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Out of school youth

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Dedication

The researcher would like to dedicate this research paper to the following persons for giving inspirations to make it.
The Out of school youth
My Family
My Friends
My Classmates
My Special Someone
To our Almighty God

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Introduction
Wondering on the streets, one will never fail to see vendors. – Vendors of all ages, young and old, male and female. This operation is necessary in order to survive life.

What fascinates the author is the presence of young men and women participating in the streets.

How should this happen while the natural flow of a child’s life in school? How does it happen that these children are out of school while it in fact that they should be in school?

This research paper looks at the why’s of children being out of school and the hows of gel ting the back to school.

Significance
Our national hero once stated:”The youth is the hope of our Fatherland.”Dr. Jose Rizal was more concerned with the youth than any age bracket.

Young minds will fill the old and decrepit ones. Prosperity of a nation starts with the contribution of the youth. It is our task to save them.

Yet the Presence of out-of-school youth is inevitable. Small to huge percentage of OSY happens in every country.
This research paper will open the minds of people to see OSY. The research aim at recommending ways to decrease OSY cases: creation of programs and action. These aim at moving people to participate in these programs.

Objectives
Questions
Answers
Define what is education
What is education?
An important factor for bringing change in the life of individuals Define what are OSY
What are Out of school youth?
OSY means having vulnerable people who have needs.
OSY is a vulnerable population with complex needs.
Group of young depressed men and women, desperately needing inspiration, and an opportunity to better their lives Government actions concerning Out of School Youth
What are the government actions concerning OSY?
Public schools offer free tuition for enrollment for elementary but also in High school students. Local government and NGOs do provide support and courses for the OSY. Government gives skills training for OSY.

Results of government actions

What are the results of government actions?
Individuals become a competitive to find job.
Individual seek a better life for themselves and their family. It decreases the numbers of out of school youth.

What is education?
According to the Webster Dictionary,” Education is the process of learning and training; instruction as imparted in schools, colleges, and universities; a course or type of instruction; the theory and practice of teaching.”

According to the website of Philippine Star, “Nobody can deny the hard fact that education is an extremely important factor for bringing change in the lives of individuals. It has universally been re-cognized as the most powerful instrument for gearing up the socio-economic development of the nation.”

What are Out of school youth?
According to the Google, Out-of-School Youth are boys and girls who belong
to any of the categories; a) 7-14 years old who are not enrolled; b) 15-24 years old, not enrolled, not employed and not a tertiary level graduate.

According to 42 USCS § 12511 (Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare; Chapter 129, National and Community Service; National and Community Service Grant Program; General Provisions), the term “out-of-school youth” means “an individual who– (A) has not attained the age of 27;

(B) has not completed college or the equivalent thereof; and (C) is not enrolled in an elementary or secondary school or institution of higher education.”

According to the website of Philippine Star, Out of school youth means having a vulnerable people who have needs. In fact, it can be said that it is a pre-condition for the overall up-lift and welfare of nation. This is why investment in education is considered to be so vital for human resource development and the enhancement of the quality of manpower. It is clear that the composition and characteristics of this most crucial part of population goes a long way in the process of national development of the policy makers and planners in their planning and decision making for the future. Out of school youth is a vulnerable population with complex needs. Many face dim employment prospects and uncertain futures. Out of school youth is broadly defined as youth aged 16 to 24 who are not in school and who is unemployed, underemployed, or lacking basic skills, while there is no single system that provides services to out of school youth.

According to one blogger, here are some TOP 10 reasons why there is out of school youth here in the Philippines. 1. INCAPABLE GOVERNMENT, the sovereign Filipino people of the Philippines Government does not have the ability to give a good and standard education. Where funds for new projects that would provide the learners a good habitat for learning is being deprive from them because of the rampant corruption of its officers. 2. POVERTY, even the education is free, many Filipinos cannot afford still to go to school because of the lack of essential needs like bag, notebooks, paper, writing materials etch.. We cannot really deny the fact that the Philippines is a
third world country where poverty is rampant and the hardships of life is in one package deal already. To very poor people they cannot even afford to eat three times a day that’s why it is more important for them is food rather than investing for the education for their children. 3. UNSUPPORTABLE PARENTS, what are the qualifications of unsupportable parents; one is they are the anti-motivator they don’t motivate their children to go to school instead they are manipulating their children not to go to school. 4. BAD PEER PRESSURE, some common reasons why children and teens drop out are there bad peers. 5. BAD VICES, Vice is a practice or a habit considered immoral, depraved, and/or degrading in the associated society (Wikipedia). Vices are like bad habits or addictions that are always considered as too much for a person. 6. DISTANT PARENTS, These is a good example for Over Seas Filipino Workers (OFW), OFW parents do distant parenting strategies. Which is not effective, said by Alvin Ang of the University of Santo Tomas working as cites economist. 7. CHILD LABOR, child Labor refers to the illegal employment of children below 18 years old in hazardous occupations. Under-age children are being forced to manual Labor to help their families mainly due to poverty. About 2.06 million children all around the Philippines are compelled to do Labor, such as in crop plantations, mining caves, rock quarries and factories. 8. BAD ENVIRONMENT, the environment of the learner has also an impact because students are discourage to go to schools because of terrorism like in some parts of Mindanao where class days are being stop for the fight between the soldiers and rebels adding to that is the kidnapping of teachers. 9. TEACHER FACTOR, some teachers in rural areas have an unruly attitude, who does not care if there students are coming to school or not whether they are teaching the right thing or not who always mocks punish children without any reason. These teachers are already considered incapable or ineffective teachers that only care of their salary and not to his/her students. 10. LAZINESS, is the noun for lazy which mean the lack of desire to do something. Laziness can be aroused because of the entire factor which was mentioned above where students are becoming lazy because of the lack of motivation that keeps them going.

According to Jackson L. Ubias (blogger), The Annual Poverty Indicator Survey bares some statistics that should be cause for alarm. It reports
the incidence of out-of-school youth (OSY) in 2010 at 15.5 percent, equivalent to six million Filipinos.

Eight years ago, the incidence was at 14.7 percent or equivalent to 4.8 million Filipinos, representing an annual average growth of 2.5 percent from 2002 to 2010. OSY were family members aged 6 to 17 years old who were not attending school and those 18 to 24 years old who were not connected to school or work and have not earned a college or any post-high school diploma.

Decomposing the statistics by income quintile, the OSY rate is expectedly highest for the poorest 10 percent of households at 20.6 percent, significantly higher than the national rate. The rate remains higher-than-national for the second quintile at 17.8 percent. The incidence of OSY continually diminishes with income; with this, the slowing in educational attainment and education inequality could promote wider income inequality in the future.

A little over three fourths of the OSY are in the 16-24 age band or family members who should be attending or have completed tertiary schooling. The high cost of education is the leading barrier to school attendance as cited by 31.8 percent in the group. They face problems gaining college diplomas; simultaneously, their lack of college diploma aggravates their prospect of being gainfully employed.

While the prospective income of an individual depends on wide-ranging socio-economic attributes, it is indisputable that education is a crucial factor to easing access to job opportunities and higher wages. The increased income implies more taxes that the government can collect to finance public goods for the benefit of the many. This should provide the motivation for the government to strengthen its subsidy program for higher education, say scholarships, to those who cannot afford to attend school.

It is surprising that even as basic education is deemed free and compulsory as ordered by the Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988 and the Governance of Basic Education Act of 2001, a third of the OSY belonged to
the 6-15 age band. A fourth of this group cited high cost of education as the reason for not attending school. The costing might have considered indirect costs related to school attendance like transportation and allowances for meals and school projects. Complementary infrastructure should help minimize indirect costs to education while programs like the conditional cash transfer to poor households could guide their resource allocations for education as the cash transfer is conditional on the school attendance of a child.

What comes as an interesting result of the survey is the high prevalence of lack of personal interest among the 6-15-year old OSY as the reason for not attending school. The rate is at 46.6 percent and is more prevalent among boys. While incidence is smaller for the 16-24-year old OSY at 21.2 percent, the pervasiveness of lack of personal interest towards schooling among OSY is worrying.

On the demand side, perhaps OSY have underestimated the economic value of education. For actual investment on human capital to take place, costs should at least match the expected returns. The incidence of lack of personal interest could imply that the gains in productivity owed to education are hardly reflected in wages. Signaling theory supports this, stating that education does not necessarily improve a person’s productivity but merely uses it to signal that he or she possesses high productivity. In reality, however, this may not apply as there has been evidence that increments to wages has been at 15 percent for an additional year of schooling in the Philippines, higher than the average 5 percent return in the 28 country samples used by Trostel, Walker, and Woolley in their study(see Trostel, P., Walker, I. & Woolley, P. (2002). Estimates of the economic returns to schooling for 28 countries. Labour Economics, 9, 1-16.).

A look on the supply side of the problem may shed clearer indications. It could be that schools are ineffective in addressing the needs of students. One of the biggest problems in the local public school system is congestion. More often, this problem is construed as thinning the quality of education. Both shortages of classrooms and teachers could have robbed
students’ passion for learning.

The trend in OSY incidence should be reversed. Failure to educate the youth could cost an opportunity to enhance economic growth and trim poverty. On the condition that higher educational attainment fosters more rapid economic growth, it is investments in education now –particularly in comprehensive scholarship programs, school buildings, and quality teaching– that sustains investments in human capital towards higher economic in the future.

According to the results of the 2010 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey, Sixteen percent of the estimated 39 million Filipinos 6 to 24 years old are Out-of-School-Youth (OSY). In this report, OSY refers to family members 6 to 17 years old who are not attending formal school and family members 18 to 24 years old who are currently out of school, not gainfully employed and have not finished college or post-secondary course.

Among the regions, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao has the highest percentage of OSYs of about 24 percent of the population aged 6 to 24 years, followed by Davao (19%) and Caraga and Central Luzon, with 18 percent each. Cordillera Administrative Region has the lowest percentage of OSYs (10%). The proportion of OSYs among females is higher than among males (17% and 14%, respectively). One-fifth of the total OSYs belong to the bottom 10 percent per capita income stratum.

The reason for not attending varies by age and sex of OSY. Among OSYs who are 6 to 12 years old, lack of personal interest and too young to go to school are two leading reasons, for both males and females. Lack of personal interest is also the commonly cited reason for OSYs who are 13 to 17 years of age, followed by high cost of education. For OSYs aged 18 to 24, looking for work was also cited as a main reason among males, and marriage, among females.

The APIS is a nationwide survey conducted during the years when the Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES) is not carried out. For a full sample survey, the number of sample is around 50,000 households. This 2010 APIS
round, only half of the sample size was used.

Of the 21,023 eligible sample households for the 2010 APIS, 20,103 were successfully interviewed. This translated to a response rate of 95.6 percent at the national level. Households which were not interviewed either refused to be interviewed or were not available or were away during the enumeration period.

According to the website of Government Congress, A lawmaker has called for a congressional inquiry into the increasing number of out-of-school youths, which has already reached 6.2 million based on the latest report of the National Statistics Office (NSO).

Rep. Ma. Theresa Bonoan-David (4th District, Manila) filed House Resolution 2511 urging the House Committee on Basic Education and Culture to find ways and means to curb the alarming increase in the number of out of school youths in the country.

In its 2011 report, the NSO said about 6.24 million out of the estimated 39 million Filipinos whose ages range from 6 to 24 years old are considered as out-of-school youth.
Bonoan-David said the NSO report in 2011 is much higher than the 14.7 percent or 4.8 million OSYs recorded in the 2002 Annual Poverty Indicators Survey (APIS).
“The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) continues to have the highest number of OSY Filipinos at 23.6 percent or almost 404,000 of the population aged 6 to 24 years old,” Bonoan-David said.

Likewise, the NSO reported that 28.9 percent of the OSY did not pursue their studies due to the high cost of education while 27.5 percent was for lack of interest.
“Some OSYs need to work to augment their family income while others in the ARMM stop due to armed conflict,” Bonoan-David said.
Bonoan-David said the State recognizes the youth as key agents of socio-economic development and technological innovation in the country and
as such, should provide for mechanisms which would make them avail of a decent education, which would eventually make them indispensible contributors to national growth and progress.

“With the tough competition for jobs even among college graduates, the door to a decent job will seem closed to OSYs forever, if no one lifts a finger to help the country’s out-of-school youth,” Bonoan-David said.

Bonoan-David said the Constitution declares that the State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.

“The State shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism accelerate social progress and promote total human liberation and development,” Bonoan-David said.

What are the government actions concerning OSY?

According to Arthur Quinto of OFFCAM magazine, “Filipinos are enjoying free elementary and secondary education in the Philippines, and some cases, free tertiary education. The government sees to it that a great part of the budget goes to education and in this case, the public schools are mostly prioritized because most of those who go to these schools are those who belong to the less fortunate”. According to Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

B. The Right to Education
Section 1, article XIV of the Constitution provides that:
The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all. Section 2 of the same article further provides that state shall: 1) Establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society; 2) Establish and maintain a system of free public education in the
elementary and high school levels. Without limiting the natural right of parent to rear their children, elementary education is compulsory for all children of school age; 3) Establish and maintain a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies, and other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private schools, especially to the underprivileged 4) Encourage non-formal, informal, and indigenous learning systems, as well as self learning , independent, and out-of-school study programs particularly those that respond to community needs; and 5) Provide adult citizens, the disabled and out-of-school youth with training in civics, vocational efficiency, and other skills.

The National Youth Commission launched a nationwide profiling system for out-of-school youth in an effort to bring them back to school – either the formal or alternative kind. A list of 16 to 30-year-olds who never graduated from elementary and high school will be made. The enlisting program, entitled “Abot-Alam” is the first step in the effort to reintegrate them into the education system. The project is a three-year undertaking to create a comprehensive database of out-of-school youth that would identify who they are, and the possible ways to help them. It will be undertaken through the local barangays. The youth can also register online. Once enlisted, the youth will be referred to the Department of Education, Commission on Higher Education, or the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority for reintegration.

According to the magazine of DOLE by Mark Jaime L. Cerdenia, emphasizing the SPES’s thrust to develop and harness the work capabilities of underprivileged students, Baldoz said out-of-school youth can also avail of the DOLE’s employment bridging program to gain skills and workplace experience regardless of their educational background.

“ The program may be popularly known as ‘employment of student’s, but the DOLE’s magnifies its objective to reach and prepare more youth at a greater scale, especially those disadvantaged and dependents of displaced, or about to be displaced, workers at the local level,” Baldoz said.

“The summer, the SPES’s provide opportunities not only to students, but also to all out-of-school youth as a program aims to provide a channel for deprived, yet hard-working, young people from all walks of life towards short-term, yet rewarding, employment and experience as long as they meet the requirements under the SPES act,” she added.

According to Inquirer website, The National Youth Commission (NYC) on Friday launched a nationwide profiling system for out-of-school youth in a bid to bring them back to school—either the formal or alternative kind. The government, through the barangays, will be making a list of 16 to 30-year-olds who never graduated from elementary and high school. It is estimated that there are around four million out of school youth throughout the country, said Leon Flores III, NYC chair. The enlisting program, entitled “Abot-Alam” is the first step in the effort to reintegrate them into the education system, the NYC said.

The database will be a tool to identify who they are, and the possible ways to help them, Flores said. “The number (of out-of-school youth) is alarming,” Flores told the Inquirer during the launch of the program at Barangay Pinyahan in Quezon City.

The project is a three-year undertaking to create a comprehensive database of out-of-school youth. It will be undertaken through the local barangays, with the barangay chairs or Sangguniang Kabataan chairs coordinating the effort. The youth can also register online. “The Philippines is lagging behind other countries in giving access to education to its people, that’s why we should start to act upon this problem now,” said Flores, noting that the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) should be seen by the government as a tool for better reforms.

Universal access to education is one of the millennium goals targeted by 2015. Once enlisted, the youth will be referred to the Department of Education (DepEd), Commission on Higher Education (CHEd), or the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (Tesda) for reintegration. The three agencies will be responsible for finding the appropriate modality for
the enlisted youth, whether she or he would be brought back to formal schooling or be given technical training, Flores said.

According to a study by the NYC in 2010, six out of 10 youths say they would like to go back to school if given the chance. Barangay Pinyahan, the pilot-testing venue for the project, has around 1,000 out-of-school youth, said Pinyahan barangay chair Zeus Lipinca Jr.

“This is the chance for the youth to continue their schooling,” said Lipinca, who himself dropped out of school then enrolled in an alternative learning system of the DepEd.
This phase of the three-year NYC program is called the “Community Reintegration Program.” Included in this phase are formal and alternative modes such as the Alternative Learning System, Kariton Klasrum, radio-based instruction and computer-based instruction, among others.

Angara, according to a report on Radyo Inquirer 990AM Monday, said there are three million out of school youths that should be trained to become useful citizens.

What are the results of government actions?
Individuals become a competitive to find job. Individual seek a better life for themselves and their family. It decreases the numbers of out of school youth.

Baldoz reported that the DOLE and the TESDA have converged the special program for the employment of student s and the TWSP to benefit 3,699 marginalized out-of-school youth nationwide by providing them the opportunity to earn while attending skills training, according to Karen R. Serrano of DOLE magazine.

Conclusion
According to the Webster Dictionary,” Education is the process of learning and training; instruction as imparted in schools, colleges, and universities; a course or type of instruction; the theory and practice of
teaching.”

Nobody can deny the hard fact that education is an extremely important factor for bringing change in the lives of individuals. It has universally been re-cognized as the most powerful instrument for gearing up the socio-economic development of the nation

Increasing number of out of school youth is very alarming. The out-of-school youth is potentially one of the most neglected groups in the country and most thinly spread in NGOs or government organizations. Organizations are focused on other groups that are apparently in more immediate need or in more imminent danger. So this group, aged 18-25 years, who are for all intents and purposes legally adults, are left drowning or clutching at straws for life opportunities with poor academic records to offer the work market.

“This is the chance for the youth to continue their schooling,” said Lipinca, who himself dropped out of school then enrolled in an alternative learning system of the DepEd.
This phase of the three-year NYC program is called the “Community Reintegration Program.” Included in this phase are formal and alternative modes such as the Alternative Learning System, Kariton Klasrum, radio-based instruction and computer-based instruction, among others.

For you, who would be the most responsible in this increasing and having out of school youth? Are you aware in this issue?

Recommendations

Governments should adopt and promote the concept of ‘young people for young people’ and encourage young people in schooling to undertake community-based initiatives that encourage school participation. Make volunteer tutoring of primary school aged children part of the secondary school curriculum. Projects where young people take initiative to enhance education and teach other young people should be showcased, and funding should be made available
to replicate them in other communities. Ensure young people have the opportunity to contribute to their own curriculum through the creation of student school councils. Education should be understood as a means to not just get a job, but to help foster positive generations of youth. Educational policy should include Sexual and Reproductive Health, Democracy and Human Rights. Increase the prospects for further learning, personal development and Employment

Bibliography

Arthur Quinto, ”Best things in life are free” OFFCAM, Vol. 2 No.14, August – September 2009, P. 28.

Fe Antaro, Human Right: The Philippine Perspective, 1991, p. 13-14

Geddes & Grosset, Webster‘s Universal Dictionary and Thesaurus, David Dale House,New Lanark ML11 9DJ Scotland, 2002.

Karen R. Serrano,“2012 A Barner Year for the DOLE”, Philippine Labor, Vol. XXXI No. 4, October – December 2012, p. 3.

Mark Jaime L. Cerdenia,“2012 Labor Day”, Philippine Labor, Vol. XXXI No. 2, April – June 2012, p. 12.

R. O. Elloso, “The youth: Our country’s hope”, Manila Bulletin Publishing Corporation, July 7, 2013, p.

Websites:
http://reasonoutofschoolyouth.blogspot.com/
http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/411807/4m-youth-to-get-second-chance-at-education#ixzz2cg83rfIk
http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/356531/rep-angara-out-school-youth-sector-an-asset-to-ph-economy-if#ixzz2cgAFvfAh http://www.philstar.com/business/770899/giving-hope-out-school-youth
http://www.google.com.ph/?gws_rd=cr&ei=aX82UuO5EZDrrAfSlIHYDg#q=out+of+school

Cite this Out of school youth

Out of school youth. (2016, May 05). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/out-of-school-youth/

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