1 LINGUISTIC ASPECT OF EUPHEMISMS IN MODERN ENGLISH 7
1.1 Conceptual universe position behind euphemisms 7
1.2 Definition and map of euphemisms 8
1.3 The development of euphemisms 11
1.4 The etymology of euphemisms 13
1.5 Taboos and euphemisms 15
2 SEMANTIC WORD BEHIND EUPHEMISMS 17
2.1 Categorization of euphemisms on the semantic rule 17
3 EUPHEMISMS AS EXPRESSIVE MEANS AND STYLISTIC DEVICE IN MODERN ENGLISH 34
3.1 Feelingss and emotions caused by the procedure of inoffensive function 34
3.2 Interaction of emotions and cultural civilization in euphemisms 36
3.3 Cognitive construction of beginning and mark spheres in the procedure of new inoffensive nominations 38
3.4 Differences of inoffensive projection in image strategies and freshly
nominated euphemisms 40
3.5 Psychological facet of analyzing euphemisms and dysphemisms 42
APPENDIX A – Glossary of euphemisms 52
APPENDIX B – General categorization of euphemisms and dysphemisms from psychological point of position 58
APPENDIX C- Classification of euphemisms harmonizing to the thematical
Euphemisms for the bulk of people is the device to make humourous state of affairs. most can acquire along without them in mundane life, but they are found everyplace non merely in affectional prose but besides in the publicistic manner, in extremely emotional address, in utmost instances to decrease the impact of the state of affairs on the people doing it sound milder.
Our conceptual system plays a cardinal function in specifying our mundane worlds. The perceptual experience may be planetary or local. Global universe position is presented by philosophical, scientific, spiritual universe positions. Local universe position is presented through sociological, informational, physical, artistic universe positions. Conceptual universe position is really rich, it covers a batch of things. It contains different communicative types of thought, verbal and gestural. As the linguistic communication is the spirit of the people talking it, we may province that the interior signifiers of the linguistic communication and the conceptual universe position behind the linguistic communication is realized through linguistic communications. Any linguistic communication forms the universe position behind the linguistic communication and at the same clip it reflects universe other positions. The most of import domain of a adult male ’ s universe and his personality is the domain of emotions. It is the domain of psychological science and affectional ratings. Our emotional universe is one of the local universe positions behind the linguistic communication. The act of knowledge is emotionally coloured. Emotions cover all our domains of life. The nonsubjective universe is eternal, but a adult male is limited in the procedure of knowledge. Any universe position contains personal subjective knowledge. Thus we speak of personal, subjective reading of the nonsubjective universe. A adult male reacts to the outer and interior force per unit area by different provinces of activities: perceptual experience, showing wants, points of position, speech production, and physical activities.
Any euphemisms may be defined as a permutation of an agreeable or less violative look in topographic point of the 1 that may pique or propose something unpleasant to the hearer. It makes look less troublesome for the talker. Anthropocentric nature of euphemisms is well-known. Our cosmopolitan emotions are characterized by national distinctive features. The undermentioned linguists as Kacev A. M. , Keith Allan, Kate Burridge, Obvinceva O. V. , Neuman and Sibker investigated euphemisms as lingual and alone phenomena of the linguistic communication in comparative linguistics, stylistics, euphemisms in publicistic manner, matter-of-fact facet of euphemisms and their stylistic facet.
Our probe is based on the interaction of psychological science, linguistics and stylistics. We analyzed non merely inoffensive function in our conceptual system, but besides their impact on the hearer.
The object of our probe is euphemisms as semantic and stylistic phenomenon in the English linguistic communication.
The topic of survey is affectional prose in the English linguistic communication ( British and American literature ) .
The purposes of the paper are the undermentioned:
1. to systematise euphemisms on the semantic rule ;
2. to depict the interaction of emotions and cultural civilization in euphemisms ;
3. to look into, cognate construction of beginning and mark sphere in newly-nominated euphemisms ;
4. to look into psychological facet of inoffensive function.
To accomplish these purposes we set the undermentioned undertakings:
1. to detect scientific literature on the interaction of psychological science, linguistics and stylistics ;
2. to specify theoretical evidences of inoffensive function ;
3. to depict our conceptual system through euphemisms ;
4. to analyze the process of the formation of euphemisms.
The freshness of our probe lies in the new attack of the knowledge of the conceptual universe position behind the linguistic communication through euphemisms.
The actuality of the paper is defined by the necessity to analyze the nature of inoffensive function from beginning sphere to aim sphere.
The practical value of the paper consists of the application of the consequences of the probe in the class of stylistics, text reading, theory and pattern of interlingual rendition.
The undermentioned methods have been applied:
1. descriptive ;
2. comparative analysis of literature on stylistics, wording, semaseology, psycholinguistics ;
3. analysis of inoffensive, stylistic projections in the English literature.
The stuffs of our survey are:
1. illustrations from classical English literature ;
2. Russian – English lexicons.
Approbation of the paper was reported at the Scientific Conference held at the East – Kazakhstan State University in April, 2009.
Our hypothesis is that the impression of inoffensive function can be referred non merely to the sphere stylistic devices, but it can be accepted as a cosmopolitan agencies of the knowledge of the universe. Euphemisms intercepted from different beginnings underwent thorough lingual and stylistic analysis.
The first portion presents theoretical backgrounds of inoffensive function: the beginning, development, etymology, tabu and euphemisms. Euphemisms being defined as a lingual phenomenon have direct mention to stylistics where it is defined as a stylistic agencies.
The 2nd portion contains the information about semantic universe behind euphemisms. Categorizations of euphemisms on the semantic rule.
The 3rd portion is devoted to stylistic analysis of new nominative euphemisms, their dyslogistic colouring. Different feelings and emotions are involved into the procedure of inoffensive function. The description of the process of the formation of euphemisms is closely connected with the psychological facet of their survey.
We came to the decision that inoffensive function is found in all domains of our life. Euphemisms, which are meant to soften the impact of the force per unit area of the state of affairs on the talker, name instantly a line of equivalent word from which we choose the universe with dyslogistic colouring.
They may be used to denote the feeling of fright, shame, odium.
The resistance to euphemisms there are alleged dysphemisms, the words which are used to worsen the state of affairs to do it more violative. These words become ruling in the English vocabulary. Their negative intensions make people narrow their local universe position up to ruling negative feeling over positive 1s.
Our hypothesis was justified. It is truly a cosmopolitan agencies of the knowledge of the nonsubjective planetary universe. With euphemisms we connect really positive emotions that make our life easier and happier.
1 LINGUISTIC ASPECT OF EUPHEMISMS IN MODERN ENGLISH
1.1 Conceptual universe position behind euphemisms
World position is the consequence of religious universe of adult male, his reconsideration of the nonsubjective universe values. The universe image comes to a human being in the procedure of perceptual experience, rating, understanding interior religious work. It is possible to construct up a typology of linguistic communication and conceptual universe positions. It merely depends on the fact that who the topic of perceptual experience is: an grownup or a kid. The object of perceptual experience may be planetary or local universe position. Global universe position is presented by philosophical, scientific, spiritual universe positions. Local universe position is presented by sociological, informational, physical, artistic universe positions. Scientific universe position isn ’ t stable ; its present province is the ideal province of the present feature of the phase of scientific development and accomplishments. It changes historically with the alteration of paradigm of cognition.
Conceptual universe position is really rich ; it covers a batch of things. It contains and consists of different communicative types of thought, verbal and gestural things. It goes back to Humboldt ’ s doctrine of the kernel of the linguistic communication. Harmonizing to Humboldt, any linguistic communication is the spirit of the people talking it. This likely is based on the fact that the interior signifiers of the linguistic communication and the conceptual universe position behind the linguistic communication are connected and realized through the linguistic communication. Language participates in two procedures:
1. It forms the universe position behind the linguistic communication ;
2. It reflects and expresses other universe positions.
Language is a complicated thing. It is variable, mutable, unstable, but it contains some stable elements lending to a better apprehension among people.
The most of import domain of a adult male ’ s and a adult female ’ s personality is the domain of emotions. It is the domain of psychological science and affectional ratings. Emotional universe of a adult male is one of the local universe positions behind the linguistic communication. The act of knowledge is emotionally colored. Emotions cover all domains of human activities. They are really of import when we speak of a human ’ s factor in the linguistic communication. The image of the universe International Relations and Security Network ’ t merely the universe position behind the linguistic communication, but foremost of all, it is the subjective universe position of the existent universe created in the caput of a adult male.
The nonsubjective universe is eternal, but a adult male is limited in the procedure of knowledge. Any universe position behind the linguistic communication contains personal subjective knowledge of the universe. That is why we speak of personal, subjective reading of the nonsubjective universe. The linguistic communication universe position may be investigated in two facets:
1. Inactive ;
The first presents the universe position behind the linguistic communication as the consequence of the procedure that has already taken topographic point. The 2nd attack helps to understand how the universe position behind the linguistic communication is formed with the aid of different linguistic communication means. A adult male is a dynamic active human being. He fulfills three different types of actions: physical, rational, speech production. A adult male reacts to the outer and the inner force per unit area which may be found in different provinces of activities: perceptual experience, showing wants, points of position, emotions and feelings. Every type of activity, provinces of temper, reactions are governed by certain systems located in the variety meats of a human organic structure, which reacts to the outer force per unit area.
1.2 Definition and map of euphemisms
A euphemism is a permutation of an agreeable or less violative look in topographic point of one that may pique or propose something unpleasant to the hearer, or in the instance of doublespeak, to do it less troublesome for the talker. [ commendation needed ] It besides may be a permutation of a description of something or person instead than the name, to avoid uncovering secret, holy, or sacred names to the naive, or to befog the individuality of the topic of a conversation from possible eavesdroppers. Some euphemisms are intended to be amusing.
Euphemism, as is known, is a word or phrase used to replace an unpleasant word or look by a conventionally more acceptable one, for illustration, the word ‘to dice ‘ has bred the undermentioned euphemisms: to go through off, to run out, to be no more, to go, to fall in the bulk, to be gone, and the more bantering 1s: to kick the pail, to give up the shade. So euphemisms are synonyms which aim at bring forthing a intentionally mild consequence. Euphemism is sometimes figuratively called “ a whitewashing device ” . The lingual distinctive feature of euphemism prevarications in the fact that every euphemism must name up a definite equivalent word in the head of the reader or hearer.
Many euphemisms are so delightfully pathetic that everyone laughs at them. ( Well, about everyone: The people who call themselves the National Selected Morticians normally pull off to maintain from smiling. ) Yet euphemisms have really serious grounds for being. They conceal the things people fear the most — decease, the dead, the supernatural. They cover up the facts of life — of sex and reproduction and elimination — which necessarily remind even the most refined people that they are made of clay, or worse. They are beloved by persons and establishments ( authoritiess, particularly ) who are dying to show merely the handsomest possible images of themselves to the universe. And they are embedded so profoundly in our linguistic communication that few of us, even those who pride themselves on being plainspoken, of all time acquire through a twenty-four hours without utilizing them.
The same man of the worlds who look down their olfactory organs at small male childs ‘ room and other euphemisms of that like will nevertheless state that they are traveling to the bathroom when no bath is intended, – that Mary has been kiping about even though she has been acquiring cherished small shut-eye, – that John has passed off or even departed ( as if he ‘d merely do the last train to Darien ) , – and that Sam and Janet are friends, which sounds a batch better than “ illicit lovers. ”
Therefore, euphemisms are society ‘s basic tongue non franca. As such, they are outward and seeable marks of our inward anxiousnesss, struggles, frights, and shames. They are like radioactive isotopes. By following them, it is possible to see what has been ( and is ) traveling on in our linguistic communication, our heads, and our civilization.
A euphemism is the permutation of an unoffending look, or one with favourable associations, for an look that may pique because of its disagreeable associations.
Pass off is a euphemism for dice, put ( animate beings ) to kip for putting to death, perspire for perspiration, nurse for suckle, agent for undercover agent, dentures for false dentition.
Euphemisms are peculiarly common for the procedure of reproduction and elimination and for activities, people, and bodily parts involved in those procedures. Peoples vary in what they consider to be violative, and acceptance for blunt linguistic communication besides varies from period to period. A euphemism may finally get unpleasant associations and give manner to subsequently euphemisms: lavatory and toilet, themselves euphemisms, are often replaced by othe euphemisms, such as cloakroom.
Euphemisms can be used lawfully for niceness and tact, but they are dishonest when they are used to avoid confronting unpleasant activities or to hide and lead on. Dishonest utilizations are frequent in political and military linguistic communication: Hitler ‘s program for the extinction of the Jews was called the concluding solution, protective detention has been used for imprisonment, industrial action for work stoppages, constabularies action for war and armed reconnaissance for bombing [ 1, p.61 ] .
When a phrase is used as a euphemism, it frequently becomes a metaphor whose actual significance is dropped. Euphemisms may be used to conceal unpleasant or upseting thoughts, even when the actual term for them is non needfully violative. This type of euphemism is used in public dealingss and political relations, where it is sometimes called doublespeak. Sometimes, utilizing euphemisms is equated to politeness. There are besides superstitious euphemisms, based ( consciously or subconsciously ) on the thought that words have the power to convey bad luck ( for illustration, non talking the word “ malignant neoplastic disease ” ; see etymology and common illustrations below ) , and there are spiritual euphemisms, based on the thought that some words are sacred, or that some words are spiritually endangering ( tabu ; see etymology and spiritual euphemisms below ) .
Euphemisms are words we use to soften the world of what we are pass oning to a given hearer or reader. They are a cosmopolitan characteristic of linguistic communication use ; all civilizations typically use them to speak about things they find terrorizing ( e.g. , war, illness, decease ) because, anthropologically, “ to talk a name was to arouse the deity whose power so had to be confronted ” [ 10, p. 69-75 ] . Similarly, we use euphemisms to show tabu, as we feel, on some instinctual degree, that the euphemism keeps us at safe distance from the tabu itself. Another usage of euphemisms is to promote the position of something ( e.g. , utilizing pedagogue for instructor, lawyer for attorney ) ; but in general, we use euphemisms to show what is socially hard to show in direct footings.
1.3 The development of euphemisms
Euphemisms may be formed in a figure of ways. Circumlocution or periphrasis is one of the most common — to “ talk around ” a given word, connoting it without stating it. Over clip, periphrasiss become recognized as established euphemisms for peculiar words or thoughts.
To change the pronunciation or spelling of a tabu word ( such as a swear word ) to organize a euphemism is known as forbidden distortion. There is an amazing figure of forbidden distortions in English, of which many refer to the ill-famed four-letter words. In American English, words which are unacceptable on telecasting, such as screws, may be represented by distortions such as monster — even in kids ‘s sketchs. Some illustrations of Cockney riming slang may function the same intent — to name a individual a berk sounds less violative than to name him a bitch, though berk is short for Berkeley Hunt which rhymes with bitch.
Bureaucracies such as the armed forces and big corporations often spawn euphemisms of a more deliberate ( and to some, more sinister ) nature. Organizations coin doublespeak looks to depict obnoxious actions in footings that seem impersonal or unoffending. For illustration, a term used in the yesteryear for taint by radioactive isotopes is Sunshine units.
Military organisations kill people, sometimes intentionally and sometimes by error ; in doublespeak, the first may be called neutralizing the mark and the 2nd indirect harm. Violent devastation of non-state enemies may be referred to as mollification. Two common footings when a soldier is by chance killed ( buys the farm ) by their ain side are friendly fire or blue on blue ( BOBbing ) — “ purchase the farm ” has its ain interesting history.
Execution is an constituted euphemism mentioning to the act of seting a individual to decease, with or without judicial procedure. It originally referred to the executing, i.e. , the transporting out, of a decease warrant, which is an mandate to a sheriff, prison warden, or other functionary to set a named individual to decease. In legal use, executing can still mention to the transporting out of other types of orders ; for illustration, in U.S. legal use, a writ of executing is a way to implement a civil money judgement by prehending belongings. Likewise, deadly injection itself may be considered a euphemism for seting the inmate to decease by poisoning.
Abortion originally meant premature birth, and came to intend birth before viability. The term “ abort ” was extended to intend any sort of premature stoping, such as aborting the launch of a projectile. Euphemisms have developed around the original significance. Abortion, by itself, came to intend induced abortion or elected abortion entirely. Hence the parallel term self-generated abortion, an “ act of nature ” , was dropped in favour of the more neutral-sound abortion [ 37, p. 137 ] .
Industrial unpleasantness such as pollution may be toned down to outgassing or overflow — descriptions of physical procedures instead than their detrimental effects. Some of this may merely be the application of precise proficient nomenclature in the topographic point of popular use, but beyond preciseness, the advantage of proficient nomenclature may be its deficiency of emotional undertones and the likeliness the general populace ( at least ab initio ) will non acknowledge it for what it truly is ; the disadvantage being the deficiency of real-life context. Footings like “ waste ” and “ effluent ” are besides avoided in favour of footings such as by-product, recycling, rescued H2O and wastewater. In the oil industry, oil-based boring claies were merely renamed organic stage boring clay, where organic stage is a euphemism for “ oil ” .
Latinate Roots of Euphemisms
A great figure of euphemisms in English come from words with Latinate roots. Farb ( 1974 ) writes that after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066,
“ … the community began to do a differentiation between a genteel and an obscene vocabulary, between the Latinate words of the upper category and the lustful Anglo-Saxon of the lower. That is why a duchess perspired and expectorated and menstruated — while a kitchen amah sweated and spat and bled. ” [ 28, p. 46-49 ]
The lingual differences between crude, direct Anglo-Saxon words and elegant, frequently inoffensive Latinate words have been mostly ignored in linguistic communication acquisition, despite the fact that cognition of these differences is indispensable to natural, native like usage of English. Similarly, euphemisms themselves – Latinate or otherwise — have been ignored in linguistic communication acquisition, even though they are normally semantically opaque to scholars and go on to be invented and employed.
Below is a short glossary of common words with some of their current, popular euphemisms. ( Some euphemisms, it will be seen, have become euphemized themselves. ) Following the glossary is a lesson for scholars at the intermediate degree.
1.4 The etymology of euphemisms
The word euphemism comes from the Grecian word euphemo, intending “ auspicious/good/fortunate speech/kind ” which in bend is derived from the Grecian root-words Eu ( ε υ ) , “ good/well ” + pheme ( φ ή μ η ) “ speech/speaking ” . The eupheme was originally a word or phrase used in topographic point of a spiritual word or phrase that should non be spoken aloud ; etymologically, the eupheme is the antonym of the blaspheme ( evil-speaking ) . The primary illustration of tabu words necessitating the usage of a euphemism are the indefinable names for a divinity, such as Persephone, Hecate, or Nemesis [ 24, p. 159 ]
Historical linguistics has revealed hints of forbidden distortions in many linguistic communications. Several are known to hold occurred in Indo-European linguistic communications, including the original Proto-Indo-European words for bear ( *rtkos ) , wolf ( *wlkwos ) , and cervid ( originally, Hart ; the distortion probably occurred to avoid confusion with bosom ) . In different Indo-germanic linguistic communications, each of these words has a hard etymology because of tabu distortions — a euphemism was substituted for the original, which no longer occurs in the linguistic communication. An illustration is the Slavic root for bear — *medu-ed- , which means “ honey feeder ” . One illustration in English is “ donkey ” replacing the old Indo-European-derived word “ buttocks ” . The word “ blowball ” ( lit. , tooth of king of beasts, mentioning to the form of the foliages ) is another illustration, being a replacement for pissenlit, intending “ wet the bed ” , a possible mention to the fact that blowball was used as a diuretic [ 17, p. 46 ]
In some linguistic communications of the Pacific, utilizing the name of a asleep head is forbidden. Amongst autochthonal Australians, it is out to utilize the name, image, or audio-visual recording of the asleep, so that the Australian Broadcasting Corporation now publishes a warning to autochthonal Australians when utilizing names, images or audio-visual recordings of people who have died.
Since people are frequently named after mundane things, this leads to the Swift development of euphemisms. These linguistic communications have a really high rate of vocabulary alteration [ 3, p.167 ] .
In a similar mode, classical Chinese texts were expected to avoid utilizing characters contained within the name of the presently governing emperor as a mark of regard. In these cases, the relevant ideogram were replaced by homophones. While this pattern creates an extra furrow for anyone trying to read or interpret texts from the classical period, it does supply a reasonably accurate agencies of dating the paperss under consideration.
The common names of illicit drugs, and the workss used to obtain them, frequently undergo a procedure similar to taboo distortion, because new footings are devised in order to discourse them in secret in the presence of others. This procedure frequently occurs in English ( e.g. velocity or grouch for Methedrine ) . It occurs even more in Spanish, e.g. the distortion of names for hemp: mota ( lit. , “ something which moves ” on the black market ) , replacing grifa ( lit. , “ something coarse to the touch ” ) , replacing marijuana ( a female personal name, Mar í a Juana ) , replacing ca ñ amo ( the original Spanish name for the works, derived from the Latin genus name Cannabis ) . All four of these names are still used in assorted parts of the Hispanophone universe, although ca ñ amo ironically has the least underworld intension, and is frequently used to depict industrial hemp, or legitimate medically-prescribed hemp [ 19, p. 107 ]
1.5 Taboos and euphemisms
Introduction euphemisms and dysphemisms is better to make with the shaping footings “ euphemism ” and “ dysphemism ” . “ A euphemism is used as an option to a dispreferred look, in order to avoid possible loss of face: either one ‘s ain face or, through giving offense, that of the audience, or some 3rd party ” [ 5, p. 41 ] . Euphemism is a word or an look that people use alternatively of indecent, indelicate, rude, excessively direct or impolite words and looks. The opposite sides of euphemisms are forbidden words and dysphemisms. “ A dysphemism is an look with intensions that are violative either about the denotatum or to the audience, or both, and it is substituted for a impersonal or euphemistics look for merely that ground ” [ 18, p. 76 ] . It is of import to state that euphemisms are opposed with tabu words because of cause and consequence dealingss. Dysphemisms are opposed with euphemisms because of the rating content footing. The map of dysphemisms is to worsen a denotatum with any rating content at the disbursal of more negative one.
A dysphemism is a word or an look that is by and large used to pique person intentionally. It paints a negative image without apparently lying. For illustration the phrase “ My foreman is something else ” does n’t transport something cursing spot it is slanted towards negativeness.
What is really considered to be inoffensive and what is considered to be offensive depends on the talker and the manner he or she interprets the message. At the same clip a euphemism may free its dignifying features and turn into a dysphemism and it is required to be replaced. For illustration, the word “ black ” was a euphemism for the word with a negative intension “ negro ” [ 21, p. 60 ] . But the frequent utilizing the word “ black ” as a euphemism had deleted its significance and has transferred the word “ black ” to the class of the direct names.
The psychological facet pays attending to “ straight to the bring forthing motivations ” .
In lexicology the perusal of euphemisms and dysphemisms from the psychological point of position is well-done. At present harmonizing to the bring forthing motivations there are five groups of euphemisms that have appeared because of: 1 ) superstitious notion, 2 ) the feeling of fright, 3 ) understanding and compassion, 4 ) the feeling of shame and, 5 ) the feeling of niceness.
To V. I. Zabotkina ‘s sentiment some matter-of-fact grounds are the base of the bring forthing motivations. At first, it is a niceness, which has defined the creative activity of euphemisms for physical and mental defects. Second, forbidden words, when euphemisms were used alternatively of direct names of diseases and deceases. Third, it ‘s the influence the general readers. Fourthly, it ‘s restricness, which has influenced the creative activity of euphemisms within the different societal illegal groups [ 23, p.98-103 ] .
Harmonizing to А . M. Kacev ‘s categorization of bring forthing motivations there are three emotional domains: fright, odium and shame [ 24, p. 68 ] .
Linguists say these or those emotions are bring forthing motivations for the creative activity both euphemisms and dysphemisms. And possibly the development of nominations with dyslogistic rating content was the base of doing dysphemisms.
At present this sort of words gets into high degree of vocabulary. Using words with negative significance and invectives the talker feels the charming influence that he or she is everything allowed. The domination of such words is a natural thing because people perceive negative sides of life more violent than positive 1s. The latter is regarded as normal and that is why they are less affectional. Of class it is easier to keep person up to dishonor than to praise person to the skies.
The general categorization of euphemisms and dysphemisms from the psychological point of position can be represented in a tabular array.
2. SEMANTIC WORLD BEHIND EUPHEMISMS
2.1 Categorization of euphemisms on the thematic rule
Many euphemisms fall into one or more of these classs:
Footings of foreign and/or proficient beginning ( derri è rhenium, sexual intercourse, perspire, urinate, security breach, mierda de toro, contraceptive, fecal matters occur, sheisst ) .
Abbreviations ( SOB for boy of a bitch, BS for Irish bull, TS for tough crap, SOL for denouncing out of fortune or PDQ for reasonably darn ( erectile dysfunction ) quick. BFD for large screw trade, STFU or STHU for closing the fuck/hell up, RTFM for read the sleep togethering manual ) .
Abbreviations utilizing a spelling alphabet, particularly in military contexts ( Charlie Foxtrot for “ Cluster screw ” , Whiskey Tango Foxtrot Oscar for “ What the screw, over? “ , Bravo Sierra for “ Irish bull ” — See Military slang ) .
Plaies on abbreviations ( H-e-double hockey sticks for “ snake pit ” , “ a-double serpents ” or “ a-double-dollar-signs ” for “ buttocks ” , Sugar Honey Iced Tea for “ crap ” , bee with an scabies or enchantress with a capital B for “ bitch ” , catch ( or see ) you following Tuesday ( or Thursday ) for “ bitch ” ) .
Use in largely clinical scenes ( PITA for “ hurting in the buttocks ” patient ) .
Abbreviations for phrases that are non otherwise common ( PEBKAC for “ Problem Exists Between Keyboard And Chair ” , ID Ten T Error or ID-10T Error for “ Idiot ” , TOBAS for “ Take Out Back And Shoot ” ) [ 6, p. 94 ] .
Abstractions and ambiguities ( it for body waste, the state of affairs for gestation, traveling to the other side for decease, do it or come together in mention a sexual act, tired and emotional for inebriation. ) .
Indirections ( behind, undergarments, genitalias, live together, travel to the bathroom, kip together, sub-navel activities ) .
Mispronunciation ( goldarnit, dadgummit, efing degree Celsius ( sleep togethering bitch ) , freakin, be-atch, shoot — See minced curse ) .
Litotess or reserved understatement ( non precisely thin for “ fat ” , non wholly true for “ lied ” , non unlike rip offing for “ an case of rip offing ” ) .
Changing nouns to qualifiers ( makes her look slutty for “ is a slattern ” , rightist component for “ Right Wing ” ) .
Slang ( for eg. pot for marihuana, laid for sex and so on ) .
There is some dissension over whether certain footings are or are non euphemisms. For illustration, sometimes the phrase visually impaired is labeled as a politically right euphemism for blind. However, ocular damage can be a broader term, including, for illustration, people who have partial sight in one oculus, or even those with uncorrected hapless vision, a group that would be excluded by the word blind [ 11, p. 65 ] .
There are three antonyms of euphemism: dysphemism, cacophemism, and power word. The first can be either violative or simply humorously deprecating with the 2nd one by and large used more frequently in the sense of something intentionally violative. The last is used chiefly in statements to do a point seem more correct.
2.1.1 Religious euphemisms
Euphemisms for divinities every bit good as for spiritual patterns and artefacts day of the month to the earliest of written records. Protection of sacred names, rites, and constructs from the naive has ever given rise to euphemisms, whether it be for exclusion of foreigners or the keeping of power among choice practicians. Examples from the Egyptians and every other western faith abound.
Euphemisms for God and Jesus, such as gosh and g-force, are used by Christians to avoid taking the name of God in a conceited curse, which would go against one of the Ten Commandments.
When praying, Jews will typically utilize the word “ Adonai ” ( ‘my Lord ‘ ) . However, when in a conversational scene, this is deemed inappropriate among Jews, and so typically Jews replace the word “ Adonai ” with the word “ HaShem ” , which literally means, “ The Name ” . It is noteworthy that “ Adonai ” is itself a word that refers to the Jewish God ‘s name, י ה ו ה or YHWH, the original pronunciation of which is unknown due to a deficiency of vowels. It was translated as Jehovah for some centuries, but bookmans now agree that it was more likely Yahweh. Traditionally, Hebrews have seen the name of God as indefinable and therefore 1 that must non be spoken. Harmonizing to the Torah, when Moses saw the combustion shrub, he asked God, “ who are you? ” The reply he heard was, “ I am that I am ” . Thus, Jews have for centuries thought that the name of the Almighty is indefinable, because harmonizing to their logic pronouncing it would be tantamount to naming oneself God [ 6, p. 86 ] .
Euphemisms for snake pit, damnation, and the Satan, on the other manus, are frequently used to avoid raising the power of the antagonist. The most celebrated in the latter class is the look what the devils and its discrepancies, which does non mention to the celebrated British author but alternatively was a popular euphemism for Satan in its clip. In the Harry Potter books, the evil ace Lord Voldemort is normally referred to as “ He Who Must Not Be Named ” or “ You-Know-Who ” . However, the character Professor Dumbledore is quoted as stating in the first book of the series that “ Fear of a name merely increases fright of the thing itself ” .
2.1.2 Excretory euphemisms
While urinate and defecate are non euphemisms, they are used about entirely in a clinical sense. The basic Anglo-Saxon words for these maps, urine and crap, are considered coarsenesss and unacceptable in general usage, despite the usage of urine in the King James Bible ( in Isaiah 36:12 and elsewhere ) .
“ Brown Material ” Road.
The word manure, mentioning to carnal fecal matters used as fertiliser for workss, literally means “ worked with the custodies ” ( from the Latin: hand, adult male ū s — “ manus ” ) , touching to the commixture of manure with Earth. Several menagerie market the by-product of elephants and other big herbivores as Zoo Doo or Zoopoop, and there is a trade name of poulet manure available in garden shops under the name Cock-a-Doodle Doo. Besides, a trade name of sheep manure is called “ Baa Baa Doo. ” Similarly, the abbreviation BS, or the word bull, frequently replaces the word Irish bull in polite society. ( The term bullshit itself by and large means prevarications or bunk, and non the actual “ crap of a bull ” , doing it a dysphemism ) .
There are any figure of lengthier circumlocutions for elimination used to pardon oneself from company, such as to pulverize one ‘s nose, to see a adult male about a Canis familiaris ( or Equus caballus ) , to drop the childs off at the pool or to let go of the cocoa sureties ( these looks could really be regarded as dysphemisms ) . Slang looks which are neither peculiarly inoffensive nor offensive, such as take a leak, organize a separate class [ 8, p. 29 ] .
In some linguistic communications, assorted other sensitive topics give rise to euphemisms and dysphemisms. In Spanish, one such topic is category and position. The word Se ñ orito is an illustration, although the euphemism treadmill has turned it to a depreciation, at least in Mexico.
2.1.3 Sexual euphemisms
The Latin term pudendum and the Greek term ( aidoion ) for the genitalias literally mean “ black thing ” . Groin, fork, and loins refer to a larger part of the organic structure, but are inoffensive when used to mention to the genitalias. The word masturbate is derived from Latin, the word hand significance manus and the word sturbare intending to sully. In adult narratives, the words rosebud and sea star are frequently used as euphemisms for anus, by and large in the context of anal sex. The daze athlete Howard Stern one time promoted the euphemism “ balloon knot ” for the anus, mentioning to the external visual aspect of the tegument environing the sphincter musculus.
Sexual intercourse was one time a euphemism derived from the more general term intercourse by itself, which merely meant “ meeting ” but now is usually used as a equivalent word for the longer phrase, therefore doing the town of Intercourse, Pennsylvania, a topic of gags in modern use.
The “ baseball metaphors for sex ” are possibly the most celebrated and widely-used set of polite euphemisms for sex and relationship behaviour in the U.S. The metaphors encompass footings like “ hitting it off ” for a good start to relationship, “ Striking out ” for being luckless with a love involvement, and “ running the bases ” for come oning sexually in a relationship. The “ bases ” themselves, from first to third, stand for assorted degrees of sexual activity from Gallic snoging to “ petting ” , itself a euphemism for manual venereal stimulation, all of which is short of “ hiting ” or “ approaching place ” , sexual intercourse. “ Hiting a place tally ” describes sex during the first day of the month, “ batting both ways ” or “ batting for the other squad ” describes androgyny or homosexualism severally, and “ larceny bases ” refers to originating new degrees of sexual contact without invitation. Baseball-related euphemisms besides abound for the “ equipment ” ; “ Bat and balls ” are a common mention to the male genital organ, while “ glove ” or “ mitt ” can mention to the female anatomy.
There are many euphemisms for birth control devices, sometimes even propagated by the makers: Condoms are known as “ gum elastics ” , “ sheaths ” , “ love baseball mitts ” , “ plunging suits ” , “ waterproofs ” , “ Rebels ” ( in Ireland and to a lesser grade Britain ) etc. The birth control pill is known merely as “ The Pill ” , and other methods of birth control are besides given generalised euphemisms like “ The Patch ” , “ The Sponge ” , “ Shots ” , etc. There are besides many euphemisms for menses, such as “ holding the painters in ” , being “ on the shred ” , “ winging the flag ” ( originally a euphemism for hanging out the bedsheet after a nuptials dark as a testament to the adult female ‘s virginity ) , or it merely being “ that clip of the month ” , Munster playing at place ( Irish ) [ 32, p. 108 ] .
Euphemisms are besides common in mention to sexual orientations and life styles. For illustration in the film “ Closer ” the character played by Jude Law uses the euphemism “ He valued his privateness ” for homosexual and “ He enjoyed his privateness ” for a showy homosexual. Among common euphemisms for homophiles, “ homosexual ” ( the arcane significance of the word ‘gay ‘ meant dissolute, hedonic and a lover of pleasance but is now taken to intend the stereotyped showy personality of homosexual work forces ) and “ sapphic ” ( in mention to the poet Sappho of Lesbos ) are the lone two that are by and large acceptable in society. Other euphemisms for a homosexual, such as gay, fagot, fairy ( originally a verb intending “ work ” , subsequently applied to a freshman university pupil who performed jobs for an older pupil — by extension, person who is subservient, weak, or unmanfully ) , bulldyke or merely dyke, dike ( mentioning to a sapphic presuming the “ male ” function of a relationship ) etc. have comparatively rapidly acquired a vulgar intension, and even “ homosexual ” and “ sapphic ” have negative intensions in mainstream society depending on the tone of the conversation. The look “ that ‘s so cheery ” has come into frequent dyslogistic use in the U.S.
As an aside, the usage of euphemisms for sexual activity has grown under the force per unit area of recent opinions by the Federal Communications Commission sing what constitutes “ nice ” on-air broadcast address. The FCC included many good known euphemisms in its lists of banned footings but indicated that even new and unknown mintages might be considered indecorous one time it became clear what they referenced. George Carlin ‘s “ Seven Words You Ca n’t Say On Television ” evolved into the “ Incomplete List of Impolite Words ” , available in text and audio signifier, and contains 100s of euphemisms and dysphemisms to genitalia, the act of holding sex, assorted signifiers of sex, sexual orientations, etc. that have all become excessively dyslogistic for polite conversation, including such luminaries as “ acquiring your pole varnished ” and “ eating the tuna greaser ” . Carlin besides did a spot on the utilizations of the word “ screw ” , originally merely a dysphemism for the sex act but going an adverb, adjectival, noun, etc. This “ diverseness ” is besides mentioned on in the film The Boondock Saints after the chief characters commit a mass slaying of Russian rabble foremans followed by a violent gag on a friend who is in the Mafia [ 29, p. 67 ] .
2.1.4 Euphemisms for decease
The English linguistic communication contains legion euphemisms related to deceasing, decease, entombment, and the people and topographic points which deal with decease. The pattern of utilizing euphemisms for decease is likely to hold originated with the charming belief that to talk the word “ decease ” was to ask for decease ; where to “ pull Death ‘s attending ” is the ultimate bad luck — a common theory holds that decease is a tabu topic in most English-speaking civilizations for exactly this ground. It may be said that one is non dying, but melting rapidly because the terminal is close. Peoples who have died are referred to as holding passed off or passed or departed. Deceased is a euphemism for “ dead ” , and sometimes the asleep is said to hold gone to a better topographic point, but this is used chiefly among the spiritual with a construct of Heaven.
Some Christians frequently use phrases such as gone to be with the Lord or called to higher service ( this latter look being peculiarly prevalent in the Salvation Army ) or “ graduated ” to show their belief that physical decease is non the terminal, but the beginning of the Fuller realisation of salvation.
There are many euphemisms for the dead organic structure, some polite and some profane, every bit good as dysphemisms such as worm nutrient, or dead meat. Modern riming slang contains the look brown staff of life. The cadaver was one time referred to as the shroud ( or house or tenement ) of clay, and modern funerary workers use footings such as the loved one ( rubric of a novel about Hollywood morticians by Evelyn Waugh ) or the beloved departed. ( They themselves have given up the euphemism funeral manager for grief healer, and keep agreement conferences with relations. ) Among themselves, mortuary technicians frequently refer to the cadaver as the client. A late dead individual may be referred to as “ the late John Doe ” . The footings graveyard for “ cemetery ” and set abouting for “ burial ” are so well-established that most people do non even acknowledge them as euphemisms. In fact, project has taken on a negative intension, as morticians have a oblique repute [ 34, p. 53 ] .
Contemporary euphemisms and dysphemisms for decease tend to be rather colourful, and person who has died is said to hold passed off, passed on, checked out, seize with teeth the large one, kicked the pail, seize with teeth the dust, popped their getas, pegged it, carked it, turned their toes up, bought the farm ( origin unknown, but one popular theory is that it comes from the G.I. Insurance Policy as the sum of money the following of family would have was adequate to purchase a farm [ commendation needed ] ) . , cashed in their french friess, croaked, given up the shade ( originally a more respectful term, californium. the decease of Jesus as translated in the King James Version of the Bible Mark 15:37 ) , gone south, gone west, shuffled off this mortal spiral ( from William Shakespeare ‘s Hamlet ) , Run down the drape and joined the Choir Invisible, or assumed room temperature ( really a dysphemism in usage among mortuary technicians ) . When buried, they may be said to be forcing up daisies, kiping the large slumber, taking a soil sleep, look intoing out the grass from underneath or six pess under. There are 100s of such looks in usage. ( Old Burma-Shave jangle: “ If daisies are your favourite flower, maintain pushin ’ up those stat mis per hr! ” ) In Edwin Muir ‘s ‘The Horses ‘ a euphemism is used to demo the riddance of the human race ‘The seven yearss war that put the universe to kip. ‘ [ 7, p. 67 ] .
“ Euthanasia ” besides attracts euphemisms. One may set one out of one ‘s wretchedness, put one to kip, or have one put down, the latter two phrases being used chiefly with Canis familiariss and cats who are being or have been euthanized by a veterinarian. ( These footings are non normally applied to worlds, because both medical moralss and jurisprudence deprecate mercy killing. ) In fact, Dr. Bernard Nathanson has pointed out that the word “ mercy killing ” itself is a euphemism, being Grecian for “ good decease ” .
There are a few euphemisms for killing which are neither respectful nor playful, but instead clinical and detached. Some illustrations of this type are terminate, wet work, to take attention of one or to take them for a drive, to make them in, to away, to take them out, to snuff them out, frag, fume, lacing, whack or waste person. To cut loose or open up on person or something means “ to hit at with every available arm ” [ 34, p. 67 ] .
There are besides many dysphemisms, particularly for decease, which are euphemisms or dysphemisms for other unpleasant events and therefore are unpleasant in their actual significance, used to generalise a bad event. “ Having your buttocks handed to you ” , “ left for the rats ” , “ toasted ” , “ roasted ” , “ burned ” , “ pounded ” , “ set over the barrel ” , “ screwed over ” or other footings normally describe decease or the province of at hand decease, but besides are common in depicting licking of any sort such as a demeaning loss in a athletics or picture game, being below the belt treated or cast aside in concern personal businesss, being severely beaten in a battle, and similar.
To end with bias by and large means to stop one ‘s employment without possibility of rehire ( as opposed to put off, where the individual can anticipate rehire if concern picks up ) , but the related term to end with utmost bias now normally means to kill. The adjectival extreme may on occasion be omitted. In a celebrated line from the film Apocalypse Now, Captain Willard is told to end Colonel Kurtz ‘s committee “ with utmost bias ” . An acronym, TWEP has been coined from this phrase, which can be used as a verb: “ He was TWEPed/TWEPped. ”
The Dead Parrot Sketch from Monty Python ‘s Flying Circus contains an extended list of euphemisms for decease, mentioning to the deceased parrot that the character played by John Cleese had purchased. The popularity of the study has itself increased the popularity of some of these euphemisms — so, it has introduced another euphemism for decease, “ pining for the fiords ” — although in the study that phrase was used by the store proprietor to asseverate that the parrot was non dead, but was simply quiet and brooding. A similar transition occurs near the beginning of The Twelve Chairs, where Bezenchuk, the mortician, astonishes Vorobyaninov with his categorization of people by the euphemisms used to talk of their deceases. The game Dungeon Siege contains many euphemisms for decease every bit good [ 36, p.49 ] .
Besides, a scene in the movie Patch Adams features Patch ( Robin Williams ) dressed in an angel costume, reading out assorted equivalent word and euphemisms for the phrase “ to decease ” to a adult male death of malignant neoplastic disease. This evolves into a competition between the two work forces to see who can come up with more, and better, euphemisms, stoping when Spot comes up with “ and if we bury you ass up, we ‘ll hold a topographic point to park my motorcycle. ” ( This is really an old Danish gag used about the people from Å Rhus ― who, still harmonizing to popular wit, can besides take to be buried with their olfactory organs above the surface, in order for them to be used as electrical stoppers. )
The name of the small town of Ban Grong Greng in Thailand is a euphemism for Death Village. It literally means the Village of the Dreaded Gong. It is so named because it is the place to Wat Grong Greng ( temple of the awful tam-tam ) at which the combustion of organic structures at funerals is preceded by the whipping of a tam-tam.
2.1.5 Euphemisms in occupation rubrics
Euphemisms are common in occupation rubrics ; some occupations have complicated rubrics that make them sound more impressive than the common names would connote. Many of these euphemisms may include words such as applied scientist, though in fact the people who do the occupation are non accredited in technology. Extreme instances, such as sanitation applied scientist for janitor, or ‘transparent-wall care officer ‘ for window cleansing agent, are cited humorously more frequently than they are used earnestly. Another illustration is Henny Youngman ‘s gag that his brother-in-law claimed to be a “ diamond cutter ” — his occupation was to cut down the lawn at Yankee Stadium. Less utmost instances, such as keeper for janitor or administrative helper for secretary, are considered more footings of regard than euphemisms. Where the work itself is seen as unsavory, a euphemism may be used, for illustration “ rodent officer ” for a disinfestation officer, or “ cemetery secret agent ” for a gravedigger.
2.1.6 Phraseological euphemisms in modern English
The term “ euphemism ” ( from Greek “ eu ” – “ good ” , “ phemi ” – “ I am talking ” ) has been used to denote a definite stylistic device for many centuries. As a lingual phenomenon it has been analyzed since the XIXth century but merely in the last decades the job of euphemisms acquired its widespread popularity.
Linguists analyze different types of euphemisms as parts of lexical system of different linguistic communications. The job of phraseological euphemisms hasn ’ t been in the focal point of scientists ’ attending yet. On the whole, the procedure of eupheminisation is considered to be a complex and multilateral lingual phenomenon characterized by three interconnected and interrelated facets: societal, phycological and lingual proper. The most of import is the lingual one which is connected with ameliorating linguistic communication rating of something negative bing in the existent universe. Linguists are united in their sentiment that euphemisms are extralinguistic in their nature. Still there is a great divergence of sentiments refering societal and psychological causes of euphemisms, the most of import standards of eupheminisation, stylistic mention and the use of euphemisms in existent address.
All these testifies to the actuality of the job analyzed.
The freshness of the paper is dictated by the fact that phraseological euphemisms haven ’ t been the object of scientific probe so far. In a limited figure of plants they were analyzed together with other phraseological units belonging to some phraseo-semantic Fieldss ( e.g. “ decease ” ) . Still they present some involvement as indirect denominations of instead typical and even common phenomena of our mundane life. The fact that they have transferred significance besides adds importance to our probe.
Phraseological euphemisms were picked out from A.Koonin ’ s “ English-Russian Phraseological Dictionary ” harmonizing to the label , some other phraseological lexicons and books on wording. The writer of the above mentioned dictionary includes this label into the system of stylistic labels taging at the same clip that the system of stylistic labels is, to some extent, conventional. At the same clip non all euphemisms are marked in the dictionary with this label. Some of them have other labels, e.g. in a ( the ) household manner ( colloquial ), be out ( take, go forth ) of one’s senses, ( colloquial ) , shoot ( catapulting, throw ) the bull, ( Amer. slang ) , be off one’s nut, ( slang ) , etc [ 24 ] . Harmonizing to the point of position of modern linguists they express impressions which are considered inappropriate or rude. The image on which they are based is non unsmooth or unpleasant, so they besides belong to the group of phraseological euphemisms [ 31, p. 49 ] .
The illustrations of exemplifying citations are taken either from the above mentioned dictionary or from the book “ Exercises in Modern English Lexicology ” by L.Grinberg, M.Kuznets, A.Kumacheva and G.Meltser.
First of all, phraseological euphemisms will be studied from the point of position of the impressions they express. Second, one synonymic group of phraseological euphemisms will be investigated from the point of position of different types of equivalent word.
From the point of position of their semantics phraseological euphemisms ( PE ) may be subdivided into several groups, the most of import of them are:
1.Euphemisms appellative decease and everything connected with it
The following twenty-four hours, his parents were flown to New Mexico by particular Army plane, and they stayed at their boy ’ s bedside, until he breathed his last [ 15, P. 79-81 ] .
A strapping chap like Cliffy Benton to be smashed up and set out of his life, and all the Parsonss can make about it is stuff faith down y ’ R pharynx, and seek to do Y ’ believe Cliffy ’ s gone to glorification: ‘ God knows best. ” [ 4, p. 140 ] .
Patrick Henry has already gone to his long place ; Samuel Adams was shortly to follow.
He did non speak to them ; they had already been told precisely what each of them was to make, and who was to make what in instance the first-chice adult male kicked the pail or was otherwise out.
He pardoned us off-hand, and allowed us something to populate on boulder clay he went the manner of all flesh.
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