There are several types of budgeting system and techniques being implemented by Malayan Government since 1960s. Budgeting system is referred to the methods or the techniques of how a budget was prepared and presented. Different budgeting system will use different attacks for planning, commanding and rating functions of budgeting. The budgeting systems that being performed are Line Budgeting System, Program and Performance Budgeting System ( PPBS ) , Modified Budgeting System ( MBS ) , and Outcome Based Budgeting ( OBB ) .
Budgetary reform focused on greater answerability and fiscal subject among the assorted authorities bureaus entrusted to transport out the socioeconomic development programs for the state. In add-on to greater public sector answerability and improved budgetary system public presentation, the authorities undertook a figure of extra reforms including improved fiscal conformity, quality direction, productiveness, efficiency in governmental operations, and direction of national development attempts.
Budget reform had been on the Malayan authorities docket for over two decennaries. Malaysia ‘s budget reform attempts have been closely linked with the attempts at state edifice and planetary fight associated with Vision 2020 which is a plan aimed at doing Malaysia a to the full developed state by the twelvemonth 2020.
Reformation Budgeting System in Malaysia
Malaysia budgeting system reforms were initiated in the sixtiess as portion of an attempt by the authorities to strategically develop the state. The past two decennaries have witnessed a turning involvement in public presentation direction and budgeting reforms, in response to louder public demands for authorities answerability in industrial states. These reforms are intended to transform public budgeting systems from control of inputs to a focal point on end products or results, in the involvement of bettering operational efficiency and advancing results-oriented answerability. These experiences have important relevancy for public sector reforms in developing states.
Line point Budgeting System
Government Malaysia was started to utilize Line Item Budgeting System after independent. Malaysia adopted Line Item Budgeting System start from twelvemonth 1960 until 1968. Line Item Budgeting System is a merely list that itemizes every point in a budget. Line Item Budgeting System is chiefly a tool for commanding outgos. The intent of Line Item Budgeting System is to do the budget a tool for fiscal conformity. This method is comparatively easy to utilize and understand.
Line Item Budgeting System is a traditional method that prepares a budget by utilizing the old twelvemonth ‘s budget as base. Line Item Budgeting System emphasizes inputs and provides information on how much is spent and how it is spent instead than what for it is spent. It does non associate inputs with end products, and therefore state nil about how expeditiously resources are used. The major unfavorable judgment of Line Item Budgeting System is it does non cover with cardinal issues of authorities aims, their links to the budget, the services to be delivered by the authorities. This budgeting system does non supply the information related to the maps and activities of a plan and section.
Because this system is non capable plenty to warrant the current fiscal state of affairs and to accomplish budget aims, Line Item Budgeting System has been replaced since 1969 with a new budgeting system, Program and Performance Budgeting System ( PPBS ) .
Program and Performance Budgeting System ( PPBS )
Program and Performance Budgeting System ( PPBS ) was foremost introduced and adopted in Malaysia in 1969. The development of Program and Performance Budgeting System in Malaysia from its beginning in 1969, through the in-depth execution stage which began in 1972, to the present twenty-four hours. It outlines the system in the Ministry of Health, where PPBS has been extensively developed and remarks on the systems established in other in-depth ministries, in several of which small appears to hold been achieved. In 1981 all other bureaus were asked to follow PPB in their budget entries.
Malaysia implemented the PPBS in 1969 through to 1990. The focal point of the budgetary procedure was on line points although information on the public presentation of plan was available. Budget procedure was used more as a tool for financess disbursement instead than a strategic direction tool.
In 1990, a new budget system was introduced in order to get the better of the failing of PPBS. The system has been adopted after PPBS is Modified Budget System ( MBS ) .
Modified Budget System ( MBS )
The Malayan authorities introduced a Modified Budget System ( MBS ) for the 1990 one-year runing budget readying with the issue of Treasury Circular No.11 of 1988. The Modified Budgeting System besides known as the Malaysia Budgeting System. The Modified Budgeting System is a system of direction designed to set up logical linkages on the relationship between inputs, end products and impacts. MBS was implemented with the expressed aims of seeking to better resources allotment by conveying approximately more efficient direction of authorities plans by manner of improved answerability.
MBS was foremost introduced in three ( 3 ) pilot Ministries, these being the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Work and Ministry of Social Welfare ( Malaysia Treasury 1988 ) . The MBS was implemented in other authorities organisations in 1992. The MBS was developed to antagonize failings as in the Program and Performance Budgeting System ( PPBS ) , which has been in topographic point 1969 and besides to present several reform mechanisms to heighten consequences based answerability. The chief principals and aims of the MBS for bettering the fiscal direction of authorities organisations are to better and overhaul the procedure of resource allotment on the footing of public presentation, to depute greater authorization over the direction to a lower degree of direction as operable, and to present a consequence oriented and cost effectual direction.
Government Malaysian was implemented MBS from twelvemonth 1990 boulder clay now. But MBS still have some job that can be better to be better. The jobs of MBS are:
Over-emphasis on the proficient facets and disregard of human variables.
Small attending to develop understanding, receptiveness and capableness in utilizing informations.
Inadequate support from top degree decision makers.
Lack of trained staff.
Inadequate support from the Treasury itself.
Trained staff being promoted to unrelated occupations.
To work out the job of MBS, Government Malaysian was be aftering to implement a new budgeting system. Government Malaysian hope that the new budgeting system, Outcome Based Budgeting ( OOB ) can adopted within the following three old ages in public sector.
Outcome Based Budgeting ( OOB )
The Second Finance Minister, Datuk Seri Ahmad Husni Hanadzlah said that there have five ( 5 ) selected ministries will be use Outcome Based Budgeting ( OBB ) as test-bedded in 2012 and OOB will be rolled out across all the ministries start from 2013 onward. The first five selected ministries is finance, human resources and public plants, while the other two ministries will be identified subsequently.
Some of the states have been successfully implemented OOB, like New Zealand and Canada. Malayan Prime Minister, Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak was still problematic the thought to implement OOB in the 2010 budget. The intent is to guarantee the construct of value for money, which is efficient, effectual and economic, for the budget outgo direction can be achieve.
OBB is an incorporate system that uses ends, mission and aims to explicate why the money is being spent to accomplish a specific result and it enables policymakers to find which activities are cost-efficient to accomplish national precedences. The intent of execution of OBB is use to get the better of the failings and job that have been faced when implement MBS.