Taking this definition into consideration, I believe self-directed learning is the most effective type of learning. Why – because self-directed means being single-minded, guided by one’s self. It means taking a meaningful and active role in one’s intellectual growth and development. Self-directed learning allows people to focus on themselves. It affords them the opportunity to make decisions about their learning experience. The learner then becomes motivated, focused and determined to obtain the knowledge being imparted to him or her.
This kind of empowerment increases the learners confidence level; making a lasting learning experience, not a fly-by-night memory. Simply put, people learn what they want to learn; which are the things that are interesting and relevant to them (Boats, 2001). 2. Can or should all learning be self-directed, why or why not? Yes, relation to the adult learner I believe all learning should be self-directed whether taught via a teacher-directed in the classroom or a self-planned and conducted project.
Unlike, childhood learning of the basics early learning subjects such as grammar, mathematic, reading and writing, fields of studies for adult learners a built upon the learner’s desire to learn. According to Guillemot (2001), self-directed learning is a natural reaction to changes and challenges in the environment. That is, it is natural for people to become curious about new and changing situations. Such curiosity makes a person explore these new and changing situations more closely.
Furthermore, I believe curious people are people who take responsibility for their growth and development by doing all they can to enhance their life. Merriam, Banterer, & Sufferable (2007) states self- direction learning have three specific objectives. However, it is the first objective Indo the most vital when it coming to self-directed learning. This objective is founded upon the humanistic viewpoint that personal development is the primary goal for adult learners.
The goal of the educator, then, is to cultivate the adult learner’s ability to become self-directed in gaining knowledge which is considered to be a part of one’s personal attributes and given ability. Educators can facilitate this process by helping the adult learner to engage in his or her educational development by planning, implementing and assessing one’s learning progression (Merriam, at el. , 2007). . Within the self-directed learning process, discuss the three types of models: Linear, interactive, and instructional.
Self-directed learning as a process is when an individual takes the initiative to plan, implement and assess his or her learning experience. There are three models of the self-directed learning process: (1) Linear, as first proposed by Tough and then by Knowles; (2) Interactive, as proposed by numerous theorists – Mocker and Spear, Brooklet and Hamster, and Garrison, to name a few; and (3) Instructional, as proposed by Hammond and Collins (Merriam, et al. , 2007). The Linear process described by Knowles is founded upon the early work of Tough.
Knowles’ theory of the linear process includes six major stages: (1) environment situation; (2) identifying learning requirements; (3) devising learning objectives; (4) recognizing human and material resources for learning; (5) selecting and employing suitable learning approaches; and (6) assessing learning outcomes. He claims the adult learner transitions through each of these stages before reaching his or her learning goals (Merriam, et al. , 2007). The Interactive process, unlike the Linear, stands on the prominence that learning is not as direct and traumatized.
Interactive theorists view self-directed learning as being motivated by a collective of interactions such as the learner’s personality traits, intellectual processes and learning perspective; as well as the opportunities presented in their environment (Merriam, et al. , 2007). For example, Spear claimed that self-directed learning is founded upon three elements: “the opportunities people find in their own environments, past or new knowledge, and chance occurrences” (Merriam, et al. , 2007, p. 112).
He concluded learning projects are a result of collecting pockets of information through a set of activities and then peeping this information until it matches up with other concepts related to the same topic (Merriam, et al. , 2007). Brooklet and Hammiest introduced another viewpoint called Personal Responsibility Orientation (PRO) of the interactive model. They depicted self-directed learning consisted of a combination of teaching techniques, “self-directed in learning ‘ and a person’s personality traits, “learner self-direction” (Merriam, et al. 2007, p. 113). The self-directed in learning is the component where the educational agent facilitates the learner’s efforts in landing, implementing and assessing his or her learning experiences. On the other hand, the learner self-direction component is where the personality traits, the learner’s preference and/or desire, play a vital role on whether the learner takes responsibility for learning (Merriam, et al. , 2007). Other interactive model worth noting is Garrison’s Model. Garrison proposed that self-directed learning is three-dimensional, i. E. Self-management, self-monitoring, and motivational. Self-management involves the learner controlling and influencing contextual environments to achieve his or her goals. However, such control does not mean “social independence or freedom from influences” (Merriam, et al. , 2007, p. 114). The other two, self-monitoring and motivational, dimensions are symbolic to the intellectual part of self-learning. Self-monitoring deals with the learners ability to be insightful and analytical; and motivation has a lot to do with encouraging the learner to participate in learning activities.
The third dimension – “motivation”, and the first – “self-management” is mutually correlated (Merriam, at el. , 2007). That is, they both thrive off the effects of the learners contextual inspirations. . How can adult learners be supported as participants to self-directed learning; by family members, employers, friends, instructors? An essential part of an adult learner’s social environment is the relationships he or she builds with others i. E. , family members, employers, friends and instructors.
These relationships are particularly important to the adult learner and therefore, play a significant role in the adult learner’s learning experiences. Furthermore, these relationships provide the learner with a sense of identity, guides appropriate behavior and gives feedback reference to the learners’ behavior. Simply put, relationships create the framework by which an individual understands his or her movement toward desired changes, and the usefulness of new knowledge. Thus, these relationships are the learner’s negotiators, arbitrators, promoters, and sources of feedback (Boats, 2001).
The support the learner receives from his or her family members and friends, employer, and instructors should be one of encouragement, respect and understanding for the needs of the learner. For example, family members and friends can support the adult learners by encouraging them to use the learning techniques he or she acquired in real life tuitions – i. E. , financial management knowledge can be applied to managing the household finances. Employers can help by providing financial support for self-directed learning and afford the employee the opportunity to apply knowledge learned to his or her job duties.
Instructors can also support adult learners by assisting them in identifying goals, developing strategies and carrying out these strategies as he or she progresses toward achieving his or her educational goals. All of these supporters have the power to shape the adult learner’s attitude toward learning in general. Androgyny 5. Malcolm Knowles describes four assumptions of Androgyny. Discuss those four assumptions and the implications for the design, implementation, and evaluation of learning activities with adults. Malcolm Knowles Androgyny is the most popular theory associated with adult learning.
Androgyny suggests a different new description of adult learning. It is an attempt to help educators recognize how adults learn in comparison to how children learn. Although there are six assumptions, Knowles early work only recorded the following four assumptions: (1) self-concept, (2) experience, (3) readiness to learn, and (4) orientation to learning (Kisses, 2010). The first assumption: Self-Concept – “as a person matures, his or her self-concept moves from that of dependent personality to ward one of a self-directing human being” (Merriam, et al. , 2007, p. 4). As stated this assumption is about the change an individual made as they mature. Knowles believed that as people mature they move away from dependency and become more self-directed. It is during this transitional stage, the teacher as a facilitator urges and cultivates this movement. The second assumption: Learner’s Experience – “an adult accumulates a growing reservoir f experience, which is a rich resource for learning” (Merriam, et al. , 2007, p. 84). This assumption that learning acquired through experience has more value than those acquired otherwise.
Experiences gathered over time turns out to being fertile learning resources. It is also wise to note that experience is one of the key techniques used by educators to facilitate the learning process (Kisses, 2010). The third assumption of androgyny: Readiness to Learn – “readiness of an adult to learn is closely related to the developmental tasks of his or her social role” (Merriam, et al. , 2007, p. 84). It rests on the assumption that a person’s readiness to learn is elevated when he or she is learning about something that will help them cope with real-life responsibilities and issues.
Educators are responsible for supplying tools and techniques that will assist learners in realizing their “need to know’ (Kisses, 201 0, Para. 6). Learning experiences are center on relevant life categories which coincides with the learners willingness to learn. The fourth assumption: Orientation to Learning – “a change in time perspective as people mature-from future application of knowledge to immediacy of application” (Merriam, et al. 2007, p. 84). This assumption hangs on the belief that learners view learning as a process by which they increased their capability to reach their life’s potential.