Stylistic phonetics based on the examples of the works by P.B. Shelley Essay
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As this work is devoted to the topics of stylistic phonetics, implemented by Percy Bysshe Shelley in his plants, foremost the definitions of phonetics and stylistics, every bit good as stylistic phonetics on the whole should be given.
The lingual scientific discipline surveies linguistic communication from three different points of position: lexicology, grammar and phonetics.
trades with the vocabulary of linguistic communication, with the beginning and development of words, with their significance and word edifice.
defines the regulations regulating the alteration of words and the combination of words into sentences.
Harmonizing to the chief topic of this work, it is of import to give more elaborate information aboutphonetics
itself and what it surveies.
Phoneticss is the scientific discipline that surveies the sound affair of the linguistic communication, its semantic maps and the lines of development. It is the pronunciation of human sounds in the procedure of the communicating, & # 171 ; human noises & # 187 ; by which the idea is actualized, the nature of these noises, the combination and the maps in their relation to the significance ( modulation and emphasis ) . Phoneticss besides trades with speech sounds. In Grecianphonetikos
is a agency pertaining tovoice and sound.
The phoneticians investigate sounds as thephonemes
( smallest units of linguistic communication ) and their allophones, the syllabic construction, the distribution of emphasis and modulation. They are interested in the sounds that are produced by the human speech-organs insofar as these sounds have a function in a linguistic communication. This limited scope of sounds is referred as the phonic medium and single sounds within that scope are referred as address sounds. [ 13 ]
So, phonetics can be besides defined as the survey of the phonic medium & # 8211 ; the manner worlds make, transmit, and receive address sounds. Phoneticss occupies itself with the survey of the ways in which the sounds are organized into a system of units and the fluctuation of the units in all types and manners of spoken linguistic communication. Phonetics is a basic subdivision of linguistics. Neither lingual theory nor lingual pattern can make without phonetics. No sort of lingual survey can be made without changeless consideration of the stuff on the look degree.
As this work is devoted to the topics of stylistic phonetics and it has been said about phonetics in general, attending should be paid to stylistics in general and so the topics of stylistic phonetics should be defined.
Stylistics is non equal to linguistics scientific discipline, such aslexicology, morphology, sentence structure and phonetics
, because they are flat subjects as they treat merely one lingual degree, and stylistics investigates the inquiries on all the degrees and different facets of the texts in general. The Gallic linguist E. Benveniste used the word & # 8216 ; degree & # 8217 ; to qualify the hierarchal construction of linguistic communication.
can be defined as a subdivision of modern linguistics devoted to the elaborate analysis of literary manner, or of the lingual picks made by talkers and authors in non-literary contexts. [ 4 ]
Harmonizing to the Russian linguist I.R. Galperin,stylistics
is a subdivision of general linguistics, which deals with the probe of two independent undertakings:
Stylistics surveies the particular media of linguistic communication which are calledstylistic devices
Stylistics surveies the types of texts which are distinguished by the matter-of-fact facet of the communicating and are calledfunctional manners of linguistic communication
[ 11 ]
Stylistics must be subdivided into separate, independent subdivisions& # 8211 ; stylistic morphology, stylistic lexicology, stylistic sentence structure, stylistic phonetics.
Whatever degree we take, stylistics describes non what is in common usage, but what is specific usage, in this or that regard, what differentiates one sublanguage from others.
General ( non-stylistic ) morphology
dainties morphemes and grammatical significances expressed by them in linguistic communication in general, without respect to their stylistic value.Stylistic morphology
is interested in grammatical signifiers and grammatical significances that are curious to peculiar sublanguages, explicity or implicity comparing them with the impersonal 1s common to all the sublanguages.
trades with stylistic categorization ( distinction ) of the vocabulary that form a portion of stylistics. Instylistic lexicology
each unit is studied individually, alternatively of as a whole text ( group of words, word categorization ) .General sentence structure
dainties word combinations and sentences, analysing their constructions and saying what is allowable and what is inadmissible in building right vocalizations in the given linguistic communication.Stylistic sentence structure
shows what peculiar buildings are met with in assorted types of address, what syntactical constructions are manner forming ( specific ) in the sublanguages in inquiry.
As it was already mentioned,general ( non-stylistic ) phonetics
investigates the whole articulatory & # 8211 ; audial system of linguistic communication.Stylistic phonetics
describes discrepancies of pronunciation happening in different types of address ; particular attending is besides paid to prosodic characteristics of prose and poesy. Unfortunately, there is no equal definition of stylistic phonetics, although many well-known linguists, who devoted their plants to the survey of stylistics, among them I.R. Galperin, V.M. Zhirmunsky, L. Bloomfield, Yu. Skrebnev, I. Arnold ever paid particular attending to it, underscoring its significance for the style-forming phonic characteristics. The plants of the mentioned above linguists will be besides used for the analysis in this work.
As here the topics of stylistic phonetics are traveling to be investigated, it should be necessary to advertphonic expressive agencies
Phonetic expressive agencies include:
which is a complex integrity of non-segmental characteristics of address, such as tune or pitch of the voice, emphasis, pausation and different temporal feature.
which is a greater prominence of words.
Pitch of the voice which
represents the cardinal frequence of a address sound and is closely connected with the sentence emphasis.
Here whispering, intermissions, vocalizing and other ways of human voice utilizing are referred.
To the phonicstylistic devices
, the more elaborate descriptions of which will give be given in the chief portion of this work, we refer:
Onomatopoeia, or sound imitation,
is the usage of words or word combinations that imitate some natural sound.
, is the usage of the similar initial sounds in close sequence, taking at leaving a melodious consequence to the vocalization.
is a flow, motion, process, etc. , characterized by fundamentally regular return of elements or characteristics & # 8230 ; [ 6 ]
is the repeat of indistinguishable or similar terminal sound combinations of words.
The verse form, that was chosen for the analysis, and for probe of the given above phonic expressive agencies and stylistic devices on its illustration is & # 171 ; To the Men of England & # 187 ; by Persy Bisshe Shelley. For closer probe of the points of stylistic phonetics there besides will be given illustrations of plants of some other writers.
1. Theoretical portion
1.1 Galperin and other linguists & # 8217 ; points of position on stylistic phonetics
The topic of stylistics can be outlined as the survey of the nature, maps and construction of stylistic devices, on the one manus, and, on the other, the survey of each manner of linguistic communication as classified above, i. e. its purpose, its construction, its characteristic characteristics and the consequence it produces, every bit good as its interrelatedness with other manners of linguistic communication. So, it & # 8217 ; s necessary to do an effort to individual out such, jobs as are typically stylistic and can non be treated in any other subdivision of lingual scientific discipline.
The stylistic attack to the vocalization is non confined to its construction and sense, there is another thing to be taken into history which, in a certain type of communicating, viz. belles lettress, plays an of import function. This is the manner a word, a phrase or a sentence sounds. The sound of most words taken individually will hold small or no aesthetic value. It is in combination with other words that a word may get a coveted phonic consequence, the manner a separate word sounds may bring forth a certain euphonic feeling, but this is a affair of single perceptual experience and feeling and hence subjective. For case, a certain English author expresses the sentiment that angina
[ & # 230 ; n’dgain & # 601 ; ] , pneumonia
[ nju’mouni & # 601 ; ] , and uvula
[ ‘ju: vjul & # 601 ; ] would do beautiful miss ‘s names alternatively of what he calls & # 171 ; balls of names like Joan, Joyce and Maud & # 187 ; . In the verse form & # 171 ; Cargoes & # 187 ; by John Masefield he considers words like tusk, sandal-wood, cedar-wood, emeralds and amethysts as used in the first two stanzas to be beautiful, whereas those in the 3rd stanza & # 171 ; work stoppage harshly on the ear! & # 187 ;
& # 171 ; With a lading of Tyne coal,
Fire-wood, iron-ware and inexpensive Sn trays. & # 187 ;
As one poet has it, this is & # 187 ; & # 8230 ; a combination of words which is hard to articulate, in which the words hang-up against one another, interfere with one another, push one another. & # 187 ;
Verier, a Gallic scientist, who is a specializer on English versification, suggests that we should seek to articulate the vowels [ a: , I: , u: ] in a strongly articulated mode and with closed eyes. If we do so, he says, we are certain to come to the decision that each of these sounds expresses a definite feeling or province of head. Therefore he maintains that the sound [ U: ] by and large expresses sorrow or earnestness ; [ I: ] produces the feeling of joy and so on.
L. Bloomfield, a well-known American linguist says:
& # 171 ; & # 8230 ; in human address, different sounds have different significance. To analyze the coordination of certain sounds with certain significances is to analyze language. & # 187 ;
[ 7 ]
An interesting statement in this respect is made by a Magyar linguist, Ivan Fonagy:
& # 171 ; The great semantic information ( a term from theory of communicating denoting the step of the unknown. ) of poetic linguistic communication stands in contrast to the predictability of its sounds. Of class, non even in the instance of poesy can we find the sound of a word on the footing of its significance. However in the larger units of line and stanza, a certain relationship can be found between sounds and content. & # 187 ;
[ 10 ]
The Russian poet B. Pasternak says that he has
& # 171 ; & # 8230 ; ever thought that the music of words is non an acoustic phenomenon and does non dwell of the music of vowels and consonants taken individually. It consequences from the correlativity of the significance of the vocalization with its sound. & # 187 ;
[ 3 ]
The theory ofsound symbolism
is based on the premise that separate sounds due to their articulatory and acoustic belongingss may wake up certain thoughts, perceptual experiences, feelings, images, vague though they might be. Recent probes have shown that & # 171 ; it is rash to deny the being of cosmopolitan, or widespread, types of sound symbolism. & # 187 ;
In poesy we can non assist feeling that the agreement of sounds carries a definite aesthetic map. Poetry is non wholly divorced from music. Such impressions as harmoniousness, music, beat and other sound phenomena doubtless are non apathetic to the general consequence produced by a verbal concatenation. Poetry, unlike prose, is meant to be read out loud and any unwritten public presentation of a message necessarily involves definite musical ( in the wide sense of the word ) reading.
Stylistics besides surveies the expressive agencies of linguistic communication, but from a particular angle. It takes into history the alterations of significances which assorted expressive agencies undergo when they are used in different functional manners. Expressive agencies have a sort of radiating consequence. They perceptibly colour the whole vocalization, no affair whether they are logical or emotional. [ 11 ]
1.2 Phonetic expressive agencies
The most powerful expressive agencies of any linguistic communication are phonic. Wayss of the voice utilizing are much more effectual than any other agencies in escalating an vocalization emotionally or logically and the human voice can bespeak most elusive niceties of significance. In the linguistic communication class of phonetics the forms of emphasized modulation have been worked out, but many devices have so far been small investigated.
So, phonic expressive agencies are the undermentioned:
, which is a linguistic communication universal. Phoneticians give different definitions of modulation, but the most recognized one is by S.F. Leontyeva. Harmonizing to Leontyeva & # 8217 ; s point of position, modulation is considered to be a complex integrity ofpitch ( tune ) , emphasis, pacing, pique and tamber and the manner they are realized in address.
[ 13 ]
Intonation is really of import. It serves to organize sentences and determines their communicative types. It divides sentences into modulation groups, it expresses the talker & # 8217 ; s ideas and conveys the attitudinal significance. One and the same sentence may show different significance, when pronounced with different modulation:
e.g.When it & # 8217 ; s a general inquiry
& # 8211 ; Isn & # 8217 ; t it pathetic?
& # 8211 ; Isn & # 8217 ; t it pathetic!
Intonation determines the communicative type of sentences. The communicative types are differentiated in address harmonizing to the purpose of the vocalization from the point of position of communicating. There 4 chief types of sentences:
& # 8211 ; I like music.
& # 8211 ; Can you do it?
Imperative sentences or bids
& # 8211 ; Just make it!
& # 8211 ; Right you are
Thepitch constituent of modulation or a tune
is the modifiers in the pitch of the voice in affiliated address.
is the greater prominence of one or more words among others words in the same sentence.
is realized since all the syllables in a word are pronounced with the same grade of force: normally one syllable is made more outstanding than the others by agencies of stronger current of air, by a stronger termination ; such a syllable is called the stressed syllable. Word & # 8217 ; s emphasis in English is free ; the place of emphasis is non fixed:
e.g. & # 8216 ; many & # 8211 ; be & # 8217 ; llow & # 8211 ; photo & # 8217 ; in writing.
Tempo of address
& # 8211 ; the rate of vocalization which is connected with beat & # 8211 ; the regular alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables. It is so typical of an English phrase that the wrong beat betrays the non-English beginning of the talker. Each sense-group of the sentence is pronounced at about the same period of clip, unstressed syllables are pronounced more quickly: the greater the figure of unstressed syllables, the quicker they are pronounced. In its bend, beat is connected with sentence emphasis. Under the influence of beat words which are usually pronounced with two every bit strong emphasis may lose one of them, or may hold their word emphasis realized otherwise.
E.g. , Picca & # 8217 ; dilly – , Piccadilly & # 8216 ; Circus & # 8211 ; & # 8216 ; close to, Picca & # 8217 ; dilly, prin & # 8217 ; Ce & # 8211 ; a, princess & # 8216 ; royal
is the comparative velocity with which sentences and modulation groups are pronounced in linking address.
is a particular coloring of voice which shows the talker & # 8217 ; s emotions:
e.g. pleasance & # 8211 ; displeasure
Paradoxal though it may look, many of these agencies, the consequence of which rests on a curious usage of the voice, are banned from the lingual sphere. But there has appeared a new scientific discipline & # 8211 ; & # 171 ; paralinguistics & # 187 ; & # 8211 ;
of which all these devices are the stock list.
Vocal phenomena such as drawling, whispering, etc. should be regarded as parts of the phonemic system on the same degree as pitch, emphasis and melody. [ 13 ]
1.3 Phonetic stylistic devices
Now allow us see what phonic stylistic devices secure this musical map.
is a combination of address sounds which aims at copying sounds produced in nature ( air current, sea, boom, etc. ) by things ( machines or tools, etc. ) by people ( singing, laughter ) and animate beings. Therefore the relation between onomatopoeia and the phenomenon it is supposed to stand for is one of metonymy There are two assortments of onomatopoeia:direct and indirect
is contained in words that imitate natural sounds, as ding-dong, burr, knock, fathead
. These words have different grades of imitative quality. Some of them instantly convey to mind whatever it is that produces the sound. Others require the exercising of a certain sum of imaginativeness to decode it. Onomatopoeic words can be used in a transferred significance, as for case, donging & # 8211 ; dong
, which represents the sound of bells rung continuously, may intend
1 ) noisy, 2 ) strenuously contested.
demands some reference of what makes the sound, as rustling of drapes in the undermentioned line:
And the silken, sad, unsure rustling of each purple drape.
Indirect onomatopoeia is a combination of sounds the purpose of which is to do the sound of the vocalization an reverberation of its sense. It is sometimes called & # 171 ; echo composing & # 187 ; .
An illustration is: & # 171 ; And the silken, sad, unsure rustling of each purple curtain & # 187 ;
( E.A. Poe ) , where the repeat of the sound [ s ] really produces the sound of the rustling of the drape. [ 11 ]
is a phonic stylistic device which aims at leaving a melodious consequence to the vocalization. The kernel of this device lies in the repeat of similar sounds, in peculiar consonant sounds, in close sequence, peculiarly at the beginning of consecutive words: & # 171 ; The genitive inherent aptitude ne’er stands still
( J. Galsworthy ) or, & # 171 ; Deep into the darkness peering, long I stood at that place inquiring
, fearing, doubting, woolgathering dreams no persons of all time dared to woolgather before
& # 187 ; ( E.A. Poe ) .
Alliteration, like most stylistic devices, does non bear any lexical or other intending unless we agree that a sound significance exists as such. But even so we may non be able to stipulate clearly the character of this significance, and the term will simply propose that a certain sum of information is contained in the repeat of sounds, as is the instance with the repeat of lexical units.
But even so we may non be able to stipulate clearly the character of this significance, and the term will simply propose that a certain sum of information is contained in the repeat of sounds, as is the instance with the repeat of lexical units.
However, certain sounds, if repeated, may bring forth an consequence that can be specified.
For illustration, the sound [ m ] is often used by Tennyson in the verse form & # 171 ; The Lotus Eaters & # 187 ; to give a slumberous consequence.
& # 171 ; How sweet it were, & # 8230 ;
To impart our Black Marias and liquors entirely
usage and brood and unrecorded once more inm
emory. & # 187 ;
Therefore initial rhyme is by and large regarded as a musical concomitant of the writer ‘s thought, back uping it with some obscure emotional ambiance which each reader interprets for himself. [ 11 ]
is the repeat of indistinguishable or similar terminal sound combination of words. Rhyming words are by and large placed at a regular distance from each other. In poetry they are normally placed at the terminal of the corresponding lines.
Identity and similarity of sound combinations may be comparative. For case, we distinguish betweenfull rimes and uncomplete rimes
presupposes individuality of the vowel sound and the undermentioned consonant sounds in a stressed syllable, including the initial consonant of the 2nd syllable ( in polysyllabic words ) , we have exact or indistinguishable rimes.
nowadays a greater assortment. They can be divided into two chief groups:vowel rimes
and consonant rimes
the vowels of the syllables in corresponding words are indistinguishable, but the consonants may be different as in flesh & # 8211 ; fresh & # 8211 ; imperativeness
, on the contrary, show harmony in consonants and disparity in vowels, as in worth & # 8211 ; Forth, narrative & # 8211 ; tool & # 8211 ; soprano & # 8211 ; problem ; flung & # 8211 ; long.
Alterations in riming sometimes travel so far as to do one word rime with a combination of words ; or two or even three words rhyme with a corresponding two or three words, as in & # 171 ; upon her honor & # 8211 ; won her
& # 187 ; , & # 171 ; underside & # 8211 ; forgot them & # 8211 ; shot him
& # 187 ; . Such rimes are called compound or interrupt
. The distinctive feature of rimes of this type is that the combination of words is made to sound like one word & # 8211 ; a device which necessarily gives a conversational and sometimes a humourous touch to the vocalization. Compound rime may be set against what is called oculus & # 8211 ; rime
, where the letters and non the sounds are indistinguishable, as in love & # 8211 ; turn out, inundation & # 8211 ; brood, have & # 8211 ; grave.
It follows that compound rime is perceived in reading aloud, oculus & # 8211 ; rime can merely be perceived in the written poetry.
Many eye-rhymes are the consequence of historical alterations in the vowel sounds in certain places. The continuity of English poetry manifests itself besides in keeping of some braces of what were one time rhymed words. But on the analogy of these braces, new eye-rhymes have been coined and the theoretical account now maps alongside ear-rhymes.
Harmonizing to the manner the rimes are arranged within the stanza, certain theoretical accounts have crystallized, for case:
& # 8211 ; when the last words of two consecutive lines are rhymed. This is normally pronounced aa,
rimes & # 8211 ; abdominal aortic aneurysm
rimes & # 8211 ; abab
rimes & # 8211 ; abba
[ 11 ]
exists in all domains of human activity and assumes many-sided signifiers. It is a mighty arm in stirring up emotions whatever its nature or beginning, whether it is musical, mechanical or symmetrical as in architecture. The most general definition of beat may be expressed as follows: & # 171 ; beat is a flow, motion, process, etc. characterized by fundamentally regular return of elements or characteristics, as round, or speech pattern, in alternation with opposite or different elements of characteristics & # 187 ;
[ 6 ] .
Rhythm can be perceived merely provided that there is some sort of experience in catching the opposite elements or characteristics in their correlativity, and, what is of paramount importance, experience in catching regularity of jumping forms. Rhythm is a cyclicity, which requires specification as to the type of cyclicity. Inverse beat is regular sequence of weak and strong emphasis. A R
hythm in linguistic communication needfully demands resistances that alternate: long, abruptly ; stressed, unstressed ; high, low and other contrasting sections of address.
Academician V.M. Zhirmunsky suggests that the construct of beat should be distinguished from that of a meter
. Metre is any signifier of cyclicity in poetry, its sort being determined by the character and figure of syllables of which it consists. The meter is a rigorous regularity, consistence and changelessness. Rhythm is flexible and sometimes an attempt is required to comprehend it. In classical poetry it is perceived at the background of the meter. In tonic poetry & # 8211 ; by the figure of emphasiss in a line. In prose & # 8211 ; by the alternation of similar syntactical forms. Rhythm in poetry as a stylistic device is defined as a combination of the ideal metrical strategy and the fluctuations of it, fluctuations which are governed by the criterion. [ 2 ] There are the undermentioned rhythmic forms of poetry:
Rhythm is non a mere add-on to versify or emotive prose, which besides has its beat. Rhythm intensifies the emotions. It contributes to the general sense. Much has been said and writhen about beat in prose. Some research workers, in trying to happen rhythmical forms of prose, superimpose metrical steps on prose. But the parametric quantities of the beat in poetry and in prose are wholly different. [ 11 ]
In poesy all these phonic expressive agencies and stylistic devices play the most important function. Their realisation can be best seen on the illustration of the plants by Percy Bysshe Shelley, whose verse forms are frequently called & # 171 ; vocals & # 187 ; in order to underscore the tune of his address. [ 5 ]
2. Practical Part
2.1 Percy Bisshe Shelley & # 8217 ; s life and literary work
To understand better Shelley & # 8217 ; s mode of authorship, it & # 8217 ; s necessary to state foremost some words about his life and literary work.
As a author, Shelley has been criticised for his vague symbolism, rational haughtiness and intense self-pity. However, in his greatest works he transcends these restrictions and conveys a message of hope and aspiration through strikingly beautiful prose and poesy.
Percy Bysshe Shelley ( 4 August 1792 & # 8211 ; 8 July 1822 ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is critically regarded among the finest lyric poets in the English linguistic communication. He is most celebrated for such authoritative anthology poetry works as Ozymandias
, Ode to the West Wind
, To a Skylark
, and The Masque of Anarchy
, which are among the most popular and critically acclaimed verse forms in the English linguistic communication. His major plants, nevertheless, are long airy verse forms which included Prometheus Unbound
, Adona & # 239 ; s
, The Revolt of Islam
, and the unfinished work The Triumph of Life
. The Cenci
( 1819 ) and Prometheus Unbound
( 1820 ) were dramatic dramas in five and four Acts of the Apostless severally. He wrote the Gothic novels Zastrozzi
( 1810 ) and St. Irvyne
( 1811 ) and the short works The Assassins
( 1814 ) and The Coliseum
( 1817 ) .
Shelley was celebrated for his association with John Keats and Lord Byron. The novelist Mary Shelley was his 2nd married woman.
Shelley ne’er lived to see the extent of his success and influence. Some of his plants were published, but they were frequently suppressed upon publication. Up until his decease, with about 50 readers as his audience, it is said he made no more than 40 lbs from his Hagiographas. For illustration, in 1813, at age 21 Shelley & # 171 ; printed & # 187 ; his first major verse form, & # 171 ; Queen Mab & # 187 ;
. He set the imperativeness and ran 250 transcripts of this extremist and radical piece of land. & # 171 ; Queen Mab & # 187 ;
was infused with scientific linguistic communication and naturalising moral prescriptions for an laden humanity in an industrializing universe. He intended the verse form to be private and distributed it among his close friends and familiarities.
His early plants are characterized by intense political passion. In them he proposed republicanism, free love, godlessness and vegetarianism. They contain many autobiographical mentions and introduced the subject of battle and reclamation, which is present in much of his later plants. Musical forms of his plants, which are built on internal rime, vowel rhyme and run-on lines, clearly show the poet & # 8217 ; s command of his art. [ 9 ]
2.2 The analysis of the content of the vocal & # 171 ; To the Men of England & # 187 ;
First of all one should present the verse form itself:
Work force of England, wherefore Big Dipper
For the Lords who lay you low?
Wherefore weave with labor and attention,
The rich robes your autocrats have on?
Wherefore provender, and clothe and salvage,
From the cradle to the grave,
Those thankless drones who
Drain your perspiration & # 8211 ; nay, imbibe your blood!
Have ye leisure, comfort, composure,
Shelter, nutrient, love ‘s soft balm?
Or what is ye bargain so beloved
With your hurting and with your fright?
The seed ye sow, another reaps ;
The wealth ye discovery, another supports ;
The robes ye weave, another wears ;
The weaponries ye forge, another bears.
Sow seed & # 8211 ; but allow no tyrant reap ;
Find wealth & # 8211 ; allow no imposter pile ;
Weave robes & # 8211 ; let non the idle wear ;
Forge weaponries & # 8211 ; in your defense mechanism to bear.
With Big Dipper and spade, and hoe and loom,
Trace your grave, and construct your grave,
And weave your weaving sheet, boulder clay carnival
England be your burial chamber.
The text verse form in inside informations and its interlingual rendition into Russian, made by S.Y. Marshak can be seen in Supplement & # 8470 ; 1.
The vocal & # 171 ; To the Men of England & # 187 ; was written by Shelley in 1818, while he was remaining in Italy. It is an look of his outrage at the inhuman treatment of capitalist development. Thus it is imbued with acrimonious sarcasm and wrath. The verse form is built on a contrast between & # 171 ; Men of England & # 187 ; & # 8211 ; the laborers, who create existent value, and the Godheads & # 8211 ; & # 171 ; the thankless drones & # 187 ; who exploit the toilers & # 8211 ; & # 171 ; imbibe their blood & # 187 ; . Therefore, at first expression it is rather obvious that this vocal is meant to be an authorising anthem for the workers of England. However, upon closer scrutiny, it becomes rather clear that Shelley & # 8217 ; s message may be a small spot more complicated than it seems. [ 14 ]
The verse form possesses many confounding paradoxes, it is dominated by paradox. With all these characteristics Shelley & # 8217 ; s intentions no longer seem to be clear. However, when all of them are put together, it can be seen that the negative and misanthropic facets of the verse form service to do & # 171 ; To the Men of England & # 187 ; non merely a call of authorization, but an pressing, stirring call to action for the laborers of he state.
The first paradox arises in lines seven and eight:
& # 171 ; Those thankless drones who would
Drain you sweat-nay, imbibe your blood! & # 187 ;
In these lines the writer refers to the Godheads of workers as & # 171 ; thankless drones & # 187 ; . A drone is defined as a male bee that neither plants nor does any injury, because it is stingless. So, this portion undermines the power of the workers & # 8217 ; Godheads, abuses them and makes a jeer at them. However, the thought of Godheads being harmless and lazy is instantly followed by a really distressing statement & # 171 ; imbibe your blood & # 187 ; ,
which changes the tone of the message wholly. Not merely do the Godheads have power to run out the perspiration out of workers, but they drink their blood! The Godheads are compared to lamias, immortal leechs who render their victims powerless and dead.
The same self-contradictory thought appears throughout the verse form. The writer treats the Godheads as autocrats in lines four and 21, bespeaking their powers as absolute. At the same clip he calls them & # 171 ; stingless drones & # 187 ; in lines eleven and tick over in line 23, rendering them powerless and pathetic.
So, what are the Godheads? How does the poet want the reader to see them? Are they powerless, lazy drones or oppressive, immortal lamias, sucking the blood and life out of their victims?
Solving another enigma of the verse form can reply these inquiries. In the last two stanzas the verse form takes a dramatic bend. The poet displacements from commanding the workers to work for themselves and subvert their autocrats to conceal in their basements, holes and cells ( line 25 ) and to construct their Gravess. But the last stanza seems to diss the workers and to give up hope for them. It ends the verse form in a drab note, stating the workers to & # 171 ; Trace your grave and construct your grave, And weave your pall boulder clay carnival, England be your sepulcher. & # 187 ;
( lines 30 to thirty-two ) . Now, it seems as if the writer has been dissing the workers all along. He tells them that they allow themselves to be bullied by lazy, harmless work forces so that they may every bit good merely construct their ain Gravess. His linguistic communication displacements from romantic and sensitive in the beginning of the verse form, to harsh, dark monosyllabic words, like & # 171 ; with Big Dipper and spade and hoe and loom, Trace your grave and construct your grave & # 187 ;
in the last stanza. Therefore, the writer delivers the pound consequence. As a consequence, the last stanza creates a sense of urgency and choler, doing its message stand out from the remainder of the verse form.
So, has the verse form been seeking to authorise workers all along or has it been disdainfully knocking them? The reply is really both. Though the last stanza serves to countervail the remainder of the verse form, it doesn & # 8217 ; t overpower the initial message of the authorization. Alternatively, it really emphasizes the message. Throughout the beginning of the verse form, the writer is truly indicating out the manner things are. He recognizes the absurdness and unfairness of things. Then, in the center he tells the workers how it should be:
& # 171 ; Sow seed-but Lashkar-e-Taiba non tyrant reap ;
Find wealth, & # 8211 ; allow no impostor pile ;
Weave robes, & # 8211 ; let non the idle wear ;
Forge weaponries, & # 8211 ; in your defense mechanism to bear. & # 187 ;
( lines twenty-one to 24 ) .
And eventually, the last stanzas semen. The last two stanzas once more tell the workers of how things are:
& # 171 ; Ye see The steel ye tempered glimpse on ye & # 187 ; .
( lines twenty-seven to 28 ) .
Basically, he tells the workers that they are delving their ain Gravess by giving power to their ab initio harmless Godheads. Here, commanding them to delve their Gravess is different from the bids he gave them in lines twenty-one to 24. By stating them to delve their Gravess, he is merely stating them what is traveling to go on if they continue to populate with how things are.
What is really go oning is a apposition of two thoughts: of how things are, how things should be, and how things are once more. In this manner, the poet successfully delivers an image, a message. He successfully shows the contrast between the two thoughts by sandwiching one inside the repeats of the other. The in-between thought, lines twenty-one to twenty-four, which is that of authorization, so becomes like a bright, ruddy flower lodging out amidst a dark, drab landscape of world. Furthermore, the last stanzas presenting the concluding repeat of the initial imagination are so dark and pressing with a intimation of abuse that it stirs the emotion of the reader. A worker reading the verse form would hold been angered by the last stanza and be stirred to follow true message of the verse form in order to forestall the stoping from going a world.
2.3 The analysis of the vocal
& # 171 ; To The Men of England & # 187 ; from the point of position of stylistic phonetics
The stylistic analysis of the Shelley & # 8217 ; s vocal & # 171 ; To the Men of England & # 187 ; will be better understood with the aid of the following tabular array:
& # 171 ; Men of England, whyBig Dipper
For the Godheads who lay yelow
Here is the imperfect rime
& # 171 ;Tungsten
Here is the uncomplete compound rime,
There is besides a instance of initial rhyme
& # 171 ; Wherefore provender, and clothe, andsalvage
From the cradle to thegrave
& # 171 ; Have ye leisure, comfort,composure
Shelter, nutrient, love & # 8217 ; s gentlebalm
& # 171 ; Weave robes, & # 8211 ; allow no loaferwear
Forge weaponries, & # 8211 ; in your defense mechanism tobear
& # 171 ; Shrink to your basements, holes, andcells
In halls ye deck, anotherdwells
Here are the instances of the full or indistinguishable rime.
& # 171 ; The seed ye sow, another reaps ;
The wealth ye discovery, another supports ; & # 8230 ;
& # 171 ; Sow seed & # 8211 ; but allow no tyrant reap ;
Find wealth, & # 8211 ; allow no imposter pile ; & # 8230 ; & # 187 ;
The thoughts, expressed in these lines from 4th and 6th stanzas are expressed through a syntactical stylistic device of parallel buildings
& # 171 ; With Big Dipper and spade, and hoe andloom
Trace your grave, and construct yourgrave
And weave your pall, boulder claycarnival
England be yourburial chamber
The lines of the last stanza bear instances of compound rime
& # 171 ; Why shake the ironssye
& # 171 ; The robesye
another bears. & # 187 ;
One must observe that the usage of antediluvian signifier of pronounce
Having analyzed the vocal & # 171 ; To the Men of England & # 187 ; , it can be said that he possesses a great command, showing it through the usage of the phonic stylistic devices and expressive agencies. Through his strikingly beautiful prose and poesy he conveys a message of hope and aspiration, though he has been criticized for his vague symbolism and haughtiness.
In this vocal Shelley pays particular attending to rimes, particularly to full or perfect rimes, and besides to initial rhyme. With the aid of initial rhyme he makes his stanzas sound jussive mood and besides gives them a coloring of acrimonious sarcasm. The riming strategy of the verse form is pair, which is the most melodical one. [ 9 ]
All phonic expressive agencies, used by Shelley in the verse form, were introduced with the aid of syntactical stylistic devices and graphical agencies.
There are imperfect compound rimes in the two first stanzas and in the last 1. These compound or broken rimes produce an consequence of sinister warning.
There is no instances of direct or indirect onomatopoeia in the verse form, but the pick of sounds, particularly of consonants [ w ] , [ R ] , [ s ] makes the poem sound loom and sinister and on the same clip rather melodically, so it is even called vocal.
Throughout the verse form the antediluvian signifier of the pronoun & # 171 ; ye & # 187 ; was used. The usage of this antediluvian signifier makes the ambiance of the verse form more solemn and besides produces a certain melodical consequence, since the sound [ one ] repeats rather frequently throughout it.
The consequences of the probe of the verse form can be seen in Supplement & # 8470 ; 2.
So, the verse form & # 171 ; To the Men of England & # 187 ; was investigated from the point of position of the most widely used expressive agencies and stylistic devices, with the aid of the plants of different linguists and phoneticians, both Russian and foreign. After this probe the undermentioned sum-ups can be made:
– Among all the stylistic devices and expressive agencies, the phonic 1s are the most powerful, because they can bring forth any emotional consequence that an writer wants, they can add sedateness or badness to an vocalization or do it imperative, loom or badgering, or, on the contrary, soft and pleasant.
– Phonetic expressive agencies, such as modulation, emphasiss, pitch of the voice or address pacing and tamber are chiefly introduced in oratory address or while reading aloud and they are considered to be mutable 1s. That & # 8217 ; s why in composing one can come across merely phonic stylistic devices. Phonetic expressive agencies are introduced in composing with the aid of syntactical stylistic devices of different repeats, rhetorical inquiries, parallel buildings and so on, and besides with the aid of graphical agencies of exclaiming and inquiry Markss, commas, elans and points. That & # 8217 ; s why sometimes writers introduce their ain, writers & # 8217 ; punctuation, taking at stressing the ideas or points they want the reader to pay particular attending to or to believe about.
– Speaking about Shelley & # 8217 ; plants, their command through the usage of the phonic stylistic devices can non be denied. Through his strikingly beautiful prose and poesy he conveys a message of hope and aspiration, though he has been criticized for his vague symbolism and haughtiness.
– In the vocal & # 171 ; To the Men of England & # 187 ; Shelley pays particular attending to rimes, particularly to full or perfect rimes, and besides to initial rhyme. With the aid of initial rhyme he makes his stanzas sound jussive mood and besides gives them a coloring of acrimonious sarcasm. The riming strategy of the verse form is pair, which is the most melodical one. [ 9 ]
– There are imperfect compound rimes in the two first stanzas and in the last 1. These compound or broken rimes produce an consequence of sinister warning.
– There is no instances of direct or indirect onomatopoeia in the verse form, but the pick of sounds, particularly of consonants [ w ] , [ R ] , [ s ] makes the poem sound loom and sinister and on the same clip rather melodically, so it is even called vocal.
– Throughout the verse form the antediluvian signifier of the pronoun & # 171 ; ye & # 187 ; was used. The usage of this antediluvian signifier makes the ambiance of the verse form more solemn and besides produces a certain melodical consequence, since the sound [ one ] repeats rather frequently throughout it.
So, it is obvious that the sound of most words taken individually will hold small or no aesthetic value. It is in combination with other words that a word may get a coveted phonic consequence. The manner a separate word sounds may bring forth a certain euphonic consequence, but this is a affair of single perceptual experience and feeling and hence subjective. Thus the theory of sense & # 8211 ; independency of separate sounds is based on a subjective reading of sound associations and has nil to make with nonsubjective scientific information. However, the sound of a word, or more precisely the manner words sound in combination, can non neglect to lend something to the general consequence of the message, peculiarly when the sound consequence has been intentionally worked out. This can easy be recognized when analysing alliterative word combinations or the rimes in certain stanzas or from more luxuriant analysis of sound agreement and from this work it is clear that the plants by Percy Bysshe Shelley can be a really good illustration of it.
Although the importance and significance of the stylistic phonetics is obvious, still there is no clear definition of it, may be because of the largeness of the studied topics and their ambiguousness. Professor Seymour Chatman introduces the term & # 171 ; phonostylistics & # 187 ; and defines it as a topic the intent of which is & # 171 ; the survey of the ways in which an writer elects to restrain the phonemics of the linguistic communication beyond the normal demands of the phonic system. “ [ 8 ] As can be inferred from this citation, phonic expressive agencies and peculiarly phonic stylistic devices are non divergences from & # 171 ; the normal demands of the phonic system & # 187 ; but a manner of realizing the typical in the given text. [ 8 ]
Because of the ambiguousness of the topics of stylistic phonetics, some writers prefer even non to recite phonic stylistic devices, sing them rather similar and interdependent, for illustration I. Arnold. She states that on all degrees, particularly on the phonic one, all expressive agencies and stylistic devices are united by the coherence
. She defined coherence as & # 171 ; similar elements in & # 8216 ; similar place that make text coherent. This phenomenon may happen on different degrees & # 8211 ; phonic, structural or semantic. & # 187 ; [ 1 ] Her construct is really interesting and truly unconventional, but this work was made following the more by and large accepted constructs of I.R. Galperin. The usage of his constructs of stylistics and the thought of stylistic phonetics allowed doing a thorough analysis of the Shelley & # 8217 ; s vocal & # 171 ; To the Men of England & # 187 ; and understanding on its illustrations the ways of leaving a piece of work a strong emotional consequence with the aid of the sound features. It is necessary for the points of stylistic phonetics to be investigated further.
1. & # 1040 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1048 ; . & # 1042 ; . & # 171 ; & # 1057 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 187 ; , & # 171 ; & # 1055 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 187 ; 1981 & # 1075 ; .
2. & # 1046 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1042 ; . & # 1052 ; . & # 171 ; & # 1042 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 187 ; , 1925 & # 1075 ; .
3. & # 1055 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1041 ; . & # 171 ; & # 1051 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1052 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 187 ; , 1956 & # 1075 ; .
4. & # 1057 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1105 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1070 ; . & # 1052 ; . & # 171 ; & # 1054 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 187 ; , & # 171 ; & # 1042 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 187 ; , 1994 & # 1075 ; .
5. & # 1063 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1050 ; . & # 1042 ; . & # 171 ; & # 1042 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 187 ; , 1998 & # 1075 ; .
6. Baldick, Chris & # 171 ; Oxford Concise Dictionary of Literary Footings & # 187 ; , 1996
7. Bloomfield L. & # 171 ; Language. NY & # 187 ; , 1961
8. Chatman, Seymor & # 171 ; Stylistics: Qualitive and quantative & # 187 ; , 1967
9. Delaney D. , Ward G. , Fiorina C.R. & # 171 ; William claude dukenfields of Vision: English Literature in English & # 187 ; , & # 171 ; Longman & # 187 ; , 2009
10. Fonagy I. & # 171 ; Communication in Poetry & # 187 ; , 1961
11. Galperin I.R. & # 171 ; Stylistics & # 187 ; & # 171 ; Moscow Higher School & # 187 ; , 1977
12. Jakobson R. & # 171 ; Linguisticss and Poetry. Style in Language. & # 187 ; , 1929
13. Leontyeva S.F. & # 171 ; A Theoretical Course of English Phonetics & # 187 ; , 2004
14. Soshalskaya E.G. , Prokhorova V.L. & # 171 ; Stylistic Analysis & # 187 ; , & # 171 ; Moscow Higher School & # 187 ; , 1976
15. Webster & # 8217 ; s New World Dictionary, 2009