emmett has an extremely close bond with his mom, dad, and big sister.
Emmett proves that he can distinguish the difference between people he knows well, and those he doesn’t. My husband walked into the room and he started to cry and headed straight for his mom. Once at her side he tries to hide behind her legs. Emmett’s mom, dad and sister were asked to leave the room one at a time, dad being the first to go. Emmett’s demeanor did not change. The same was seen when his sister left the room. When Emmett’s mom left the room he started to cry, crawling toward her. Emmett was picked up and I tried soothing him, by rocking and singing. After a couple minutes he was smiling and laughing. However, when mom was reintroduced back into the room Emmett once again began to cry reaching out to her and calling for her.
Canals, J. , Hernandez-Martinez, C. , Esparo, G. , & Fernandez-Ballart, J. (2011). Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale as a predictor of cognitive development and IQ in full-term infants: a 6-year longitudinal study. Acta Paediatrica, 100(10), 1331-1337. doi:10. 1111/j. 1651-2227. 2011. 02306. x Engle, P. , & Huffman, S. (2010). Growing children’s bodies and minds: maximizing child nutrition and development. Food And Nutrition Bulletin, 31(2 Suppl), S186-S197 Irwanto, A. 2010). THE IMPORTANCE OF PARENTING ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN TODDLERS. Folia Medica Indonesiana, 46(4), 237-240 Marshall, J. (2011). Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care. Early Childhood Education Journal, 39(3), 175-181. doi:10. 1007/s10643-011-0460- Parlakian, R. , & Lerner, C. (2010). Beyond Twinkle, Twinkle: Using Music with Infants and Toddlers. YC: Young Children, 65(2), 14-19. Young, R. (2012). Nutrient and Iron Deficiency: Focus on Fetal Brain Development and Beyond. International Journal Of Childbirth Education, 27(4), 65-69.