Herzberg and his colleagues divided work into two factors that they called motivating factors and hygiene factors. Motivating factors included items such as personal growth in competence, achievement, responsibility, and recognition. These factors are intrinsic to the work that is done and are called motivators because employees were motivated to obtain these factors and were willing to improve their work performance to do so.
Factors extrinsic to or outside of the work itself, such as wages, hours, working conditions, company policies, and supervisory practices, are called hygiene factors. Hygiene factors have the potential to raise or lower dissatisfaction but do not motivate employees to increase productivity or performance. This theory specifies that the tasks and responsibilities assigned to a job will enhance motivation only to the degree that motivators are designed into the work itself. Good pay and working conditions will keep down the level of dissatisfaction but will, in the long run, not inspire employees to perform at high levels.
The similarities between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are that both help make the work place pleasant, they both are employee oriented, and both are setting the employee up for success within the company. The differences are that intrinsic is designed to make the employee work to their utmost ability for rewards, and extrinsic is more to keep employees happy but not to have them put their all into their jobs.
- If an employer offers an incentive to work harder to meet a goal and improve a past record. (Achievement)
- If an employer offers a chance for advancement by having the highest sales for the next quarter. (Advancement)
- Doing the right thing for the company even if you have to donate some time, because you hold yourself to a high standard and it will be rewarded eventually. (Personal growth)
- When a bad review is threatening your advancement, you chose to take the responsibility instead of passing the buck on to others. The management will take notice because most people pass the buck. (Responsibility)
- When you work at your job because you get paid a decent wage. Wages)
- When you work your job solely because the hours are more important than any other aspect of the job. I am guilty of this. (Hours)
- While you aren’t happy with the job you know you can’t leave because of the job security you presently have. (Job security)
- You’re currently in a manager position and if you leave you do not meet the requirements to fill that position somewhere else. (Status)
- While the pay is not great you stick with your current place of employment because the working conditions are pleasant. (Working conditions)