These issues will be identified in this paper. Representative Maxine Waters introduces the bill; the history initial development, and the reason for introducing the bill however, these issues will be further discussed. The bill is introduced in order to stop AIDS in the prison system. The bill presents three sections which are the short title, the comprehensive HIVE/AIDS policy, and the requirements for the policy. Research relevant to HIVE/AIDS will be presented.
The social, economic, political and ethical considerations that may impact human immunodeficiency virus (HIVE) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) will be discussed. The interest groups in favor of the bill and the interest groups not in favor of the bill will be discussed. The nursing perspective will be discussed regarding the bill and recommendations about the bill will be provided. Keywords: policy, HIVE/AIDS, bill Introduction of the Problem/lulus of Stop AIDS in Prison Act of 2006 The Stop AIDS in Stop AIDS In Prison Act King By sullener Prison Act of 2006 was introduced by Representative Maxine Waters.
The bill was introduced for an effective (HIVE) human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome program in the federal prison system. The main goal is to stop AIDS in federal prisons. In the Stop AIDS in Prison Act of 2006 a comprehensive policy must be developed for testing, treatment, and prevention of HIVE/AIDS for inmates upon reentry and within the prisons. This paper will provide data, history, and the initial development of the bill. This paper will provide input on the proponent and opponent views; while also giving input on nursing prospective nickering the issue of the main topic of the bill.
Policy recommendations will be discussed. A complete overview of the bill is presented with different perspectives on the goal to stop HIVE/AIDS in prison. The Stop AIDS in Prison Act H. R. 895 was introduced on September 6, 2006 in the House of Representatives 13th Congress. At the present time the bill has been introduced in the House of Congress. There is a need for action on this bill because “Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIVE), the precursor to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), is prevalent in the United States” (Alohas, Upton, & Cleo, 2011, p. 3).
According to Alohas, Upton, and Cleo (2011) AIDS is incurable and is caused by a virus (HIVE), the virus can be transmitted by exposure to a person’s bodily fluids Cohen diary as cited in (Alohas, Upton, & Cleo, 2011). Background/Significance and Scope of the Problem There are a number of individuals who enter the prison system that’s infected with Hal. Ft, this leaves an opportunity for HIVE testing in inmates upon entering the prison (Prevalence, 2013). It is suggested that inmates that entered the North Carolina Department of Public Safety between 2008 and 2009 were tested for HIVE during assessment (Prevalence, 2013).
During this assessment excess blood was tested in groups for HIVE antibodies (Prevalence, 2013). The article also suggest that out of the large number of inmates that entered NC DIPS, a very high percent had HIVE testing done on blood left behind after syphilis testing was completed (Prevalence, 2013). Out of this number a small percent of inmates were HIVE positive and a high percentage were already infected with HIVE prior to being locked up (Prevalence, 2013). Research indicate that there’s not that many new cases of HIVE which had entered prison system (Prevalence, 2013).
Coffman (1990), suggested that the process of admission is like an initiation more like a welcome where inmates are fed into the administrative computers of the institution therefore being exposed to the way the institution (Agony, Jacob, & Cornier, 2013). This is where inmates come to realize that must follow procedures which also include HIVE testing (Agony, Jacob, & Cornier, 2013). If there’s prisons where HIVE testing is a mandatory procedure the prison will stress the significance of the procedure during the admission process through the rules and regulations. (Agony, Jacob, & Cornier, 2013).
The policy was introduced In order to stop the spread of HIVE/AIDS among inmates (H. R. , 895 2006). To protect prison guards and other personnel from HIVE AIDS infection (H. R. , 895 2006). To provide comprehensive, timely, and compassionate medical treatment to inmates who are living with HIVE/AIDS. To promote HIVE/AIDS awareness and prevention among inmates (H. R. , 895 2006). To encourage inmates to take personal responsibility for their health, find out if they have been infected with HIVE/AIDS, and reward behavior that reduces the risks of HIVE/AIDS transmission (H.
R. , 895 2006). To reduce the risk hat inmates will transmit HIVE/AIDS to their spouses or other persons in the community following their release from prison (H. R. , 895 2006). A person with AIDS in conjunction with compassionate medical treatment should experience services from rehabilitation counselors as part of the practice of mixing the data about having AIDS/HIVE into an individual’s comprehensive identity (Alohas, Upton, & Cleo, 2011).
In conjunction with the different prevention policies put in place which to name a few are evidence based risk reduction which is a brief DVD, and a one on one risk counseling (Lyons, Sonorous, Angus, Defrayed, & Balloon, 2014). However, there’s another prevention called: Peer-led HIVE prevention programs in prisons have typically included (1) basic information about HIVE and transmission, such as the American Red Cross curriculum; (2) information on HIVE testing, such as in Californians “Reach One, Teach One” curriculum; and (3) information on preventing HIVE through safe sex and (in some cases) safe injection drug use practices.
Peer-led prevention programs will be most effective if they are targeted at behaviors in the community, where most inmates with HIVE are infected, rather than at behaviors in prison Hamlet’s diary (as cited in Lyons et al. 014). Consistent with medical treatment in prisons is that HEART within correctional facilities has been shown to end in remarkable viral load suppression and bigger CDC+ T-cell counts in HIVE-infected inmates. (Rich & Wassermann, 2010).
Research have shown that in the United States in the state of Texas only a third of inmates who met Department of Health and Human Services (DASH) standards for the origination of HEART were actually on therapy (Rich & Wassermann, 2010). There are many facilities that employ hard working HIVE specialists from the community to provide best care for prisoners, many facilities do not have even an onsite physician (Rich & Wassermann, 2010) . This great inconsistency results in melodramatic difference in the delivery of care and health results (Rich & Wassermann, 2010).
Disruption to therapy is a very real problem in caring for individual in prison with HIVE (Rich & Wassermann, 2010). One more important issue that ascends in ongoing HIVE treatment at the time of imprisonment is determining whether individuals were following medication schedules prior to incarceration (Rich & Wassermann, 2010). The policy Stop Aids in Prison Act would be beneficial in these cases. The central failure f HIVE treatment occurs when inmates transition their care from the correctional facility back to the community (Rich & Wassermann, 2010).
A recent study found that only 5. 4% of inmates had their intergenerational prescriptions filled in 10 days of discharge from prison, 17. 7% in 30 days, also 30. 0% in 60 days (Rich & Wassermann, 2010). Medical treatment is imperative in patients with HIVE and is in line with section II number three of the bill which is to provide comprehensive, timely, and compassionate medical treatment to inmates who are living with HIVE/AIDS. This loud benefit all inmates that need treatment for HIVE/AIDS that is the goal of policy.
There are such models as the Self-Help in Eliminations Life-Threatening Diseases (SHIELD) and the Peer Leader Model which help individuals that’s out of treatment who is on drugs in the community; which are all good prevention strategies (Rich & Wassermann, 2010). When inmates are educating inmates, a natural environment is created therefore, promoting trust and respect for health education (Rich & Wassermann, 2010). The comprehensive HIVE AIDS is a part in the policy which protects prison guards and other personnel from HIVE AIDS infection.
To a Correctional Officer this part of the policy is very important because “maintaining order in prison requires correctional officers to routinely per- form pat searches, cell searches, and respond when needed to quell physical fights, medical emergencies, accidents, and other situations where they may encounter sharp objects, blood, and bodily fluids” (Loris & Marquee, 2009 , p. 441). Some of the factors that may donate to exposure of HIVE/AIDS could be because of lack of knowledge about HIVE also fear of performing duties with prisoners that may be infected (Rich & Wassermann, 2010).
Therefore education is Vidal for Correctional Officers. There is an economic issue related to the policy, the economic cost of HIVE is large. “Despite its harmful impact on human and economic development, very little effort has been devoted to examining how political and institutional features shape government responses to HIVE AIDS” Statuses, 2012 , p. 373). Patients with HIVE/AIDS have the right to confidentiality contrary to that counselors have ethical responsibilities to their patients.
However, “as a consequence, rehabilitation counselors may be faced with a conflict between heir duty to protect confidentiality, to support clients with HIVE/AIDS and not cause harm to the counseling relationship, and their duty to warn a third party of a potential harm” (Alohas, Upton, & Cleo, 2011, p. 44). There are six ethical principles concerning the duty to warn which are autonomy, malefaction, beneficence, justice, fidelity, and veracity. Anthony is respecting the inmate’s right and not violating their right (Alohas, Upton, & Cleo, 2011).
Malfunctioned is the act of preventing or not harming an individual or do anything that could cause harm to others (Alohas, Upton, & Cleo, 2011). Beneficence is acting in the best interest and welfare of others while helping others. Justice is treating every individual equal and fairly (Alohas, Upton, & Cleo, 2011). Fidelity is being obligated to keep all promises, be faithful and loyal and veracity is simply being honest (Alohas, Upton, & Cleo, 2011). Proponent and Opponent Arguments Public policy may be affected by political governments concerning the treatment of HIVE and concerning anti-retrovirus drugs.
Research shows a difference between democracies and autocracies as far as treatment is concerned Statuses, 2012). Autocracies only provide 21% of people with treatment for HIVE contrary to that, democracies provide treatment for around 50% Statuses, 2012). According to Justness (2012) a cross- country dataset was used as research with up to 143 developing and developed countries. However, results show that democracy increases access to treatment of HIVE/AIDS Statuses, 2012 ).
Democracies that use electoral systems differ significantly from autocracies however, democracies that are minority driven and not plurality makes the most difference in the high percentage rates of treatment of HIVE Statuses, 2012). Knowing the difference between social outcomes from public policies is essentially significant in the case of HIVE/AIDS Statuses, 2012 ). There’s a lot of elected officials who get things done as a result of an upcoming election none the less: “still, democratically elected governments need to be responsive to the demands of voters to maximize chances of re-election” Statuses, 2012 , p. 76). “In contrast, non-democratic or autocratic governments have no representative mandate to govern and are not subject to the discipline of competitive elections” Statuses, 2012 , p. 376). Nursing Perspective Advanced practice nurses, whether in the role of academicians, clinical specialists or Naps, have been at the forefront of HIVE care and practice in the United States since the advent of the epidemic in the early asses” (Tremble, 2009, p. 7).
While the HIVE epidemic spread and as more and more ill patients where admitted into the hospitals and where told of their diagnosis surprise, fear and sometimes irrational response in a hospital that was not prepared, nurses where there to meet the needs of this growing population (Tremble, 2009). Registered nurses and advanced practice linsang have provided specialty care for this diverse and challenging patient population with a condition that typically led to death (Tremble, 2009).
When it came to treating patients with infectious diseases that typically may have led to death a nurses position did not matter, whether a nurse was a registered nurse or an advanced practice nurse their Jobs became irrelevant and blurred (Tremble, 2009). The nurse’s only goal was meeting the needs of the people. “As the HIVE epidemic progressed, effective therapies became available and those infected began to live tit their infection, facing further challenges of surviving; HIVE nursing practice likewise evolved over time” (Tremble, 2009, p. ). Data about careening to persons with AIDS exposes three fields of impact on the nurse: (1) personal self as a nurse in practice; (2) the nurses interact with family members, friends, and colleagues; and (3) They also will interact with Paws (Mullions, 2009). Influence in the domain of personal self as a nurse in practice is debated to the greatest extent (Mullions, 2009). The influence of careening in clinical practice is seen when the nurse feels a personal threat to self (Mullions, 2009).
Nurses imagine their caring for the Paws as appreciated, worth- while, and part of a satisfying nurse-patient relationship Router & Northeast diary (as cited in Mullions, 2009). Expressions of moral questions to bring care to Paws have also been distinguished by nurses. The question of how the PAW acquired HIVE is a part in determining willingness to care for Paws by nurses and other individuals in the health care profession (Mullions, 2009). However, the victim is blameless when HIVE/AIDS has been developed because of certain medical procedures such as blood transfusions or transmitted to children (Mullions, 2009).
Commonly, the nurse portrays a sense of compassion, acceptance, and empathy toward persons with AIDS, a nurse sees the PAW as an individual person and not Just another patient to take care of, even when the nurse does not agree with the patient’s lifestyle Router & Northeast diary (as cited in Mullions, 2009). Nurses wrote comments indicating that because HIVE is less widespread, they are not disturbed about HIVE while some nurses’ pointed to this absence of concern about HIVE as a disease progression and to more concern connected to other transmittable diseases (Mullions, 2009).
There were comments made by a hospital nurse revealing this absence of concern. Several nurses at this hospital revealed that they did not know if their patients had HIVE even though their patient may have been diagnosed with HIVE AIDS (Mullions, 2009). Some of the nurses inquired about a need for more education about HIVE/AIDS for nurses and for the public (Mullions, 2009). Because so many of the nurses did no see Paws often they conveyed a need for continuing education to surge their knowledge and their abilities to care for Paws (Mullions, 2009).
Not only did nurses voice their opinion about education on HIVE/AIDS they also thought education should be mandatory (Mullions, 2009). Some of the nurses related education on HIVE/AIDS to future careening (Mullions, 2009). According to Mullions (2009) “Whiskies (2005) reported that prison nurses described caring for inmates as having “real and potential physical and psychological risks” and that prison nurses must remain alert to recognize a violent, hostile, or possible threatening situation that might put them at risk” (p. 340).
Individual’s that’s locked up are especially at high risk for having or getting HIVE because of the hazardous behaviors related to intravenous drug use Manacling et al. , diary (as cited by Mullions, 2009). In the prison system HIVE/AIDS could very easily be used as a weapon. (Mullions, 2009). Protective equipment may not always be readily available or accessible when care is provided to inmates (Mullions, 2009). My personal views on the policy Stop AIDS in Prison Act (2006) is that the bill is a good proposal because HIVE/AIDS have become a growing concern in and out of prison.
As a Correctional Officer myself, I am highly concerned, because maintaining order in prison requires us as Correctional Officers to pat down, respond to fights, perform cell searches, respond to medical emergencies, and accidents all in which may put an officer in extreme danger. Danger of coming into contact with bodily fluids and blood. I believe promoting HIVE/AIDS awareness is essential in preventing HIVE/AIDS in the prison system. The policy mention prevention program which are very important in stopping HIVE/AIDS in prison.
Programs such as peer led, based risk reduction in the form of a DVD, prevention programs will also help inmates transition back into the community while working on keeping the community and their families safer. The policy will frame programs that will encourage inmates to accept responsibility for their own health while rewarding behavior that reduces risk of contracting HIVE/AIDS. I believe persons with HIVE/AIDS will benefit from comprehensive, timely, and compassionate medical treatment whatever form this may come from whether counseling or medication.
HIVE/AIDS is a deadly disease that is incurable and after all the main purpose and focus of the bill is to stop or prevent HEADWINDS in the federal prison system. Policy/Bill Recommendations Representative Maxine Waters introduced an outstanding bill. The bill if passed, would help stop AIDS in the prison system. A comprehensive policy that would treat, est., and prevent HIVE/AIDS is key in preventing AIDS in the prison system. All inmates should be educated on the risks involved in preventing HIVE/AIDS. The scope of the problem was discussed, and how inmates are tested through the admissions process.
This information will provide data on the how many inmates are actually affected. Once the testing process is over treatment would be the next level and then prevention. Inmates must be treated with respect while going through the testing, treatment, and medical process. Extensive prevention programs should be implemented through programs that will benefit the inmate. The opponent and proponent was argued through democracies and autocratic governments, one more concerned with election gains and the other more concerned with individuals wellbeing.
Nurses have the biggest role in making sure this policy work in the prison system. While they have provided care for HIVE/Lads patient since the beginning although there are risks involved in caring for inmates with HIVE. I recommend that the bill Stop AIDS in Prison Act (2006) be passed in addition too comprehensive HI AIDS policy that will adhere to the needs of inmates infected with this virus through jesting, treating, and preventing there would be a tremendous increase in the overall percentage of stopping AIDS in prison. I also recommend counseling for inmates that is diagnosed with HIVE.