Abstraction: In Malaysia, there is no research done specifically on roll uping building productiveness informations to function as a guideline and criterions for usage by all participants in the building industry. Similar to JKR, as the largest implementers ‘ of authorities undertakings, the current pattern on blessing the agenda of plants that submitted by contractors are largely based on the applied scientists ‘gut ‘ feeling/opinion and past experience. There is no standard process and guidelines to reexamine and look intoing the continuance and resources allotment in each activity in contractor ‘s work plan.
As an attempt, this survey will get down with concentrating on the designation of factors that act uponing roofing plants productiveness in building undertaking. Those factors can be obtained through a series of statistical analysis based on the informations collected from questionnaire and interview with the experts. Datas from old undertakings besides really of import in order to acquire the existent productiveness rate for roof plants. Finally, the expected determination for this survey will be: a ) List of factors that influence the productiveness rate for roof plants, B ) The critical factors impacting most to productiveness rate for roofing plants, degree Celsius ) A prosodies of productiveness rate for roof plants as a criterion and guideline for bettering JKR undertakings scheduling.
Pull offing building undertakings ever requires changeless monitoring of undertaking public presentation and the updating on undertaking agenda. Undertaking public presentation informations and productiveness informations from the building field is a cardinal function in measuring and foretelling undertaking public presentation in term of cost and agenda. Harmonizing to Motwani et Al. ( 1995 ) , the productiveness in building has ever been really hard to mensurate and command. Even though, productiveness in building hard to mensurate, there is a demand to utilize it for timely determinations and cut down the negative impacts on cost and agenda. Therefore, the integrating of historical productiveness informations with the ongoing public presentation informations in building field are required ( Hwang and Liu, 2005 ) .
Hwang and Liu, ( 2009 ) presented that an accurate productiveness anticipation is of import for pull offing building undertakings. In fact, a building undertaking is normally to be successful when it is presenting within its budget and timeline. The planning and control procedure besides explains the importance of accurate productiveness estimation which foremost, gauging clip and cost of building activities that necessarily requires productiveness estimations ( Hinze, 1998 ) , and 2nd, incorporate direction of clip and cost must involved productiveness factor ( Dawood and Molson, 1997 ) .
There are most old surveies concentrating on specifying factors influence productiveness and measurement limited parts of activities at micro degree to look into the relationship between factors and productiveness. A standard building productiveness metric system that more dependable is a critical component in building productiveness public presentation rating and betterment procedure. There need a tool to drive public presentation betterment through internal and external benchmarking. Park, et al. , ( 2005 ) nowadays that nowadays, demand from the building industry on developing acceptable building productiveness prosodies and standardised productiveness informations are the chief issues to concentrate by the industry participants and researches.
As the chief proficient bureaus for the Government of Malaysia, Public Work Department ( PWD ) or Jabatan Kerja Raya ( JKR ) entrusted to implement development undertakings throughout the state. It is the end of JKR to guarantee that the organisation is run expeditiously and efficaciously in order to accomplish the vision, mission and aims of the section. JKR is responsible to guarantee that all the undertakings must be implemented good, finish on clip, within the budget and supply quality merchandises. In 9th Malayan Plan ( RMK 9 ) , most of JKR undertakings can non be deliver on clip. For illustration, approximately 41 % of undertakings in JKR Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur can non be presenting on clip which is most of it are due to wrongly gauge the continuance of the building activities in undertaking programming. It is besides sing to deficiency of competence of JKR officers in reexamining and giving advice to contractors particularly in fixing realistic undertaking ‘s work plan. This job can be categorized as serious affair and give high impact to the overall public presentation of JKR due to unsatisfaction of client with JKR ‘s repute. As the biggest proficient authorities bureau, there should be a manner to work out the job so that it will better JKR image and give high repute to the clients.
1 Master Student, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
2 Supervisor, Professor Dr, Lecturer of Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
There should be a standard productiveness rate of each activity in the undertaking in order to steer the contractor and the JKR supervising squad to program and implement the undertakings successfully. Therefore, the survey on productiveness rate of roof plants for edifice undertaking scheduling as an attempt and get downing point to develop the standard productiveness rate of undertaking activities for JKR ‘s undertakings. In fact, this survey is consistent with JKR schemes and action program in accomplishing Effective Implementation of Malaysia 5 – Old ages Plan particularly to guarantee that undertakings are implemented through appropriate execution methodological analysiss to run into client demands and results. One of the action programs stated in JKR Strategic Framework is to set up effectual undertaking public presentation tracking system which is JKR must analysing all informations that related to the undertaking in order to better JKR undertaking execution ( JKR, 2007 ) .
The purpose of this survey is to set up the productiveness rate of roof plants for JKR edifice undertakings scheduling. In order to accomplish this, the following are the aims of the survey:
To place the factors that influence the productiveness of roof plants
To set up the relationship between influence factors and productiveness of roof plants
To develop a prosodies of productiveness rate for roof plants
Scope of Study
There are certain restrictions to be follow to guarantee that this survey is completed within the clip frame given. First, this survey merely takes into consideration on all undertakings which implement in cardinal part of Peninsular Malaysia i.e. undertakings in JKR Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur and JKR Selangor. Second, the sample for this survey is concentrate merely in school undertakings which are the most of JKR undertakings execution in 9th Malayan Plan. Since standard design was utilizing in school undertakings, the country of roof is fixed. This given the standardisation to gauge the productiveness rate for roofing plants mentioning to the floor country involved.
Roof trusses in building undertakings can be classified in lumber roof trusses, hot rolled roof trusses, cold signifier roof trusses and etc. The 3rd restriction of this survey is merely taking into consideration of the cold signifier roof trusses because most of the school undertakings are utilizing this type of trusses. In add-on, JKR already has a list of 22 names of cold signifier roof trusses providers which their design have been reviewed and approved by the JKR Structure Expert Division. This list is for the JKR officers in province and territory office to take for their undertakings particularly school undertakings. Forth, portion of roof covering for this survey merely take into consideration one ( 1 ) types which is concrete roof tiles including insularities.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
Recently, building productiveness is on a long-run slide and it is recognized as industry challenge. System, people, stuffs, information and energy must flux efficaciously and expeditiously to bring forth its aim at high productiveness to finish building at lowest possible cost with possible shortest timeframe ( Picard, 2005 ) . Productivity is critically of import in building industry. Many research workers have expressed their concern over productiveness in building industry. Specifying productiveness is non a simple undertaking to everybody. Different people will give different definition and apprehension. Most of them agreed that marketable end product was basically the chief step used.
Increased productiveness was a prima concern to all Committee stakeholders such as users, contractors, and building labour brotherhoods and led by the proprietor. The building users emphasized the demand of roll uping informations straight relevant to productivity betterment. The Committee was concluded that the front-line building foreman/supervisor would be a dependable beginning of information. These sources would be asked to supply their judgement of the greatest hindrances to a productive building undertaking ( Tucker, 2003 ) .
Definition of productiveness
Within these several decennaries, many research workers have defined the productiveness term in their surveies in a figure of ways. The term productiveness has different significances to different people. Many persons automatically think merely of labour brotherhoods when the term “ productiveness ” is mentioned. Others associate capital outgos with the term. Each of these readings is merely partially right ( Adrian, 1993 ) . Many research workers have attempted to specify exactly the significance of productiveness and below are some of it that referred from their surveies:
Oglesby et Al. ( 1989 ) , presented that productiveness can be defined as “ in-place value divided by inputs ” . Some research workers have defined it as works-hours divided by the tantamount measure of work. In building, productiveness usually can be understood as work measure divided by man-hours ( or work-hours ) consumed to carry through the work.
Productivity = Work Quantity Man-hours
Harmonizing to Dolman, Parham, & A ; Zheng, ( 2007 ) , productiveness is a step in order to cognize how much end product is produced per unit of input.
Diewert & A ; Lawrence, ( 2006 ) presented that productiveness can be defined as the degree of economic end product per unit of input and besides per worker. Productivity is of import to the wealth and wellbeing of a state and give attempts to better productiveness occur at all degrees of society.
Thomas and Mathew, ( 1986 ) presented that no standardised productiveness definition had been established in the building industry. It is hard to specify a standard productiveness step because companies use their ain systems which are non standardized. Association merely illustrates the productiveness between an end product and an input. The signifier has been widely used and bing in literature over the old ages in building industry is ; Productivity = Input/Output
2.3 Measurement of productiveness
There is contention environing productiveness that rooted in the differences in informations aggregation. It is due to incorrect in presuming productiveness measured uniformly and that all published productiveness values have the same footing ( Whiteside, 2006 ) . Overall construct of productiveness is hard to show or to mensurate. It is sometimes expressed either in footings of end product from labour or from services or from capital invested. These parts of looks frequently do non give an accurate image of the overall place. Although, there are measurings of some or all of the inputs and end products of the industry but they still failed to unite these measurings into any satisfactory step of efficiency. In fact, the ratio is easy to calculate if the unit uses a individual input to bring forth a individual end product ( Choy, 2008 ) .
Although there are Numberss of publications exist on building productiveness, there is no in agreement upon definition of work activities nor a standard productiveness measuring system. Most of research workers have concluded that it is hard to obtain a standard method to mensurate building labour productiveness because of undertaking complexness and alone features of the building undertakings ( Oglesby et al. 1989 ) . The uniqueness and non repetitive of operation in building undertakings make it is hard to develop a standard productiveness definition and step ( Sweis, 2000 ) .
Factors influence productiveness in building
Lim et al. , ( 1995 ) has studied that factors impacting productiveness in the building industry in Singapore, indicated the jobs impacting productiveness were trouble with enlisting of supervisors, trouble with enlisting of workers, high rate of labour turnover, absenteeism from the work site and communicating jobs with the foreign workers. Olomolaiye et al. , ( 1996 ) besides studied that factors impacting productiveness of craftsmen in Indonesia show the findings bespeaking craftsmen in this state spent 75 % of their clip working fruitfully. There are five specific productiveness jobs were identified such as deficiency of stuffs, rework, absenteeism, deficiency of equipment and tools.
Kane et al. , ( cited in Herbsman et al. , 1990 ) has classified the factors impacting building productiveness into two chief groups which is technological factors and administrative factors. The technological factors involved those related to the design of the undertaking and the administrative group factors are related to the direction and building of the undertaking. Technological factors are comprises of sub-groups such as design factors, material factors and location factors. Administrative factors are comprises of sub-groups, such as building methods and procedural factors, equipment factors, labour factors and societal factors. Based on Heizer and Render ( 1990 ) , they classified that factors act uponing site productiveness into 3 groups which are labour characteristic factors, undertaking work conditions factors and non-productive activities. Olomolaiye et al. , ( 1998 ) besides stated that factors impacting building productiveness are seldom changeless and may change from state to state, from undertaking to project and even within the same undertaking which are depending on fortunes. They classified the factors act uponing building productiveness into 2 classs which are external and internal. That means its stand foring those outside the control of the house ‘s direction and those arising within the house. The external factors included the nature of the industry, building client cognition of building process, conditions and degree of economic development. The internal factors included direction, engineering, labour and labour brotherhoods.
Choi, ( 2007 ) , stated that based on his determination, conditions and hapless communicating prove to be the greatest hindrance to roofing productiveness, whereas the field workers pointed out that roof pitch, tallness and age of the roof along conditions were major causes for deficiency of productiveness in their occupation at site. He besides stressed that roofing contractor by and large non see safety as a high precedence in their concern.
Metrics – an overview
Harmonizing to Melnyk et al. , ( 2004 ) , they stated that prosodies are fulfill with the cardinal activities mensurating ( measuring how we are making ) , educating ( pass oning what is of import and how we intend to present value to our clients ) and directing ( flagging possible jobs by size of spread between the prosodies and criterions ) . Ideally, prosodies are consistent with the manner operation delivers value to the clients. Based on Melnyk et al. , ( 2005 ) , they presented that metric is a verifiable step which consists of three elements such as ; a ) the specific step, B ) the criterion ( the numerical values that identifies the minimal threshold of public presentation, and degree Celsius ) the environment which the activity or individual being measured operates.
In order to accomplish the aims, Figure 1.1 illustrated the conventional of research methodological analysis for this survey. By and large, it consists of four distinguishable stages, which are phase 1, stage 2, stage 3 and phase 4.
3.1 Phase 1
Choice of the subject has been done after gone through JKR listing of significance subjects that can lend to section as a whole. Subject of the survey and proposed productiveness rate of roof plants is of import to JKR edifice undertaking scheduling to guarantee all undertaking can be completed on clip with good quality. Based on old research workers, there are several measurings on productiveness rate in building. This survey will be concentrating on the designation of factors that act uponing roofing plants productiveness in JKR undertakings. From this scenario, the aims of this survey has been identified which are placing of factors influence, the relationship and the set uping productiveness rate of roof plants. In such manner, the focal point of this subject must be in line with survey restriction.
In order to beef up cognition and thoughts in this research country, extended reading from diaries and books must be exhaustively done. Besides that, preliminary site observation has been conducted to the selected site. Furthermore, the preliminary interview was conducted to acquire overview information about productiveness rate of roof plants. Due to clip restraint, the observation has been done merely for school undertakings.
3.2 Phase 2
A few samples of surveies will be placing intentionally for running through the method of productiveness measuring for acquiring accurate and practical informations. Observation on measure of roof plants per adult male hours should be executing at site. During observation at site, interview with the expert is use as a tool to roll up information informations on how the productiveness rate of roof plants can be estimate and what are the factors influences the productiveness rate
Several interviewees will be selected based on making and experienced more than 10 old ages particularly contractors and providers. Beside that, questionnaire will be distributed to proficient individual such as supervisor, applied scientist, director and contractors to obtain their sentiment in term of productiveness rate of roof plants.
3.3 Phase 3
In this phase, all the information from the questionnaires and interviews will roll up. The information will be analyze consequently and transform into productiveness rate. Data analyzing, there will be a verification on what are the factors influence productiveness rate of roof plants will be acquiring through informations analysing, while standard productiveness rate prosodies of roof plants will be bring forthing after transform all the information into productiveness rate by utilizing appropriate statistical analysis.
3.4 Phase 4
Infusion from informations obtained in Phase 3, some proposal or recommendation will be highlighted in order to heighten a prosodies of standard productiveness rate for future edifice undertaking programming.
The expected consequences of this survey in following semester are:
a ) List of factors that influence the productiveness rate for roof plants,
B ) The critical factors impacting most to productiveness rate for roofing plants,
degree Celsius ) A prosodies of productiveness rate for roof plants as a criterion and guideline for bettering JKR undertakings scheduling.
Choice of Topic
Identify the Objective and Scope
Preliminary Site Observation
Objective. ( degree Celsius )
Objective. ( B )
Objective. ( a )
Identify the factors influence
Observation on measure of works/ adult male hours
Interview with Experts
Choosing several experts with experience more than 10 old ages
Figure 1.1: Conventional of Research Methodology
The undermentioned tabular array is the probationary agenda for concluding undertaking in following semester:
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