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Race and Ethnicity Construction in Journal Articles

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                Social construction is the method by which there is a construction or invention of by society. An example of social construction is the social status. The constituents of the society are the one who determines the status of a person in the society. If a family that experiences a high income and standard of living than the other families then it could mean that they have been established to the higher societal status. In this paper, it will delve into how and where race or ethnicity is socially constructed through the help of media. Race is the residential identification and ethnicity is origin of a person. With the help of media, the formation of race and ethnicity is hastened (McLafferty & Chakrabarti, 2009)

                In the article of Karla Hackstaff entitled “Who Are We? Genealogists Negotiating Ethno-Racial Identities” in 2009, she discussed on how the race and ethnicity could be influenced by genetics and biological structure. The article discussed some cases about indifferences between biological and social construction of race and ethnicity. It said that when the genetic source of person was spread in the media, around 200,000 Americans per year applied fro the program. It posed the question which of the two is more important to define one’s race and ethnicity. One example cited in the text is the case of a woman living in black community having a major genetic trace of a Chinese origin and minor African. If social construction would be taken into consideration, then her race and ethnicity would be African. But if it is biological construction, then she will be considered as Chinese. (Hackstaff, 2009)
    Another article conveying social construction about race is the work of Katherine Krull entitled “Shared Memories, Common Vision: Generations, Sociopolitical Consciousness and Resistance among Cuban Women” in 2009. It discussed on how there is a difference between the social views of the young and older Cuban women. In a certain situation about their views of the existing racism in the media of their society, the older women blindly believe that there is no racism while the younger women believe otherwise. The older women did not have an access to modern media than younger women. One can infer that this could be the result of the Cuban revolution. Because of the revolution, a new liberal race of the Cuban women has been constructed. (Krull & Kobayashi, 2009) It could mean that key social incidents propagated by the media influence a creation of a race.
    According to the article of Lloyd Lawhorn entitled “The Neighborhood Unit: Physical Design or Physical Determinism?” in 2009, neighborhood units are tends to invite people with the same race and ethnicity to live in the neighborhood. The media heightens the information dissemination about neighborhood units and speeds up the gathering of the same race and ethnicity. (Lawhon, 2009) A neighborhood placing unit is a scheme that groups families that shares the same quality, race or social status. Race and ethnicity tends to be a primary factor for neighborhood units.
    “Trying to get it right: What prison staff say about implementing race relations policy” by Jon Spencer in 2009 depicts that there is a need to improve race relations within a prison. It was said by the prison administration interviewed that race policies has helped improve the peace and orderliness of the prison mates. Race policies within the prison effectiveness were also determined by the propagation of the policy in different media devices. (Spencer, Haslewood-pócsik, & Smith, 2009) It is indeed that the social construction of race brings about orderliness within a society.
    Race and ethnicity is socially constructed by the citizens from the commonality with one another. Commonality is the start of communication. When a two person live besides each other and share a same characteristic such as race or ethnicity, then it is likely for them to communicate. Proper communication leads to peace and order just like the prisons with proper race policies. (Spencer, et al., 2009) Media, on the other hand, is a major factor of the promulgation of a certain race and ethnicity. With media, the formation of a race and ethnicity is sped up. Race and ethnicity can be socially determined mostly through his environment and slightly by genes. (Hackstaff, 2009) New branches of a race and ethnicity can be developed through certain social incidents, sensationalized by the media, such as a people’s revolution due to its liberal impact on preferences of the people.
    The paper cited some of the examples of where and how race and ethnicity was formed and intensified by media.  Race and ethnicity is socially constructed in the need for people to communicate and interact. Because of this media is an inevitable need for the formation of race and ethnicity. By finding people with the same race and ethnicity, a society can be made. Race and ethnicity can be socially determined and altered through the media. (Tredoux & Dixon, 2009) Determining social construction of race and ethnicity through the proliferation of media is an important factor in maintaining harmony within the society.
    (The instruction said to include the 10 articles used for the paper. Please copy and paste from the library the abstract or short description about the article. The reference is already completed.)
    1.      Who Are We? Genealogists Negotiating Ethno-Racial Identities
    by Karla Hackstaff

    Shared Memories, Common Vision: Generations, Sociopolitical Consciousness and Resistance among Cuban Women
    by Catherine Krull

    The Neighborhood Unit: Physical Design or Physical Determinism?
    by Larry Lloyd Lawhon

    4.      ‘Trying to get it right’: What prison staff say about implementing race relations policy
    by Spencer Jon

    5.      Ethnic Awareness, Prejudice, and Civic Commitments in Four Ethnic Groups of American Adolescents
    by Constance Flanagan

    6.      Placing racism in public health: a perspective from Aotearoa/New Zealand
    by Robin Kearns

    7.      Mapping the Multiple Contexts of Racial Isolation: The Case of Long Street, Cape Town by Colin Getty Tredoux

    8.      Locating diversity: race, nativity and place in health disparities research
    by Sara McLafferty

    9.      Understanding African American Men’s Perceptions of Racism, Male Gender Socialization, and Social Capital through Photovoice
    by India Ornelas

    10.  Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Social Class in Research Reports on Stigma in HIV-Positive Women
    by Margarete Sandelowski

    REFERENCES
    Flanagan, C. A., Syvertsen, A. K., Gill, S., Gallay, L. S., & Cumsille, P. (2009). Ethnic Awareness, Prejudice, and Civic Commitments in Four Ethnic Groups of American Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescenc, 38(4), 500-519.

    Hackstaff, K. (2009). Who Are We? Genealogists Negotiating Ethno-Racial Identities Qualitative Sociology, 32(2), 173-194.

    Kearns, R., Moewaka-Barnes, H., & McCreanor, T. (2009). Placing racism in public health: a perspective from Aotearoa/New Zealand. Geojournal, 74(2), 123-129.

    Krull, C., & Kobayashi, A. (2009). Shared Memories, Common Vision: Generations, Sociopolitical Consciousness and Resistance among Cuban Women. Social Inquiry, 79(2), 163-189.

    Lawhon, L. L. (2009). The Neighborhood Unit: Physical Design or Physical Determinism? Journal Of Planning History, 8(2), 111-132.

    McLafferty, S., & Chakrabarti, R. (2009). Locating diversity: race, nativity and place in health disparities research. Geojournal, 74(2), 107-113.

    Ornelas, I. J., Amell, J., Tran, A. N., Royster, M., Armstrong-Brown, J., & Eng, E. (2009). Understanding African American Men’s Perceptions of Racism, Male Gender Socialization, and Social Capital through Photovoice. Qualitative Health Research, 19(4), 552-565.

    Sandelowski, M., Barroso, J., & Voils, C. (2009). Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Social Class in Research Reports on Stigma in HIV-Positive Women. Health Care for Women International, 30(4), 273.

    Spencer, J., Haslewood-pócsik, I., & Smith, E. (2009). ‘Trying to get it right’: What prison staff say about implementing race relations policy. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 9(2), 187-206.

    Tredoux, C. G., & Dixon, J. A. (2009). Mapping the Multiple Contexts of Racial Isolation: The Case of Long Street, Cape Town. Urban Studies, 46(4), 761-777.

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