Forests are lifeline of our planet Earth, as they provide fresh and pure oxygen rich air and pure water for our living. A forest consists of several different types of herbs, shrubs, climbers, creepers and trees with branches spread out widely. Such branches are called as crown of the tree. Trees with wide branches planted in a row, provide a roof-like structure, called as canopy. These canopies prevent the sunlight and make the atmosphere dark and cool.
The soil of the forest is rich in minerals, thus offering the growth of diverse plants. There are many trees which are as old as 100-200 years. It is nature which enables the germination of seeds and saplings in the forest over a period of time. Some areas of forests have understoreys, that is layer of giant trees, followed by tall trees and then by shrubs and herbs. The plants and animals present in forests vary depending on the climatic and environmental conditions. Forests rich in nutrients:
There are several insects and dead, decaying leaves also present in the forest. Sometimes, when an animal dies, scavengers like vultures and wolf prey on dead animals and leave the remaining to be decomposed by other organisms. Some insects and micro-organisms eat up the dead and decaying matter and convert it into black-colored substance called humus. Such organisms are known as decomposers and play a role in providing the soil with natural compost. Hence, there is no wastage in a forest.
Green lungs: Forests are also known as green lungs, as they maintain a perfect balance between oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is created by photosynthesis process and used up by animals which exhale carbon dioxide into the air. In addition, trees of the forest also contribute greatly to the water cycle. Fewer trees would affect the water vapor content released into air, which in turn would affect cloud formation and the pouring of rains further. Forests provide basic needs:
Forests are home to plants, animals and several tribes as they provide the basic essential needs, i. e. , food, water, shelter and medicine. Forests consist of various different kinds of herbs which have medicinal value. Forests also protect animals like deer from their carnivore predators and also provide green grass and other shrubs as food for them. Animals excrete at different places unconsciously which helps forests officials to recognize the animals present in the forest. The animal excretes are also used as manure by the soil.
And as discussed in the previous chapter, animals and insects are also responsible for seed dispersal, thus expanding the forest. Summary: It would be good to sum up that plants present in the forests offer rich oxygen by the process of photosynthesis to all living animals and humans. The animals and humans in turn help the plants in seed dispersal and providing nutrients to the soil from the dead and decaying matter. Also, the trees play a significant role in balancing water cycle. Therefore, forest is a ‘living dynamic entity’ with full of life and vitality.