St. Valentine ‘s Day St. Valentine ‘s Day falls on February 14, and is the traditional twenty-four hours on which lovers in certain civilizations let each other hypertext transfer protocol: //www.homeenglish.ru/Articles35.htmknow about their love, normally by directing Valentine ‘s cards, which are frequently anon. . The history of Valentine ‘s twenty-four hours can be traced back to an vague Catholic Church feast twenty-four hours, said to be in award of Saint Valentine. The twenty-four hours ‘s associations with romantic love arrived after the High Middle Ages, during which the construct of romantic love was formulated.
The twenty-four hours is now most closely associated with the common exchange of love notes in the signifier of “ valentines. ” Modern Valentine symbols include the cordate lineation and the figure of the winged Cupid. Since the nineteenth century, the pattern of manus composing notes has mostly given manner to the exchange of mass-produced salutation cards. The Greeting Card Association estimates that, global, about one billion valentine cards are sent each twelvemonth, doing the twenty-four hours the 2nd largest card-sending vacation of the twelvemonth behind Christmas. The association besides estimates that adult females purchase about 85 per centum of all valentines.
History of Valentine ‘s Day
February birthrate festivals The association of the center of February with love and birthrate day of the months to ancient times. In the calendar of Ancient Athens, the period between mid January and mid February was the month of Gamelion, which was dedicated to the sacred matrimony of Zeus and Hera.
In Ancient Rome, the twenty-four hours of February 15 was Lupercalia, the festival of Lupercus, the God of birthrate, who was represented as half-naked and dressed in caprine animal teguments. As portion of the purification rite, the priests of Lupercus would give caprine animals to the God, and after imbibing vino, they would run through the streets of Rome keeping pieces of the caprine animal tegument above their caputs, touching anyone they met. Young adult females particularly would come away voluntarily for the juncture, in the belief that being so touched would render them fruitful and convey easy childbearing.
Harmonizing to the Catholic Encyclopedia ( 1908 ) , at least three different Saints Valentine, all of them sufferers and all rather vague, are mentioned in the early martyrologies under the day of the month of February 14: a priest in Rome who suffered martyrdom in the 2nd half of the third century and was buried on the Via Flaminia. a bishop of Interamna ( modern Terni ) besides suffered martyrdom in the 2nd half of the third century and was besides buried on the Via Flaminia, but in a different location than the priest. a sufferer in North Africa, approximately whom small else is known. The connexion between St. Valentine and romantic love is non mentioned in any early histories and is regarded by secular historiographers as strictly a affair of fable ( see below ) . The banquet of St. Valentine was foremost declared to be on February 14 by Pope Gelasius I in 496. There is a widespread fable that he created the twenty-four hours to counter the pattern held on Lupercalia of immature work forces and adult females partner offing off as lovers by pulling their names out of an urn, but this pattern is non attested in any beginnings from that epoch.
In the nineteenth century, relics of St. Valentine were donated by Pope Gregory XVI to the Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland, which has become a popular topographic point of pilgrim’s journey on February 14.
In 1969, as portion of a larger attempt to pare down the figure of saint yearss of strictly legendary beginning, the Church removed St. Valentine ‘s Day as an official vacation from its calendar.
Valentine The influential Gnostic instructor Valentinius was a campaigner for Bishop of Rome in 143. In his instructions, the matrimony bed assumed a cardinal topographic point in his version of Christian love, an accent aggressively in contrast with the asceticism of mainstream Christianity. Stephan A. Hoeller assesses Valentinius on the topic: “ In add-on to baptism, anointing, Holy Eucharist, the induction of priests and the rites of the death, the Valentinian Gnosis references conspicuously two great and cryptic sacraments called “ salvation ” ( apolytrosis ) and “ nuptial chamber ” severally ” .
Medieval epoch Swedish calendar demoing St Valentine ‘s Day 14 February 1712 The first recorded association of St. Valentine ‘s Day with romantic love was in the fourteenth century in England and France, where February 14 was traditionally the twenty-four hours on which birds paired off to copulate. This belief is mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer ‘s Parlement of Foules ( 1381 )
It was common during that epoch for lovers to interchange notes on this
twenty-four hours and to name each other their “ Valentines ” . A fourteenth century valentine is said to be in the aggregation of the British Library. It is likely that many of the fables about St. Valentine were invented during this period. Among the fables are 1s that assert that:
On the eventide before St. Valentine was to be martyred for being a Christian, he passed a love note to his prison guard ‘s girl which read, “ From Your Valentine. ” During a prohibition on matrimonies of Roman soldiers by the Emperor Claudius II, St. Valentine in secret helped arrange matrimonies. In most versions of these fables, February 14 is the day of the month associated with his martyrdom.
Valentine ‘s Day in the USA Valentine ‘s Day was likely imported into North America in the nineteenth century with colonists from Britain. In the United States, the first mass-produced valentines of brocaded paper lacing were produced and sold shortly after 1847 by Esther Howland ( 1828 – 1904 ) of Worcester, Massachusetts. Her male parent operated a big book and letter paper shop, and she took her inspiration from an English valentine she had received. ( Since 2001, the Greeting Card Association has been giving an one-year “ Esther Howland Award for a Greeting Card Visionary ” . )
In the United States in the 2nd half of the twentieth century, the pattern of interchanging cards was extended to include the giving of all mode of gifts, normally from a adult male to a adult female. Such gifts typically include roses and cocoas. Get downing in the 1980s, the diamond industry began to advance Valentine ‘s Day as an juncture for giving all right jewellery.
In 1929 due to tensenesss between packs in Chicago, members of a pack led by Al Capone killed several members of Bugs Moran ‘s pack in what became known as the Saint Valentine ‘s Day Massacre.
The twenty-four hours has come to be associated with a generic Platonic salutation of “ Happy Valentine ‘s Day. ”
Those without a important other frequently speak with irony by mentioning to Valentine ‘s Day as “ Singles ‘ Awareness Day ” .
Valentine ‘s Day in Other Cultures In Japan and Korea, Valentine ‘s Day has emerged, thanks to a concentrated selling attempt, as a twenty-four hours on which adult females give confect to work forces they like. Rather than being voluntary nevertheless, this has become for many adult females – particularly those who work in offices – an duty, and they give cocoas to all their male colleagues, sometimes at important personal disbursal. This cocoa is known as giri-choco, in Japan, from the words giri ( duty ) and choco, a common short version of chokoreto, intending cocoa.
By a farther selling attempt, a mutual twenty-four hours, called White Day has emerged. On this twenty-four hours ( March 14 ) , work forces are supposed to return the favor by giving something to those who gave them chocolates on Valentine ‘s Day. Many work forces, nevertheless, give merely to their girlfriends. Originally the return gift was supposed to be white cocoa or marshmallows ( hence the name “ White Day ” ) . However, more late work forces have taken the name to a different significance, therefore intimate apparel is rather a common gift.
In Korea, there is besides an extra Black Day, held on April 14, when males who did non have anything for Valentine ‘s Day gather together to eat Jajangmyun ( Chinese-style noodles in black sauce ) .
In Chinese Culture, there is a similar opposite number of the Valentine ‘s Day. It is called “ The Night of Sevens ” , on the seventh twenty-four hours of the seventh month of the lunar calendar; the last one being August 11, 2005 [ 2 ] . ( A somewhat different version of this twenty-four hours is celebrated in Japan as Tanabata, on July 7th ( the same twenty-four hours, but transcribed to the solar calendar ) ) .
In Iranian Culture ( Iran ) this popular day of the month is discreetly celebrated by most lovers despite the disapproval of such juncture by the hardline slamic authorities as a imitator of the West, but Iranian young persons and grownups manage to observe following the traditions of the West ignoring the unjust restrictions and limitations imposed by the authorities.
In Brazil, there is no such twenty-four hours as Valentine ‘s Day. Alternatively, on June 12, “ Dia Department of State Namorados ” ( lit. “ Day of the infatuated ” , or “ Boyfriend’s/Girlfriend ‘s Day ” ) is celebrated. On this twenty-four hours, fellows and girlfriends, hubbies and married womans, exchange gifts ( intimate apparel, cocoas, and more ) , cards and normally a flower corsage. This twenty-four hours is chosen likely because it is one twenty-four hours before the Saint Anthony ‘s twenty-four hours, there known as the matrimony saint, when many individual adult females execute popular rites in order to happen a good hubby ( or, more modernly at least a fellow ) .