Summary Assignment

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These political events, combined with the significant social change represented by the transfer of power from the aristocracy and church to the middle class, as well as the rise in social mobility, led to every accepted idea being questioned and reevaluated. In terms of music in the Classical Period, it was distinguished by its diversity and contrasting moods, with pieces fluctuating in theme and even within a single theme. These changes could happen gradually or suddenly, but the classical composer always maintained control.

Variety in classical music is achieved through a flexible rhythm, which incorporates unexpected pauses, syncopation, and a frequent transition from long to short notes. While classical music typically exhibits a homogeneous texture, it has the ability to readily transition between textures, be it smooth or abrupt. The melodies in classical music are melodious and easily memorable. These melodies often display a folk or popular essence, whether they are borrowed or original. The structure of classical melodies typically consists of two phrases of equivalent length, resulting in a balanced and symmetrical melody. The second phrase begins similarly to the first phrase but concludes conclusively.

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Rather than abruptly changing dynamics, composers employed the use of crescendo and decrescendo in their music. The harpsichord was replaced by the piano to achieve a gradual change in dynamics, as pianists could control the volume by adjusting finger pressure on the keys. The basso continuo was gradually eliminated as music composed for amateurs did not require improvisation. Composers preferred writing music for amateurs to have more control over the outcome instead of relying on improvisation. 5. What were the advancements in the classical orchestra? (1 point) The classical orchestra consisted of four groups: Strings (including 1st violins, 2nd violins, violas, cellos, double basses), Woodwinds (comprising 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons), Brass (consisting of 2 French horns and 2 trumpets), and Percussion (including 2 timpani). A classical orchestra typically had a larger number of musicians. Classical composers effectively utilized the distinct tonal qualities of orchestral instruments to create a greater variety of tones and more rapid changes in tone color. It was common for a theme to begin with the full orchestra, transition to the strings, and then continue in the woodwinds.

The most significant elements in the musical composition were the strings. The first violins held the melody, while also featuring clarinet solos. The lower strings provided accompaniment. The brass section contributed to the overall harmony, but did not play the main melody. Timpani drums were used to add rhythmic bite and emphasis. Moreover, there is a question asking to identify and describe each of the movements in the classical four-movement pattern. (2 points) The first movement, characterized by its fast tempo, typically follows a sonata form and emphasizes the development of short motives in an exciting manner. It is known for its vigour and dramatic nature. On the other hand, the second movement, usually in a different key than the tonic, can be found in either sonata form, A B A form, or theme-and-variations form.

It has a lyrical and slow feel. The third movement typically consists of a minuet and trio, which can range from a moderate to fairly quick tempo. It can vary in style, from an elegant courtly dance to a lively peasant romp or an energetic ice dance that is barely danceable. The fourth movement, whether in sonata or sonata-rondo form, is fast, lively, and dazzling, but slightly lighter in tone compared to the first movement. It can also have a more triumphant and heroic character and is sometimes considered the climax of the entire symphony. 7.

The intellectual climate of the “age of enlightenment” was characterized by a belief in progress. Intellectuals during this time believed that reason was the best guide for human conduct, rather than custom or tradition. They challenged the privileges of the aristocracy and clergy, aligning with the outlook of the middle class, which was fighting for its rights.

There are several meanings attached to the term classical. It can refer to Greek or Roman Antiquity, or it can be used to describe any supreme accomplishment that has a lasting appeal.

It can also refer to any genre of music that is not jazz, rock, folk, or mainstream music. The term classical is used by music historians based on its usage in art history. One point to describe the typical formal structure and content in a classical symphony is as follows: (1) a lively and dramatic fast movement; (2) a melodic and slow movement; (3) a dance-like movement, either a minuet or scherzo; and (4) an impressive or heroic fast movement. The initial movement usually follows the sonata form and emphasizes the thrilling development of short musical ideas.

The second movement of a classical concerto or symphony is typically not in the tonic key and can be in either sonata form, A B A form, or theme-and-variations form.

On the other hand, the third movement usually takes the form of a minuet and trio, with a moderate or fairly quick tempo. It can vary in character, ranging from a courtly dance to a peasant romp or a vigorous piece that may not be easily danceable.

Moving on to the fourth movement, it is typically in either sonata or sonata-rondo form and is fast, lively, and brilliant. However, it tends to have a lighter mood compared to the opening movement. It can also have a more triumphant and heroic character, often serving as the climax of the entire symphony.

The roles of soloist and orchestra in a classical concerto are well-defined. The soloist takes on the role of the star, showcasing their musical talents in a challenging dialogue. There is an interplay of melodic lines between the soloist and orchestra, characterized by a spirit of give-and-take. At times, the soloist plays the melody while the orchestra provides accompaniment. In other moments, the woodwinds may present the main theme accompanied by rippling arpeggios played by the soloist.

In a classical concerto, the cadenza plays a significant role. It is an unaccompanied section where the soloist displays their virtuosity. Typically appearing near the end of the first movement and sometimes in the last movement, it is often improvised by the soloist, who may also be the composer.

When comparing and contrasting the first movements of a classical concerto and symphony, there are similarities and differences. Both movements typically follow established forms such as sonata form. However, in a concerto, there is an emphasis on featuring the soloist’s abilities and musical talents. In contrast, the symphony’s first movement does not highlight a soloist and instead focuses on the orchestra as a whole.Both a classical symphony and concerto have their first movements in sonata form. However, the classical symphony lacks two expositions and a soloist.

Sonata form is a structure used in classical music to organize single movements. It consists of four main parts: exposition, development, recapitulation, and coda. Typically, the opening fast movement of a classical symphony, sonata, or string quartet follows this form. However, sonata form can also be found in slow movements and fast concluding movements. The exposition is the first section of a sonata-form movement, establishing a strong conflict between the tonic key and the first theme (or group of themes) and the second theme (or group of themes). The development is the second section of a sonata-form event, where the themes from the exposition are further developed and the music transitions through several different keys.

Recapitulation is the third section of a sonata-form movement. In this section, the first theme, bridge, second theme, and concluding section are presented similarly to how they were in the exposition. However, there is one important difference: all the principal material is now in the tonic key. Following the recapitulation is the coda, which is a concluding section that repeats or further develops the themes in a sonata-form movement. Another compositional form is the minuet and trio, which is derived from a dance and has three parts: minuet (A), trio (B), minuet (A).

The third movement of classical symphonies, string quartets, and other works often utilizes triple meter and a moderate tempo. This movement is commonly referred to as C. Rondo, which is a compositional form that features a main theme (A) that returns multiple times in alternating with other themes, such as A B A C A and A ABACA B A. Rondo is frequently used as the form for the last movement in classical symphonies, string quartets, and sonatas. Another compositional form is D. Theme and variations, where a basic musical idea (the theme) is repeated multiple times and undergoes changes each time in melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, or tone color.

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