I. Introduction According to the “2006 Washington State Latino/Hispanic Assessment,” at the State and National level, Hispanics/Latinos are the largest minority.
They faced multifaceted challenges in areas of education, health care, justice equity, housing and environmental health. In order to respond to their changing needs, the importance of addressing these issues that directly affects Hispanics/Latinos community are recognized by the Commission (2006 Washington State Latino/Hispanic Assessment). The issues concerning the multifaceted challenges that the Hispanics/Latinos are facing in Washington State are the following: 1) graduation rates are relatively low, 2) Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) test scores are low, 3) Health care coverage is not present, 4) farm workers are at risk due to pesticide exposure and work injuries, 5) the access to interpreters for services are inadequate, and 6) there is low progress in economic development, 7) disproportionate rates and injustice are present in every dimension.
This research entitled “Latino/Hispanics in Washington State” was done in order to tackle the four major issues that they are facing today, such as issues in education, health care, economics and justice and equity,.
II. Statistics Hispanic/Latino population is composed of various cultures. Hispanic subgroups differs in ethnicities, cultures and origins, they have few characteristics in common. The population covers different races; Hispanics can be White, African American, Asian or Pacific Islander, or Native American.
They also have heritage, lifestyles and socioeconomic status. Language and religion are their only similarities. Differences of the various groups in background and life experiences create influence on their health. The population of Hispanics/Latinos, are about 32.
5 million in year 2000, which comprised 11.8% of the population. By 2050, estimates shows, that almost a quarter or 98.2 million will represent the Hispanic/Latinos population (US Census Bureau.
2000). About two-thirds of all Hispanics/Latinos or 62.5% originates in Mexico, 9.6% in Puerto Rico, 4.
3% in Cuba, 14.3% South America and 6.6% other Hispanics/Latinos (Ramirez, AG., & Suarez L.
2000; “US Census Bureau” 1999 & 2000). Hispanics/Latinos in Washington State, according to statistics, currently represent 8.5% or 517,055 of the population (Larson Report). They constitute the largest minority population group.
It is estimated that by the year 2010, the population of Hispanics/ Latinos in Washington State will be 626,349, median age of 24.84 (Provisional Projections of the Total Population by age, gender, and race for the state of Washington). In Washington State, 28% of immigrants are Hispanic/Latino, 6% speaks Spanish at home, and 78% of the American unauthorized population in 2005 came from Mexico and Latin America (2006 Washington State Latino/Hispanic Assessment). Based on report of the U.
S. Census Bureau & the U.S. Department of Agriculture, in 2005, the total population of people who lives in Washington State was 6,146,338.
Out of this population 541,722 comprise the number of population of Hispanics (of any race). See table below for the summary of Washington population based on race and ethnicity, according to community survey data collected by the US Census Bureau in 2005. Table1. Population of Washington State by Race/Ethnicity, a CommunitySurvey Data collected as reported by the US Census Bureau in 2005.
Washington Population by Race/Ethnicity, 2005(U.S. Census Bureau, 2005 Community Survey)Race/EthnicityPopulationWhite4,988,017Black or African American202,286American Indian & Alaska Natives88,363Asian405,030Asian Indian41,583Chinese72,135Filipino87,871Japanese40,115Korean51,929Vietnamese60,543Other Asian50,854Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander28,400Native Hawaiian7,654Guamanian or Chamorro6,707Samoan7,303Other Pacific Islander6,736Hispanic (of any race)541,722III. DemographicsA.
county of residenceB. dominant languageC. ageD. genderE.
household incomeF. educational attainment III. Major Issues Faced by Latinos/Hispanics in Washington States A. Education According to studies, graduation rates of Latinos/ Hispanics are low and test scores on Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) are also low.
In order to improve Education System of the Latinos/Hispanics in Washington State the Commission supported several bills but unfortunately it some of them did not pass during the 2006 legislative session. Education plays an important role for the Hispanic/Latino community in Washington State. Latinos progress in education but gaps can be observed. To make an impact The National Council of La Raza, focused investing in areas of early childhood education and reform in high school, wherein large disparity between Latinos and other groups is evident.
Issues of education with two part approach, wherein direct services to community based organization and the advocacy for policy outcomes were included. These in turn will make the public school system more responsive to the needs of the Latinos. The Commission recognizes that with emerging population, quality and accessibility of education should be improved. It is necessary to acquire an equitable future for the Washington State.
With increasing population, additional resources, research and work are necessary to serve the needs of the population. High Hispanic/Latino population ranked as 10th in the nation, according to the National Council for La Rasa (“Education.” 2007. US: NLRC).
To support and strengthen education programming at the community-based level, capacity-building assistance which includes curriculum, program, professional development was provided by division of NCLR. By strengthening services as well as programs operated by more than 100 NCLR affiliates, these addressed disparities in education achievement. Education policy work of NCLR, strives to ensure that Latino students, that includes the immigrant and English Language Learners, be educated to learn and graduate from high school at the same time with their peers. Its advocacy in early childhood education and high school reform, includes policies and programs such as Head Start, “No Child Left Behind Act,” “Dream Act,” and funding for key federal education Programs (“Education.
” 2007. US: National Council of La Raza). Hispanic/Latino enrollment, according to the January 2006 HEC Board Report, is 3.9% at four year institutions.
The Public Four Year Institutions Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity Fall 2004 was shown in the chart below (see the chart below). Public Four Year InstitutionsEnrollment by Race/Ethnicity Fall 2004 Hispanic/Latino enrolment for schools specializing in Cosmetology and Computer Graphic is 4.7% for independent four year institution, and the highest enrollments, of 9.6% at community and technical colleges.
To inform and provide recommendations regarding improving the K-12 system and increasing access to higher education, to policy makers, legislator of the State, and office of the Governor is the commitment of Commission on Hispanic Affairs (2006 Washington State Latino/Hispanic Assessment). To ensure that the children, who come from homes where primary language is English, will be given equal opportunity for education the program of the statewide Transitional Bilingual Instruction Program or TBIP was created. In the year 1979 this program was created by the Washington State Legislature. This was funded to support school staff and training intended to teach English to students in the public K-12 school system.
Related ProgramsEducation Programs NCLR’s education program services and activities are targeted to the approximately 150 affiliated organizations that provide educational services to the Latino community while NCLR’s education policy work addresses national issues in public education. The organizations Affiliates provide services along each critical stage of the educational “pipeline” – infants and toddlers, school-age students, and adults and parents. NCLR’s program work places a special focus on organizations and programs that serve preschool and high school. KIDS COUNT – Puerto Rico The KIDS COUNT Puerto Rico project is an effort to address the information gap in order to improve the health, safety, education, economic security, and development of Puerto Rico’s children.
By providing policy-makers and citizens with benchmarks of child well-being, KIDS COUNT Puerto Rico seeks to enrich local and national discussions of ways to secure better futures for all our children.;;NCLR AmeriCorps;AmeriCorps strengthens communities through projects that address education, public safety, the environment, and other unmet human needs. NCLR AmeriCorps members serve at local nonprofits, public agencies, and faith-based organizations, helping to build a culture of citizenship, service, and responsibility. Through their service, members gain valuable job skills and experience and earn an education award to pursue a college education or pay back student loans.
;Secondary Education (SE) Programs;The secondary Education Programs are committed to improving highschools around the country so all students, especially some of those most at risk, are prepared for success in college and work. Targeting the unique needs of Latino and English Language Learner (ELL) students, the Secondary Education Programs work through a network of community-based charter schools and Early College High Schools.;;Early Care and Education (ECE) Program;The ECE Team’s purpose is to establish NCLR as the national leader for increasing school readiness of Latino children and improving their potential for life success by ensuring the availability of high-quality developmentally, linguistically, and culturally appropriate services for Latino children from birth to eight years old.;;Related PoliciesFederal PoliciesNo Child Left Behind;NCLR supports standards-based reform and policies that increase access to challenging academic coursework for Latino students and provides schools with the resources needed to help Hispanic children, including English language learners, achieve high academic standards.
;;Hispanic Education Coalition (HEC)The Hispanic Education Coalition (HEC) is an ad hoc coalition of national organizations dedicated to improving educational opportunities for the over 40 million Latinos living in the United States and Puerto Rico.;;;Federal Education Funding;NCLR supports full funding of the No Child Left Behind Act and other key education-related programs.;;Higher Education;NCLR supports policies and initiatives that seek to increase access to and retention in postsecondary education for Latino students.;Early Childhood Education;NCLR supports policies at the federal and state levels, which improve access to and quality of early education programs for Latinos and English language learners.
;;DREAM Act;The “DREAM Act” is federal legislation that would facilitate state efforts to offer in-state tuition to undocumented students and provide certain students with a path to U.S. citizenship.;;State PoliciesCalifornia: Higher Education;NCLR supports policies and initiatives that seek to increase access to and retention in postsecondary education for Latino students.
;;California: Preschool for All;NCLR supports the development of a Preschool for All program in California, to improve access to and quality of early childhood education programs for Latino and ELL children.;California: K-12 Education;NCLR supports standards-based reform and policies that increase access to challenging academic coursework for Latino students and provides schools with the resources needed to help Hispanic children achieve high academic standards.;;B. Health Care;The issues of Health care being absent and the risk of farm workers due to pesticides and work injuries are the issues on health that needs to be given importance.
Inequality in Health coverage can be observed in the Latino communities. Health status and quality of care are affected when one do not have the access to a regular health care provider. Great hindrance in accessing health care is the lack of insurance. Limited access of minority affects the health of minority communities (“Improving Health Coverage and Access for Latinos, 2006).
;One of the most important issues in Latino community is absence of access to health coverage of the minorities, because they are more likely to be uninsured. The problem of disparities in Latino population will be difficult to solve and will continue to worsen without affordable access to coverage. To maintain good health there is a great need to have a regular and affordable access to health care. To help close the gap on disparities and for health care to more accessible to Latinos there is a need to make easier steps in qualification and enrolment in public health insurance.
;Public health programs must be improved at the same time with greater access to job-based insurance. Most of the uninsured Latino belongs to the members of working families, that is why, employers must offer affordable health insurance for their workers. This is essential in service where most Latinos find employment (Brown, RE., et al, 2000).
;Report shows that 45% of Latinos have no regular doctor compared to whites with 24%. Report also shows that Latinos were unsatisfied with the care given in emergency room, whenever there is an instance they need to use it.;According to recent study of the Washington State Department of Health Hispanics/Latinos are diagnosed of having HIV infection. Their rate of infection, are 2-3 times higher than that of the whites statewide.
There are racial disparities especially among uninsured Latinos (“Improving Health Coverage and Access for Latinos.” 2006).;;;;;;Figure 1Health Insurance Coverage Among LatinoSubgroups (Ages 0-64), 1997;;;;;;;;;;;Diagnosis of HIV infection shows that there is an average 65 per year, cases of HIV infections among Latinos. Most of the Hispanics and Latinos with HIV infections, which comprise 85% were found to be living in one of the five counties of Washington such as King, Pierce, Yakima, Snohomish or Franklin.
Although this community (News Release: Washington State Department of Health).;;C. Economics;According to US Census Bureau about 144,330 Washington State families with children ages 5-17 were living in poverty in 2004. Children under the age of 18 live below according to survey were approximately 226,000 about, 14.
9%, which is more than the combined Yakima’s population, Bellingham and Wenatchee, according to Children Alliance of US Census Bureau, 2005, “ with Washington Children in poverty, it would be possible to complete fill SAFECO Field more than five times.”In order to uplift the economy Washington groups seek to attract foreign buyers. In an excerpt of an article, from Pudget Sound Business Journal, Steve Wilhelm (2007), states the people work hand in hand to make an effort on finding strategies in seeking to attract foreign buyers.;;;;;;;I.
References;;Action on Smoking and Health. Surgeon General’s report AT-A-GLANCE: tobacco use among US racial/ethnic minority groups. 1998.Available from: URL: http://no-smoking.
org/april98/04-27-98-7.html American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures 1999. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 1999.
p.18-21. Available from American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society.
Cancer facts and figures 1997. Available from: URL: http://www.cancer.org/statistics/97cff/97racial.
html American College of Physicians – American Society of Internal Medicine. No health insurance? It’s enough to make you sick. Latino community at great risk. Philadelphia: College of Physicians – American Society of Internal Medicine; White Paper; 2000.
(Available from American College of Physicians – American Society of Internal Medicine, 190 N. Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA 19106). Brown, ER., Ojeda,VD.
, Wyn, R., et al., 2000. Racial and Ethic Disparities in Access to Health Insurance and Health Care.
Los Angeles: UCLA Center for Health Policy Research and Kaiser Family Foundation, April. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Tobacco information and prevention source (Tips) – Hispanics and tobacco.
2000. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_1998/sgr-min-fs-hsp.
htm Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults–United States, 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999; 48(43):993-6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Youth risk behavior surveillance–United States, 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2000; 49, No. SS-5. “Education.
” 2007. US: National Council of La Raza (NCLR)HEC Board Report: “Key Facts about Higher Education in Washington.” January 2006. Gilliland FD, Hunt WC, Key CR.
Trends in the survival of American Indian, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White cancer patients in New Mexico and Arizona, 1969-1994. Cancer 1998; 82(9):1769-83. Improving Health Coverage and Access for Latinos. 2006.
Families USA: Minority Health Initiative. January London TW, McGlynn KA. Liver Cancer. In: Schottenfeld and Fraumeni, editors.
Cancer epidemiology and prevention. New York: Oxford Press; 1996. National Cancer Institute. Cancer facts: breast cancer and mammography facts, 1998.
Available from: URL: http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/6_29.
htm News Release: Washington State Department Health.2007 Parker SL, Davis KJ, Wingo PA, Ries LAG, Heath CW. Cancer statistics by race and ethnicity. CA Cancer J Clin 1998; 48(1):31-48.
Pennucci, A. and Kavanaugh, S. 2005. English Language Learners in K-12: Trends, Policies, and Research in Washington State.
Jan. Olympia, Washington: Washington State for Policy. Ramirez, AG. Suarez, L.
, 2000. Hispanic cultures: Latinos, Central Americans. in Press. Ramirez AG, Suarez L, McAlister A, Villarreal R, Trapido E, Talavera GA, Pérez-Stable E, Marti J.
Cervical cancer screening in regional Hispanic populations. Am J Health Behav 2000; 24(3):181-92. Ramirez AG, Suarez L. The impact of cancer in Latino population.
In: Aguirre-Molina M, Molina C, Zambrana R, editors. Latino health book; 2000 in press. Ramirez AG, Talavera GA, Villarreal R, Suarez L, McAlister A, Trapido E, Pérez-Stable E, and Marti J. Breast cancer screening in regional Hispanic populations.
Health Educ Res 2000; 15(5):559-68. Ramirez AG, McAlister A, Gallion K, Villarreal R. Targeting Hispanic populations: future research and prevention strategies. Environ Health Perspect 1995; 103(8 Suppl):287-90.
Ramirez AG, Suarez L, Laufman L, Barroso C, Chalela P. Hispanic women’s breast and cervical cancer knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors. Am J Health Promot 2000; 14(5):292-300. Ries LAG, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Edwards BK, ditors.
SEER cancer statistics review, 1973-1995. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2000. Available from: URL:http://www-seer.ims.
nci.nih.gov/Publications/CSR7395/ Susan G. Komen Foundation.
Breast health. Hispanic women and breast cancer. 1998. Available from: URL: http://www.
breastcancerinfo.com/bhealth/html/hispanic.html The National Alliance for Hispanic Health. The National Hispanic Colorectal Cancer Outreach and Education Program (NHCCOP).
2000.Available from: URL: http://www.hispanichealth.org/cancer.
html The University of Michigan. Cigarette smoking among American teens continues gradual decline (press release); 1999 December 17. http://www.monitoringthefuture.
org/pressreleases/99cigpr.html 2006 Washington State Latino/Hispanic Assessment: State of Washington Commission on Hispanic Affairs. US Census Bureau: The Hispanic population in the United State. 1999.
Current Population Reports, Series P20-527. Washington, DC: 2000.Available from: URL: http://www.census.
gov/prod/2000pubs/p20-527.pdf US Census Bureau: Population Projections Program. 2000. Population Division.
(NP-D1-A) Projections of the resident population by age, sex, race, and Hispanic Origin: 1999-2100. Washington, DC.http://www.census.
pdf US Census Bureau. 2005. US: Department of AgricultureWilhelm, S. 2007.
Pudget Sound Business Journal: “Washington Groups Seek to Attract Foreign Buyers.” 14 September. US Department of Health and Human Services. Racial and ethnic disparities in health.
February 21, 1998. Available from: URL:http://raceandhealth.hhs.gov/3rdpgBlue/Cancer/3pgGoalsCancer.
htm US Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco use among US racial/ethnic minority groups — African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1998. Miller BA, Kolonel LN, Bernstein L, Young Jr JL, Swanson GM, West D, Key CR, Liff JM, Glover CS, Alexander GA, et al., editors. Racial/ethnic patterns of cancer in the United States 1988-1992.
Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 1996. NIH Pub. No. 96-4104.
gov/Publications/REPoC/. The National Cancer Institute Cancer Screening Consortium for Underserved Women. Breast and cervical cancer screening among underserved women. Baseline survey results from six studies.
Arch Fam Med 1995; 4(7):617-24.
Cite this Latinos/Hispanics in Washington State
Latinos/Hispanics in Washington State. (2017, Mar 17). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/latinoshispanics-in-washington-state/