Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major causative agent of terrible infections including sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media. Of the 90 capsular types, Seroptypes 4 and 14 and serogroups 6, 7, 9, 18, 19 and 23 are associated with paediatric diseases. Here we studied the serogroup specific distribution of Diplococcus pneumoniae isolates to foretell the efficaciousness of the 7-valent conjugate vaccinum in Malayan populations.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major causative agent of the morbidity and mortality among immature kids and grownups. ( 1 ) Since the outgrowth of penicillin immune strain in 1967, antibiotic opposition in S.pneumoniae has spread worldwide. The being has besides been reported to be immune to other antibiotics such as macrolides and quinolones. ( 2, 3 ) An of import factor that enables the being to do diseases is the production of capsule, a polyose construction which is external to the cell wall. This construction provides opposition to phagocytosis and promotes bacterial equivocation from the host immune system. ( 4 ) Pneumococcus can bring forth at least 90 immunologically distinguishable capsules that differ in their chemical belongingss. ( 5 ) Of the 90 capsular types, merely a few of these are causative agents of invasive diseases and associated with paediatric diseases. ( 6 ) Serotypes 4 and 14 and serogroups 6, 7, 9, 18, 19, and 23 are known to be associated with paediatric diseases. ( 6 ) However, the association of the serotypes/serogroups with diseases varies with the geographic distribution and the clip period. ( 6 )
Presently, the direction of pneumococcal infections has become hard with the rapid development of antimicrobic opposition in this being. The bulk of antibiotic opposition strains carry serotypes that are non included in the conjugate vaccinums that are presently in usage and in development. ( 7 ) It has been reported that serotypes reported in both paediatric and big infections are often found among both drug susceptible and immune strains that colonize healthy kids. ( 8 ) Therefore, the chief focal point of better direction of pneumococcal infection is presently through widespread use of inoculation. The available vaccinum covers 23 serotypes, which represents 90 % of the strains responsible for invasive diseases but are found to be non immunogenic in immature kids. There is besides a new pneumococcal conjugate vaccinum ( PCV ) which has been reported to be immunogenic in kids & A ; lt ; 2 old ages old. This vaccinum has different preparations depending on the makers, which are 7- , 9- , or 11 valent ( 9 ) that confer protection against different figure of pneumococcus serotypes.
Since Diplococcus pneumoniae has the ability to exchange serotypes by horizontal transportation recombination and other familial events, it is of import to supervise the frequence of the serotype exchanges in order to foretell long term efficaciousness of new vaccinums. Therefore uninterrupted monitoring of antimicrobic opposition and serotype distribution of S.pneumoniae is of import in a population. In this work, we study the development of penicillin opposition and serogroup specific epidemiology of Diplococcus pneumoniae among isolates from the University Malaya Medical Centre ( UMMC ) .
A sum of 151 pneumococcal strains were obtained from clinical samples processed at the Microbiology Laboratory of the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia from March 1999 to February 2007. Control strains of known serotypes ( Quellung reaction ) stand foring different serotypes and serogroups were used in the survey. The serotypes included 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 13, 14, 20, 21, 31, 34, 37, 38, 39, 40, 44, 46, 6A, 7 A, 7B, 7C, 7F, 9A, 9N, 9L, 9L, 10A, 10F, 11 A, 11D, 11F, 12A, 12B, 12F, ISA, 15B, 15C, 15F, 16A, 16F, 17F, 33A, 35B, 35F, 35A, 35C, and 47F. The isolates were obtained from invasive and non-invasive sites of both paediatric and big patients. The beginning of the isolates included blood, nasopharyngeal secernment, tracheal secernment, phlegm, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Samples were grown on 5 % Equus caballus blood agar and incubated at 37 & A ; deg ; C in the presence of 5 % CO2 for 12 – 15 hours prior to other biochemical and molecular checks.