The given one-year undertaking is dedicated to the lingual job – ‘ The Subject: Wayss of Expressing It in the Sentence ’ .
The chief endof the work is to place the chief characteristics of the topic in the sentence, establishing on the theoretical and scientific plant of Russian, English, American, Moldovan and Rumanian writers, and analyze the topic and its characteristics in the plants of American and English fiction.
The aimsof the thesis, in their bend, represent go uping stairss to the chief end of the undertaking:
1. to specify the impression of the topic ;
2. to show the categorization of the topic harmonizing to the theoretical beginnings of the examined plants of the linguists.
3. to show the ways the topic is expressed in the sentence.
4. to place the topic characteristics and the ways it is expressed in the plants of the investigated American and English fiction.
5. to compare the means the topic is expressed in fiction in the plants of such authors as: ‘ The Book of Grotesque ’ by Sherwood Anderson, ‘ The Magic Barrel ’ by Bernard Malamud, ‘ The Last Leaf ’ , ‘ The Gift of the Magi ’ by O. Henry, ‘ The Man with the Scar ’ , ‘ The Door of Opportunity ’ , ‘ A Friend in Need ’ by W.S. Maugham.
Actualityof the work maintains the basic maps of the topic in the sentence as one of the chief components and its continual survey due to this fact. That is a lingual phenomenon holding been introduced into instruction on different educative degrees get downing from the simplest definitions in primary school and making bit by bit deep theoretical readings of the topic in the establishments of higher instruction.
The one-year undertaking is based chiefly on the scientific beginnings of English and Russian linguists, such as:
Quirk, S. Greenbaum, G. Leech, J. Svartvik, Richard Gardiner, Timothy Cobb, Geoffrey Leech, as for the Russian syntacticians: V. L. Kaushanskaya, I. P. Krylova, M. A. Ganshina, N.M. Vasilevskaya
Besides, the plants of the Romanian scholars – Andrey Bahta ş and Leon Levitchi, and others.
Therefore, Chapter One of the present undertaking embodies three points:
1. The definitions of the topic ;
2. Categorization of the topic ( from structural and functional points of position ) ;
3. Wayss of showing the topic ;
In English grammar the topic ( along with the predicate ) is researched by a figure of linguists and philologues. It is defined in different readings, but still the full discrepancies base on one common anchor of the impression:
The topic ( briefbomber. orsu.) is one of the two chief components of a clause or a simple sentence, harmonizing to a tradition that can be tracked back to Aristotle. It is the chief portion of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the predicate is grammatically dependent.
The topic is sometimes said to be the comparatively familiar component, to which the predicate is added as something new, ‘ The vocalizer throws into his capable all that he knows the receiving system is already willing to allow him, and to this he adds in the predicate what constitutes the new information to be conveyed by the sentence … ’ [ 4, 154 ]
Besides, the undermentioned characteristics of the topic are maintained in most definitions of the studied linguists:
a ) the topic is usually a noun or a clause with nominal map ;
B ) the capable occurs before the verb phrase in declaratory clauses, and instantly after the operator in inquiries ;
degree Celsius ) the topic has figure and individual Concord, where applicable, with the verb phrase.
The categorizations of the topic are presented harmonizing to the function and construction of the topic in the sentence.
Wayss of showing the topic vary in conformance with the parts of address and buildings it is presented by.
Chapter Two is the practical portion of the given work on the footing of the studied fiction, such as:
1. American fiction: ‘ The Book of Grotesque ’ by Sherwood Anderson, ‘ The Magic Barrel ’ by Bernard Malamud ;
‘ The Gift of the Magi ’ , ‘ The Last Leaf ’ by O. Henry ;
2. English fiction: ‘ The Man with the Scar ’ , ‘ The Door of Opportunity ’ , ‘ A Friend in Need ’ by W.S. Maugham.
The practical portion is aimed at probe of the topic features in the plants of American and English fiction and fulfilment of the comparative analysis in the given plants of two different civilizations – American and English.
The consequences of the executed practical work showing common and contrasting ways of showing the topic in British and American fiction are evidenced in decision of the undertaking.
1.Chapter One. The Subject: Wayss of Expressing It in the Sentence
1.1 Definitions of the Subject
The impression of the Subject in the grammatical theory of the English linguistic communication can be presented really briefly and clearly: it is the chief portion of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the predicate is grammatically dependent. [ 8, 67 ]
The ground for naming the topic and the predicate the chief parts of the sentence and separating them from all the other parts which are treated as secondary, is approximately this. The topic and the predicate between them constitute the anchor of the sentence: without them the sentence would non be at all, whereas all the other parts may or may non be at that place, and if they are at that place, they serve to specify or modify either the topic, or the predicate, or each other. [ 10, 205 ]
A lingual experiment to turn out the rightness of this position would be to take a sentence incorporating the topic, a predicate, and a figure of secondary parts, and to demo that any of the secondary parts might be removed without the sentence being destroyed, whereas if either the topic or the predicate were removed there would be no sentence left: its ‘ anchor ’ would be broken. This experiment would likely win and turn out the point in a huge bulk of instances.
The inquiry now arises: what standards do we practically apply when we say that a word ( or, sometimes, a phrase ) is the topic of a sentence? [ 10, 206 ]
The grammatical phenomenon of the topic in English has been examined by a figure of linguists, philologues and grammatical experts both of English and foreign beginning in different era. This impression is defined in assorted readings ; still the common anchor is identified in all of them. Let ’ s retrace this ‘ common yarn ’ , kept in all the definitions of the topic.
Sidney Greenbaum in ‘ The Oxford English Grammar ’ notes that the topic of a sentence is the component that usually comes before the verb in a declaratory sentence and alterations place with the operator in an interrogative sentence. It is applicable, the verb agrees in figure and individual with the topic ( I am ready ) : the topic ‘ I ’ is first individual remarkable and so is ‘ am ’ [ 2,305 ]
Paul Roberts in ‘ Understanding Grammar ’ presents the topic as the component stressed or the new component added to the discourse terminal in complexnesss that are interesting philosophically but useless grammatically. The novice ’ s device to happen the topic is first to happen the verb and so inquire ‘ who? ’ or ‘ what ’ before it. When the topic is really specific ( e.g. a proper name ) , we may even invert the normal word order without confusing out hearers. [ 6, 405 ]
Some brief definitions of the topic are presented by Richard Gardiner and Timothy Cobb in ‘ Today ’ s English Grammar ’ from one side, and by Geoffrey Leech in ‘ An A-Z of English Grammar and Usage ’ from the other side.
In ‘ Today ’ s English Grammar ’ the writers province that the word bespeaking the individual or thing referred to is called the topic of the sentence. [ 1, 202 ]
Geoffrey Leech, in his bend, notes that the topic is a grammatical term for the yesteryear of a clause or sentence which by and large goes before the verb phrase ( in statements ) . [ 5, 413 ]
Russian philologues, such as Kaushanskaya, say that the topic is the chief portion of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the second chief portion ( the predicate ) is grammatically dependent, i.e. in most instances it agrees with the topic in figure and individual. The topic can denote a life being, a exanimate thing or an thought. [ 13, 115 ]
Harmonizing to I. P. Krylova in ‘ A Grammar of Present Day ’ the topic is a word or a group of words which names the individual, object or phenomenon the sentence informs us about. [ 14,85 ]
Therefore, we can place the undermentioned common points:
a ) the topic is usually a noun phrase or a clause with nominal map ;
B ) the capable occurs before the verb phrase in declaratory clauses, and instantly after the operator in inquiries ;
degree Celsius ) the topic has figure and individual Concord, where applicable, with the verb phrase. [ 3, 158 ] examines the inquiry foremost of all by explicating the construction of the definition itself. It is bound to incorporate the undermentioned points: ( 1 ) the significance of the topic, that is its relation to the idea expressed in the sentence, ( 2 ) its syntactical dealingss in the sentence, ( 3 ) its morphological realisation: here a list of morphological ways of recognizing the topic must be given, but it need non be thorough, as it is our purpose simply to set up the indispensable features of every portion of the sentence.
The definition of the topic would, so, be something like this. The topic is one of the two chief parts of the sentence. ( 1 ) It denotes the thing whose action or feature is expressed by the predicate. ( 2 ) It is non dependent on any other portion of the sentence. ( 3 ) It may be expressed by different parts of address, the most frequent 1s being: a noun in the common instance, a personal pronoun in the nominative instance, a demonstrative pronoun on occasion, a substantivized adjective or past participial, a numerical, an infinitive, and a gerund. It may besides be expressed by a phrase. [ 10, 207 ]
1.2 Categorization of the topic
There aresome categorizations given by different writers. For illustration, from the structural point of position and functional point of position
1.2.1 Categorization of the topic from the structural point of position
From the point of position of the construction, the topic can be:
1.Simple, expressed by a word or a figure of words in the nominal instance, the combination of which represents one actor of the action.
No glass renders a adult male ’ s signifier or similitude so true as his address. ( Ben Johnson, Timber )
The proper force of words lies non in the words themselves, but in their application. ( William Hazlitt, On Familiar Style )
All things are admired either because they are new or because they are great. ( Francis Bacon )
Even in his novels Hardy ’ s pessimism is ever a active pessimism. ( T.A. Jackson, Thomas Hardy )
What do you believe the conditions will be tomorrow?
2.Compound, expressed by two or more nouns that represent one and the same impression ( or one and the same individual )
The great poet, litterateur and philosopher died in 1882. ( Emerson )
3.CoordinatedorHomogeneous, that unites two or more different objects with the concurrence.
Tom and Maggie are the chief characters in ‘ The Mill of the Floss ’ . ( G. Eliot ’ s novel )
4.Complex, expressed by a particular building, foremost of all, by a noun in the nominal instance with an infinitive or with a participial:
He had been reported to travel house.
The rain could be heard knaping against the Windowss.
5.Doublethat is characteristic of the English folklore.
‘ Some suits, some suits, ’ the sheriff he said, ‘ Some suits I ’ ll give to thee. ’ ( Robin Hood Rescuing the Widow ’ s Three Sons ) [ 9, 186 ]
1.2.2 Categorization of the Subject from functional point of position
The most typical semantic function of a topic is AGENTIVE ; that is the animate being inciting or doing the occurrence denoted by the verb:
John opened the missive.
Apart from its agentive map, the topic often has an INSTRUMENTAL function ; that is, it expresses the unwitting ( by and large inanimate ) stuff cause of the event:
The avalanche destroyed several houses
With intransitive verbs, the topic besides often has the AFFECTED function that is elsewhere typical of the object:
Jack fell down
The pencil was lying on the tabular array
We may besides widen this latter map to topics of intensive verbs:
The pencil was on the tabular array
It is now possible to see a regular relation, in footings of clause map, between adjectives or intransitive verbs and the corresponding transitive verbs showing CAUSATIVE significance:
S affected Sagent/instr.Oaffected
The door opened John/The key opened the door
The flowers have died The hoar has killed the flowers
Saffected Sagent/instr Oaffected
The route became narrower They narrowed the route
I got angry His mode angered me
Sagentive Sagentive Oaffected
My Canis familiaris was walking I was walking my Canis familiaris [ 3,160 ]
The topic may besides hold a recipient function with verbs such as have, ain, possess, benefit ( from ) , as is indicated by the undermentioned relation:
Mr. Smith has bought/given/sold his boy a wireless → So now his boy has/owns/possesses the wireless
The perceptual verbs see and hear besides require a ‘ receiver ’ capable, in contrast to look at and listen to, which are agentive. The other perceptual verbs gustatory sensation, odor, and feel have both an agentive significance matching to look at and a receiver intending matching to see:
Foolishly, he tasted the soup
* Foolishly, he tasted the Piper nigrum in the soup
The adverb unwisely requires the agentive ; hence, the 2nd sentence, which can merely be understood in a non-agentive mode, does non do sense.
Verbs bespeaking a mental province may besides necessitate a receiver topic:
I thought you were mistaken ( cf It seemed to me … )
I liked the drama ( cf The drama gave me pleasance )
Normally, recipient topics go with stative verbs. Some of them ( notably have and possess ) have no inactive signifier:
They have a beautiful house ↔ A beautiful house is had by them
The topic may hold the map of denominating topographic point or clip:
This way is teeming with emmets ( = Ants are teeming all over this way )
The coach holds 40 people ( =Forty people can sit in the coach )
Unlike drove, the verbs in such sentences do non usually admit the imperfect ( * The coach is keeping … ) or the inactive ( * Forty people are held … ) .
Temporal topics can normally be replaced by the empty it, the temporal look going adjunct:
Tomorrow is my birthday ( = It is my birthday tomorrow )
The winter of 1970 was exceptionally mild ( = It was exceptionally mild in the winter of 1970 )
Eventive topics ( with abstract noun caputs denominating agreements and activities ) differ from others in allowing intensive complementation with a clip adverbial:
The concert is on Thursday ( but * The concert hall is on Thursday )
Finally, a topic may miss semantic content wholly, and consist merely of the meaningless ‘ prop ’ word it, used particularly with climatic postulations:
It ’ s raining/snowing, etc. It ’ s acquiring dark It ’ s noisy in here [ 3, 163 ]
Note: The ‘ prop ’ capable it as discussed here must be distinguished from the ‘ anticipatory ’ it of sentences like ‘ It was nice seeing you ’ , where the ‘ prop ’ topic is a replacing for a postponed clausal topic ( = Seeing you was nice ) .
1.3 Wayss of Expressing Capable
As it is stated above, the Subject is the chief portion of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the predicate is grammatically dependent. [ 7, 67 ]
The topic can be expressed by different parts of address and by different buildings:
1. The noun in the common ( or on occasion genitive ) instance ;
The sulky server brought my tea. ( Du Maurier )
Marcellus easy turned his caput. ( Douglas ) [ 13, 226 ]
The reference must be written in the centre of the envelope.
Jonathan Swift is the male parent of sarcasm. ( E.B. Browning, Aurora Leigh ) [ 9, 185 ]
Occasionally a noun in the genitive instance is used as the topic of the sentence.
Mrs. Gummidge ’ s was in a antsy temperament. ( Dickens )
Oh, my beloved Richard, Ada ’ s is a baronial bosom. ( Dickens )
2. A pronoun ( personal, demonstrative, specifying, indefinite, negative, genitive, interrogative ) ;
After about an hr I heard Montgomery shouting my name. That set me thought of my program of action. ( Wells )
All were clad in the same soft, and yet strong satiny stuff. ( Wells )
All were happy.
Everyone was soundless for a minute. ( Wells )
Nothing was said on either side for a minute or two afterwards. ( Dickens )
Theirs is non a really comfy lodging … ( Dickens )
Who tore this book? ( Twain ) [ 13, 226 ]
The pronouns ‘ one, we, you are much used with the same general or indefinite force:
‘ As long as one is immature, one easy acquires new friends. ’
‘ We don ’ Ts like to be categorically contradicted. ’
‘ You don ’ Ts like to be snubbed. ’ [ 12, 149 ]
3. A substantivized adjective or participial ;
The Privileged have seen that capturing and informative sight. ( Galsworthy )
The wounded were taken good attention of.
4. A numerical ( central or ordinal ) ;
Of class, the two were rather unable to make anything. ( Wells )
The first and 4th stood beside him in the H2O. ( Wells )
Two were so immature, about eleven and ten. ( Galsworthy )
The first was a tall lady with dark hair … ( Bronte ) [ 11, 335 ]
5. An infinitive, an infinitive phrase or building ;
To see is to believe.
To populate honorably, so, is certain the best. ( John Dryden ) [ 9, 185 ]
To protract uncertainty was to prolong hope. ( Bronte )
For him to come was impossible.
To be a rich adult male, Lieutenant, is non ever roses and beauty. ( Heym ) [ 13, 226 ]
To walk is utile. Walk is utile. [ 17, 38 ]
6. A gerund, a gerundial phrase or building ;
Liing doesn ’ t travel good with me.
Wining the war is what counts. [ 7, 67 ]
Walking is a healthy exercising.
Watching and ministering Kit was her best attention. ( Galsworthy ) [ 11, 335 ]
Teaching others Teachs yourself. [ 9, 185 ]
7. Any portion of address used as a citation ;
On is a preposition.
A is the first missive of the English alphabet.
And is a concurrence.
No is his usual answer to any petition. [ 13, 227 ]
^is the mark of perpendicular. [ 16, 50 ]
8. A group of words which is one portion of the sentence, i.e. a syntactically indivisible group.
The needle and yarn is lost. ( here the topic represents one individual ) .
Their friend and guardian is darkly fumbling towards the solution. [ 7, 67 ]
Twice two is four.
How to make this is a hard inquiry. [ 11, 335 ]
9. It as the topic of the sentence.
In English the pronoun it is sometimes used as the topic of a sentence.
|Types of topic it||Features||Examples|
|Fanciful||it represents a life being or a thing and has the undermentioned features:
P stands for a definite thing or some abstract thought – the personal it ;
P points out a individual or thing expressed by a predicative noun, or it refers to the idea contained in a preceding statement, therefore holding a demonstrative significance – the demonstrative it ;
|The door opened. It was opened by a immature miss of 13 or 14. ( Dickens )
If this is a autonomy, it isn ’ t traveling to intend a thing. ( Lindsay )
It is John.
It was a big room with a great window. ( Dickens )
Dick came place tardily, it provoked his male parent. ( Lindsay )
|Formal||it doesn ’ t stand for any individual or thing. Here we must separate:
a ) the impersonal it, which is used to denote:
* denotes natural phenomena ( such as the province of the conditions, etc. ) or that which characterizes the environment. In such sentences the predicate is either a simple one, expressed by a verb denoting the province of the conditions, or a compound nominal one, with an adjectival as predicative.
* to denote clip and distance
B ) the introductory or anticipatory it introduces the existent topic.
When the topic of a sentence is an infinitive, or
a gerund or a whole clause, it is placed after the predicate and the sentence begins with the pronoun it which is called an anticipatory or introductory it.
degree Celsius ) the emphasized it is used for accent.
|It is cold in winter.
It frequently rains in fall.
It is stuffy in here.
It is delightfully quiet in the dark.
It is five proceedingss past six.
How far is it from your office to the bank? ( Galsworthy )
It is a long manner to the station.
It is forenoon already.
It ’ s no usage masking facts.
It was funny to detect that kid.
It was he who had brought back George to Amelia. ( Thackeray )
It was Winifred who went up to him. ( Galsworthy )
The buildingthere is
When the topic of the sentence is indefinite ( a book, books, some books ) , it is frequently placed after the predicate verb and the sentence begins with the introductory atom at that place. The word there has no emphasis and is normally pronounced with the impersonal vowel / alternatively of / . It has lost its local significance, which is shown by the possibility of uniting it in the sentence with the adverbs of topographic point here and at that place:
there was a gate merely at that place, opening into the hayfield … ( Bronte )
‘ There ’ s a good topographic point over there. ’ ( Cusack ) [ 11, 341 ]
Thingss are specifically different in instances whenitandat that placeare used in capable places as representatives of words or longer units which embody the existent content of the topic but are postponed.
It is most pleasant that she has already come.
It was easy to make so.
There are a few errors in your paper.
There were no seats at all.
Itandat that placein such syntactic constructions are by and large called anticipatory or introductory topics.
Therein such forms is frequently referred to as a map word, and this is non barren of some logical foundation [ 15, 94 ] Sentences with the introductory at that place may function to asseverate or deny the being of something. In sentences with the introductory there the predicate verb is normally the verb to be ; on occasion some other verbs are found, such as to populate, to happen, to come, etc. , which, likewise to the verb to be, bespeak to be or hold the significance of to come into the being:
There was a small intermission. ( Voynich )
(at that place– an introductory atom ; was – a simple verbal predicate ; a intermission – the topic ; small – an property )
… there is the rustling of subdivisions in the forenoon zephyr ;
… there is the music of a cheery shower against the window ; ( G.i.ing )
There came a laugh, high, cheery Sweet. ( Galsworthy ) R
… there came a aroma of lime-blossom. ( Galsworthy )
There shortly appeared, hesitating in the dark room access as he entered, a Hale, gray old adult male. ( Dickens ) [ 11, 341 ]
2. Chapter Two. Wayss of Expressing Subject in Fiction
Practical portion of the given undertaking, presented in Chapter Two, brings to illume capable characteristics, investigated from theoretical point of position in Chapter One, in separate illustrations, drawn from fiction plants. Opposing plants of American and British English fiction, the paper is aimed at separating capable distinctive features in both fiction sides. Therefore, the investigated plants are ‘ The Book of Grotesque ’ by Sherwood Anderson, ‘ The Magic Barrel ’ by Bernard Malamud, ‘ The Last Leaf ’ , ‘ The Gift of the Magi ’ by O. Henry refering American authors and ‘ The Man with the Scar ’ , ‘ The Door of Opportunity ’ , ‘ A Friend in Need ’ by W. S. Maugham for British writers.
2.1 Wayss of Expressing Subject in British Fiction
‘ The greatest English dramatist, novelist and short narrative author, considered one of the most popular authors of his epoch, and reputedly, the highest paid writer during the 1930s ’ [ hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W. Somerset Maugham ] , William Somerset Maugham gives penchant chiefly to the personal pronouns in the function of the topic. All the examined plants of the author within the undertaking maintain the inclination of the showing the personal pronouns as the topic.
‘ We draw our decisions from the form of the jaw, the expression in the eyes, the contour of the mouth. ’ [ 26, 355 ]
‘ When you made him that offer of a occupation, did you cognize he ’ d be drowned? ’ [ 26, 360 ]
‘ Well, I hadn ’ t got a vacancy in my office at the moment. ’ [ 26, 360 ]
‘ She gave him a long searching look. ’ [ 25, 501 ]
‘ In your topographic point I should ne’er hold been able to defy the enticement to take my eight bulls and have a whack at the pests myself. ’ [ 25, 503 ]
‘ She is waiting at the prison door. ’ [ 27, 229 ]
The 2nd preferred portion of address in the capable function is a noun in the nominal instance.
‘ Women thought a batch of him. ’ [ 26, 357 ]
‘ The blood spurted from the cut vena and dyed his shirt. ’ [ 27, 230 ]
‘ This cicatrix radius of a awful lesion and I wondered whether it had been caused by a saber or by a fragment of shell. ’ [ 27, 228 ]
‘ But Alban had already a London look. ’ [ 25, 495 ]
‘ Anne rapidly made friends with the shy, reasonably native adult female and shortly was playing merrily with the children. ’ [ 25, 496 ]
Other parts of address in the Subject place are certainly kept but in much less frequent cyclicity.
‘ That was how you thought a poet should look. ’ [ 25, 515 ] where ‘ that ’ is a demonstrative pronoun in the Subject function.
‘ Two or three shouted back in answer. ’ [ 25, 525 ] where ‘ two ’ and ‘ three ’ are central numbers busying Capable place in the sentence.
‘ The worst of it was that Anne knew how low an sentiment Alban had of the Governor ’ s parts. ’ [ 25, 514 ] where ‘ the worst of it ’ is building transporting Capable map in the sentence.
‘ How can anyone be so unblushing? ’ [ 25, 532 ] where ‘ anyone ’ is indefinite pronoun in the Subject function.
‘ Nothing that concerns me was at stake. ’ [ 25, 530 ] where ‘ nil ’ is a negative pronoun transporting the Subject map.
‘ All that was far off in the future. ’ [ 25, 527 ] where indefinite pronoun ‘ all ’ is in the Subject function.
The Subject it is certainly besides presented in the plants of W. S. Maugham. In effect of its research we can province that the frequence of the use of fanciful ‘ it ’ is much higher in comparing with the formal ‘ it ’ in the plants of W. S. Maugham.
‘ It ’ s merely an hr ’ s journey, ’ said Anne. [ 25, 495 ] where ‘ it ’ is formal denoting clip facet.
‘ It was a room with duplicate beds and a bathroom. ’ [ 25, 502 ] where ‘ it ’ is fanciful indicating out a thing expressed by a predicative noun.
‘ It was a alteration, but Anne was ever glad to acquire home. ’ [ 25, 511 ] where the fanciful ‘ it ’ is the Subject indicating out a thing expressed by a predicative noun.
‘ It was on history of the cicatrix that I foremost noticed him, for it ran, wide and ruddy from his temple to his chin. ’ [ 27, 228 ] where both ‘ it ’ s are fanciful topics but first ‘ it ’ points out a thing expressed by a predicative noun whereas the 2nd ‘ it ’ stands for a definite thing mentioned before.
‘ It happened so rapidly that many didn ’ t cognize what had occurred, but the others gave a call of horror ; ’ [ 27, 231 ] where the fanciful topic ‘ it ’ once more denotes a thing expressed by a predicative noun.
‘ It was a busy, tickle pinking scene, and yet, I know non why, restful to the spirit. ’ [ 26, 357 ] where ‘ it ’ is fanciful transporting the Capable function in the sentence.
The introductory ‘ there ’ besides is maintained in the work but as it is mentioned above in Chapter One, the atom ‘ there ’ carries merely the introductory map, but doesn ’ t stand for the Subject of the sentence.
‘ There was a group of indigens ’ [ 25, 517 ]
‘ There was a small splash at the gateway. ’ [ 26, 229 ]
Capable characteristics matching to their features in Classifications One and Two can be commented on the undermentioned points.
Continuing from the structural point of position ( Classification 1 ) simple and complex topics are preponderantly met.
‘ Though his offices were in Kobe, Burton frequently came down to Yokohama. ’ [ 26, 356 ] where ‘ Burton ’ represents the simple Subject.
‘ Those kind of chaps ever do. ’ [ 26, 358 ] where ‘ kind ’ presents the simple Subject.
‘ I couldn ’ t assist laughing. ’ [ 26, 358 ] where I in combination with the gerund ‘ express joying ’ represents the complex Subject.
‘ They laid the miss on the land and stood unit of ammunition watching her. ’ [ 27,230 ] where ‘ they ’ in combination with the gerund ‘ watching ’ represents once more the complex Subject.
‘ The Rebel advanced a measure or two to run into her. ’ [ 27, 231 ] where ‘ the Rebel ’ in combination with the infinitive ‘ to run into ’ represents the complex Subject.
‘ Alban, as was his manner, tipped the porter liberally and so went to the bookshop and bought papers. ’ [ 25, 495 ] where ‘ Alban ’ represents the simple Subject.
Refering Classification 2 agentive and affected Subjects are basically identified.
‘ Burton came into the sofa soon and caught sight of me. ’ [ 26, 357 ] where ‘ Burton ’ in relation with the predicate ‘ came ’ represents the affected Subjects and in combination with the predicate ‘ caught ’ – the agentive Subject.
‘ A kind of suspiration passed through those work forces crowded together.. ’ [ 27, 231 ] where ‘ a kind ’ represents the instrumental Subject.
‘ She stared into his bluish eyes as if they were unfastened windows. ’ [ 25, 527 ] where ‘ she ’ carries the agentive map of the Subject.
‘ The cryings streamed from Anne ’ s eyes, she rushed to the door and ran out. ’ [ 25, 533 ] where ‘ cryings ’ and ‘ she ’ represent in both instances the agentive Subject.
‘ We shook hands. ’ [ 26, 359 ] where ‘ we ’ represents the affected Subject.
‘ He gave a small mild chortle and he looked at me with those sort and blunt bluish eyes of his. ’ [ 26, 360 ] where ‘ he ’ represents the agentive Subject in both instances.
Therefore, the instances of the agentive and affected Subjects, classified from the functional point of position, and the simple Subjects, classified from the structural point of position, represent well 99 % of the Subject, distinguished in fiction of W.S. Maugham.
2.2 Wayss of Expressing Subject in American Fiction
Plants of American fiction, examined in the given undertaking are ‘ The Book of Grotesque ’ by Sherwood Anderson, ‘ The Magic Barrel ’ by Bernard Malamud, ‘ The Gift of the Magi ’ and ‘ The Last Leaf ’ by O. Henry.
Investigating American literature, we should advert that the same Subject characteristics, distinguished in the plants of the British fiction, are kept here every bit good. Still some distinctive features of the Subject are evidenced in comparing with British fiction.
Continuing from the categorization of the Subject from functional and structural points of position, we can place that certainly, the simple ( Classification 1 ) and agentive ( Classification 2 ) are basically distinguished.
‘ A carpenter fixed the bed so that it would be on a degree with the window. ’ [ 21, 8 ] where ‘ carpenter ’ carries the agentive map and interim has a simple construction.
‘ Man made the truths himself and each truth was a complex of a great many vague thoughts. ’ [ 23, 12 ] where ‘ adult male ’ represents the simple and agentive Subject whereas ‘ truth ’ performs the affected map in a simple construction.
‘ The matcher appeared one dark out of the dark fourth-floor hallway of the grey rock boarding house … ’ [ 24, 380 ] where ‘ the matcher ’ represents a simple Subject transporting the agentive map.
‘ Della finished her call and attended to her cheeks with the pulverization rag. ’ [ 23,12 ] where ‘ Della ’ is a simple Subject with an agentive map.
‘ The Wise Men brought valuable gifts, but that was non among them. ’ [ 23,18 ] where ‘ the Wise Men ’ is once more a simple Subject with an agentive map.
Still, another types of the Subject are besides distinguished.
‘ Jim stopped inside the door, every bit immoveable as a compositor at the aroma of quail. ’ [ 23,17 ] where the simple Subject ‘ Jim ’ carries the affected map.
‘ John ’ s eyes were unfastened wide. ’ [ 22, 100 ] where the simple Subject ‘ John ’ s eyes ’ transport the affected map.
‘ The thing to acquire at is what the author or the immature thing within the author, was believing about. ’ [ 21, 10 ] where the building in the function of the Subject ‘ the thing to acquire at ’ is complex in its construction.
‘ Her face deeply moved him. ’ [ 24, 404 ] where the simple Subject ‘ her face ’ performs the instrumental map.
‘ An olfactory property of frying fish made Leo weak to the knees. ’ [ 24, 408 ] where the simple Subject ‘ odor ’ shows once more the instrumental map.
‘ The thought alternately nauseous and exalted him. ’ [ 24, 412 ] where the simple Subject ‘ the thought ’ performs the instrumental map.
‘ But, surprisingly, Salzman ’ s face lit in a smile. ’ [ 24, 390 ] where the simple Subject ‘ Salzman ’ s face ’ carries the affected map.
‘ Suddenly she whirled from the window and stood before the glass. ’ [ 23, 12 ] where the simple Subject ‘ she ’ displays the affected map.
The lone distinctive feature of American fiction in comparing with the British 1 in the Subject probe is that the instrumental map of the Subject appears on the pages of the examined narratives.
The ways of showing the Subject besides maintain similar characteristics of being presented by a noun or pronoun ( clairvoyance. personal ) in nominal instance in the examined narratives of American fiction.
‘ She stood by the window and looked out dully at a grey cat walking a grey fencing in a grey backyard. ’ [ 23, 12 ] where she is personal pronoun in the Subject function.
‘ After the physician had gone Sue went into the workroom and cried a Nipponese serviette to a pulp. ’ [ 22, 100 ] where ‘ the physician ’ and ‘ Sue ’ represent Subjects expressed by a common and a denominative nouns in nominal instance.
‘ The old adult male listed 100s of the truths in his book. ’ [ 21, 12 ] where ‘ the adult male ’ is the Subject expressed by a common noun in nominal instance.
‘ By retrieving it I have been able to understand many people and things that I was ne’er able to understand before. ’ [ 21, 12 ] where the Subject is expressed by the personal pronoun ‘ I ’ .
Still, some instances where the topic is expressed by numbers, interrogative and demonstrative pronouns are besides noticed.
‘ Who can love from a image? ’ mocked the matrimony broker. ’ [ 24, 414 ] where the Subject ‘ who ’ is expressed by the interrogative pronoun.
‘ This is my babe, my Stella, she should fire in hell. ’ [ 24, 412 ] where the Subject ‘ this ’ is expressed by a demonstrative pronoun.
‘ Hundreds and 100s were the truths and they were all beautiful. ’ [ 21,12 ] where the Subject is expressed by central numbers.
The Subject is doubtless maintained in American fiction every bit good.
The fanciful ‘ it ’ is noticed much oftener in comparing with the formal ‘ it ’ as it is witnessed in British fiction every bit good.
‘ Well, it is the failing, so, ’ said the physician. [ 22, 100 ] where the topic ‘ it ’ is fanciful and denotes a thing expressed by a predicative noun.
‘ It reached below her articulatio genus and made itself about a garment for her. ’ [ 23, 12 ] where the Subject ‘ it ’ is fanciful and denotes a definite object mentioned before.
‘ No, it wasn ’ t a young person, it was a adult female, immature, and have oning a coat of mail like a knight. ’ [ 21, 10 ] where the Subject ‘ it ’ is once more fanciful and denotes a thing expressed by predicative noun.
The introductory characteristics of ‘ there ’ are kept on the pages of the American fiction every bit good.
‘ There are merely five left now ’ [ 22, 102 ]
‘ There was a pier-glass between the Windowss of the room. ’ [ 23, 12 ]
Therefore, the Subject characteristics in American fiction are preponderantly similar to the 1s kept in British literature ; the merely noticed distinctive feature is the instrumental map of the Subject.
On the footing of the theoretical and practical probe of the Subject within the model of separating its characteristics in American and British fiction conforming to the examined theory, we have reached the undermentioned consequences of the research work:
The Subject justifies its definition of being ‘ the chief portion of a two-member sentence which is grammatically independent of the other parts of the sentence and on which the predicate is grammatically dependent ’ in combination with all the other features mentioned by different syntacticians of any linguistic communications practically throughout the investigated fiction.
Categorizations of the Subject presented in two discrepancies reflect that from structural point of position, simple and complex types of the Subject are preponderantly used. From functional point of position, the agentive and affected function of the Subject is by and large maintained. Vivid examples turn outing the present decision are presented in Chapter Two.
Wayss of showing the Subject vary chiefly certainly between the nouns in nominal instance ( these illustrations constitute the bulk portion of showing the Subject ) , personal pronouns ( that besides show a huge per centum of the illustrations where they are in the function of the Subject ) , demonstrative, interrogative, indefinite pronouns are of less frequently frequence.
Numerals are besides used in the function of the Subject, these instances are chiefly characteristic of the conversational duologues.
Infinitive and gerundial buildings possess a instead high index of frequence use identified in the investigated fiction.
Concerning ‘ it ’ Subject, the consequences of the probes prove to province that by and large the fanciful type of ‘ it ’ is practiced in the function of the Subject. Formal type of ‘ it ’ Subject is used much more moderate.
Sing the other parts of address that besides can be used in the function of the Subject, that is substantivized adjectival or participle, any portion of address used as a citation, a group of words which is one portion of the sentence, i.e. a syntactically indivisible group are less preferable both by the American and British authors within the given undertaking.
In mention to the characteristic differences in the use of the Subject in American and British fiction, we can certainly province that both civilizations prefer to utilize common characteristics of the Subject. The lone feature of the American fiction touches the fact that instrumental map of the Subject is used a small oftener whereas British authors keep 100 % -preference to the Subject expressed by nouns and personal pronouns.
The enforced probe will be elaborated in the subsequent thesis of the following twelvemonth based on the fiction of the John Galsworthy ( ‘ The Forsyte Saga ’ ) where detailed internal research analysis will be executed.
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