Lexicology And Etimology

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English words have been traditionally classified into eight lexical categories or parts of speech (and are still done so in most dictionaries): Noun-Any abstract or concrete entity; a person (police officer, Michael), place coastline, London), thing (necktie, television), idea (happiness), or quality (bravery) Pronoun-Any substitute for a noun or noun phrase (them) Adjective-Any qualifier of a noun or pronoun (big) Verb-Any action (walk), occurrence (happen), or state of being (be) Adverb- Any qualifier of an adjective, verb, clause, sentence, or other adverb (very) Preposition-Any establisher of relation and syntactic context (in) Conjunction-Any syntactic connector (and) Interjection-Any emotional greeting (or “exclamation”) (owe) The four main parts of speech in English, namely nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs, are labeled “form Classes” as well.

This is because prototypical members of each class share the ability to change their form By accepting derivation or inflectional morphemes. The term “form” is used because it refers literally to The similarities in shape of the word in its pronunciation and spelling for each part of speech. Modern linguists prefer to list words in classes that are coherent – all the words in them should behave in the same Way. But if this principle were applied rigidly, we would have hundreds of classes, so we allow irregularities! Page 1 What are the fundamentals features of the basic word stock of the English scapulars? Etymology (Gar. Denton “truth” + Gar. Egos “learning”) is a branch of linguistics that studies the origin and history of words tracing them to their earliest determinable source. The origins of English word are from: Native and borrowed A native word is a word which belongs to the original English word stock, as known from the earliest Available manuscripts of the Old English period. A borrowed word (A borrowing or a loan word) is a word taken over from another language and modified in phonemic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the English language. Words of Native Origin- Words of the Indo-European origin (II),Words of common Germanic origin, English words proper.

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Italian: the Renaissance period and later, Spanish: the Renaissance period and later, Russian: the Renaissance period and later German, Indian and other languages Some classes of words are called closed because they contain a relatively small number of items to which no new Page 2 Words can normally be added. These are the structural words, which include: Words (prepositions and conjunctions) which make connections (connectives or ancestor),pronouns and Words (including articles) like the, some, each that co-occur with nouns – these are called determiners. Other classes of word are constantly being added to. Each contains a vast number of terms already. They Are open to new words being introduced. The open classes are nouns, verbs and The words which qualify them, adjectives and adverbs. These form the bulk of a language’s vocabulary or lexis (also lexicon, though this sometimes refers to a published Version).

These classes may be called lexical whereas the closed-class words are structural or functional. The ties between lexicon and grammar are particularly strong in the sphere of word formation which Before lexicon became a separate branch of linguistics had even been considered as part of grammar. The characteristic features of English word building, the morphological structure of the English word are Dependent upon the peculiarity of the English grammatical system. This brief account of the interdependence between the two important parts of linguistics must suffice for The present .

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