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Systems Analysis and Online Grading

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Introduction

Through the years, evolution of computer resulted into advancement that could make hard things a lot easier yet accurate, fast and efficient. All those years, it cannot be denied that the rapid change of computer technology makes one’s life a better place to live in. A Customizable Online Grading System can eliminate the word “manual”. Another feature is the automatic importing of grades from the instructor’s class records and printing it in different forms, unlike the current system wherein they need to write everything and present everything in person.

This proposed system can give us more data accuracy and speed up time not only for the students but also for the instructors. Another capability of the proposed system is “Customizable”. All the users have the account settings that can change the default password. The administrators of the school can set the percentage of the grades. And also can add, edit and delete account, subjects and department of the teachers.

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The teacher has their own secured accounts that can add sections, students and grades. The students have also their account using their student number that can sign in to see their grades.

“Technology has certainly changed the way we live. It is good to know that the use of technology in the daily transaction and business processes of certain institution becomes more comprehensive, using technology we can easily accommodate all the needs in terms of information and documents tracking. However, some institutions are still using the manual process which results to some of interruptions of the important transactionsthat may delay especially the grading system. The proponents decided to propose this thesis entitled “Customizable Online Grading System” to taking up the current grading system to the web. The main purpose is to help instructors on inputting their students’ grades. It is designed for the instructors to input grades on the web and to make fast, easy and detailed, which is also for students to easily view the grades. An Online grading system is very reliable, efficient and fast but it is more usable if it is online or in a website. Using online grading system is very popular today and aside from being a service within the Internet that allows faculty to submit grades to the school.” http://www.studymode.com/essays/Online-Grading-System-Of-Iias-1521249.html

Online Grading System is an exercise in the professional judgment on the part of the teachers. It involves the collection and evaluation of evidence on students’ achievements or performance over a specified period of time. Educational institution is one of the major users of internet and computers application especially in ahead countries from the Philippines. A grade is a degree or rating in scale classifying according to quality, rank, work, or the result of evaluation, test achievements or examination that is the basis if the study or works are effective or done properly.

A computerized grading system is very reliable, efficient and fast but it is more usable if it taking up to online or put it on a website. Using online grading system are very popular today and aside of being a service within the Internet that allows faculty to submit grades to the school and making online applications is one of in demand opportunities around the world. (http://www.studymode.com/essays/Chapter-1-Online-Grading-System-1401173.html)

Background of the study

The proposed system entitled “Customizable Online Grading System” (COGSYS) is to upgrade or upload online grading system into web based. As the term implies, the system can be customized. The main purpose is to benefits administrators, school students, and specially the instructors on computing their students’ grades which will make it fast, easy, detailed and provide printed outputs in giving grades.

The proponents came up with idea entitled “Customizable Online Grading System” (COGSYS) because of the panels opinion many of the teachers/instructor encountered the problems and difficulties on manual grading so we decided to pursue this idea to change the manual grading into computerized/automated online grading system that will benefits not only the instructor but also the student and schools that will use the website.

Objectives of the study

General:
The purpose of this study is to create a software/program that will help both professors/instructors or the like to generate grading reports and the student to rely on having an accurate grade.

Specific:
The completion of this research aims to achieve the following: 1. To develop a system that can enable the instructor to create online grading report based on the traditional process as follows: 1.1 System Planning

1.2 System Analysis
1.3 System Design
1.4 System Coding
1.5 System Testing
1.6 System Implementation
1.7 System Maintenance

2. To determine the effectiveness of an automated grading system bas on the following factors: 2.1 Functionality
2.2 Usability
2.3 Security
2.4 System Benefits
2.5 Maintainability
2.6 Portability
3. To determine the significant difference of using replace the manual system with the automated system. 4. To enumerate the comments, suggestions and recommendations of the respondents to further enhance the COGSy’s System.

Scope and Delimitation

The scope of the study is for the grading system to be generic. It means any school can use the proposed online grading system. The administrator of the school can set the percentage of the grades. It can also add, edit and delete account, subjects and department of the teachers. The teachers have their own secured accounts that can add sections, students and grades. The students also have their account using their student number that can be used for signing in to see their grades.

The study is focused on grading system. To update the students about their performance and status on their respective subjects.If the instructor submitted wrong grades of student, the COGSYs’ is not reliable that is due to human error.

Significance of the study

This proposed “Customizable Online grading system” will provide convenience to its user to easier and faster of inputting and accurate computing grades. The study is made to find out that the use of online grading system will lessen the time for the transactions of encoding and releasing the grades of the student.

This study will be a great help of the following:

1. Teachers. This study will help them to process records and keep the grades of student in a faster and accurate way.It can help them to encode the grades through online system. 2. Students. The students can view theirgradesIt can help them to inquire their grades in more efficient way. They can get their summary of grades through online.

3. Schools. The schools can use COGSYSin generating the grades of the students fast and with great accuracy that will benefit the teachers and students. The teachers can submit their grades to schools administrator through online.

4. Parents. The parents can see their children’s grades through student’s
accounts.

5. Future researchers.To help them on their future research related to Online Grading System.

THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

‘The Informatics International Diliman College is one of the fastest growing institutions with new opportunities rising continually in hundreds of different fields. This project examines the issues related to Online Grading System that implements a web-based application composed of the Grade School and High School Department. This would create a system of reliable and accurate to compute grades in all different subjects in the Basic Education Department. A comparatively fast access of information of grades; generate reports, and information of the input of teachers. This will be designed through web-based with the use of MySQL as database management with the intent to generate reports.’ http://www.studymode.com/essays/Online-Grading-System-1036153.html

‘The De La Salle John Bosco College is one of the fastest growing institutions in the City of Bislig with new opportunities rising continually in hundreds of different fields. System analyst matches the requirements of the school and set up an interview between the key people. Interviews are then conducted, and the candidates selected in the interview are one of the teachers of the basic education department

This project examines the issues related to Online Grading System that implements a web-based application composed of the Grade School and High School Department. This would create a system of reliable and accurate to compute grades in all different subjects in the Basic Education Department. A comparatively fast access of information of grades; generate reports, and information of the input of teachers. This will be designed through web-based with the use of MySQL as database management with the intent to generate reports. It helps the teachers to minimize the time consumed in computing grades of the student using manual method. It also focused each of the underlying technologies used to create and implement the application.’ http://www.studymode.com/essays/Abstract-For-Online-Grading-System-610544.html

Local Studies

`Based on our interview to Mr. R. Arimbuyutan of College of Immaculate Conception they are using their Online Grading System for almost 6 years via SMS Technology features. And they demonstrate it how to use their Online Grading system. They also have the same logic as COGSYS the only difference is the customizable part that every school can use the COGSYS.

‘Based on the study of Andrienne Gail E. Ramos, etc… (2011) entitled Systematized Grading System of Canossa School High School Department. The school is having problems in transferring grades from one grade sheet to another. Re-checking and re-encoding grades takes some time. The proponents attempts to design and develop a grading system which it has the same process and flow as the old system. However the proposed system has eliminated manual writing and the school staff can prevent time and energy consumption by using a system that guarantees accurate grade recording. It will also eliminate tons of papers used in computerized grading sheet, grading sheet per quarter, and summary sheet. The grade will directly encode in the system. Visual Basic is used as a tool for programming the functionalities of forms, buttons, menus, and encoding of grades. They also used Microsoft Access 2007 for the recording of data and grades of the students and Adobe Photoshop CS4 for editing images and icons for the interface of the system.

On the thesis A Computer-Based Generic Registration System by Julius Ivan A. Layos (2002), he stated that computers are known for their speed, accuracy and efficiency. The proponent conducted this study that arrived to create a standard computer based registration system for elementary and high schools. The software is designed to run on Windows 95, 98, NT, ME and 2000. Visual  Basic 6 by Microsoft was the programming used in implementing the software product. It is the most popular Rapid Application Development (RAD) tool. One very important feature of Visual Basic is a reversal of the normal approach to programming. Adobe Photoshop is also one of the software used in creating the system.’ http://www.studymode.com/essays/Online-Grading-System-790346.html

Synthesis

The researchers believe that the related literature and studies in this research is related on their proposed study. The researchers relate and differentiate the research based on the flow of their system analysis on the system.

The Customizable Online Grading System will help one to input and Compute Grades. Based on related studies they want to change the old system into computerized Online Grading System to eliminate manual writing and the school staff can prevent time and energy consumption by using a system that guarantees accurate grade recording. The related literature and study gives knowledge idea about Online Grading system to the researchers of this study.

Conceptual Framework

The administrator can manage the website. All the users have the account settings that can change the default password. The administrator of the school can set the percentage of the grades. And also can add, edit and delete account, subjects and department of the teachers. The teachers have their own secured account that can add sections, students and grades. The students have also their accounts using their student numbers that can sign in to see their grades.

Definition of Terms

For a better understanding of the study, the following terms are defined as
they are used in the study: Based on Wikipedia.

Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Photoshop

Customizable – to make (something) according to a customer’s individual requirements.

Easy PHP – is a software bundle for windows enabling PHP and MySQL development on a developer’s personal computer.Launched in 1999,

Notepad ++ – is a text editor and source code editor for windows. It aims to be a lightweight and robust editor for a variety of programming and scripting languages.

Online – connected through internet

Phpmyadmin- A set of PHP-scripts to administrate MySQL over the WWW. phpMyAdmin is intended to handle the administration of MySQL over the WWW. http://linux.about.com/cs/linux101/g/phpmyadmin.htm

System – is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole or a set of elements (often called ‘components’ ) and relationships which are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or sets.

Systems Analyst – is to researches problems, plans solutions, recommends software and systems, at least at the functional level, and coordinates development to meet business or other requirements.

RESEARCH AND SOFTWARE DESIGN

Methods used in Developing the Software

Waterfall Model

Figure 2

Waterfall method is a sequential design process used in software development processes, in which progress is seen as flowing information more downwards. The proponents take advantage with the use of waterfall method to be able the system develop a feasible study in the proposed system.

System Planning

System planning is done by people who have faith in the future and a vision of the future adequate to form the basis for planning. System planning has two major outputs which embody its contributions. These are proposals and design concepts.

In this phase the researcher plan on how to create and what is needed in the system

System Analysis

In System Analysis more emphasis is given to understanding the details of an existing system or a proposed one and then deciding whether the proposed system is desirable or not and whether the existing system needs improvements.

After the proponents gathered all information needed, the researchers construct a new idea in developing a new system based on gathered data, problems on encoding of grades and inquiry of students manually on their instructor

System Design

The System’s design process partitions the requirements to either hardware or software systems and establishes on overall system architecture. Software design involves representing the software functions so that they may be formed into one or more executable programs.

In this phase the proponents design the layout, user interface design, data design and the transition of the process design.

Implementation

The organization configures and enables system security features, tests the functionality of these features, installs or implements the system, and obtains a formal authorization to operate the system. Design reviews and system tests should be performed before placing the system into operation to ensure that it meets all required security specifications. In addition, if new controls are added to the application or the support system, additional acceptance tests of those new controls must be performed. This approach ensures that new controls meet security specifications and do not conflict with or invalidate existing controls. The results of the design reviews and system tests should be fully documented, updated as new reviews or tests are performed, and maintained in the organization’s official records.

This part start by installing or uploading the proposed system then allows the user to be familiar with the use of the system.

Testing

The system must be tested to evaluate its actual functionality in relation to expected or intended functionality. Some other issues to consider during this stage would be converting old data into the new system and training employees to use the new system. End users will be key in determining whether the developed system meets the intended requirements, and the extent to which the system is actually used.

Testing the system includes how the system works, inputs of information and including the all the solution that fixed all the problems.

Maintenance

In this phase, systems and products are in place and operating, enhancements and/or modifications to the system are developed and tested, and hardware and software components are added or replaced. The organization should continuously monitor performance of the system to ensure that it is consistent with pre-established user and security requirements, and that needed system modifications are incorporate.

Maintenance of the system may include renewal of the hosting and upgrading the system in case of changes in technology that may affect the performance of the system.

Research Design

The proponents used developmental research. Developmental research, as opposed to simple instructional development, has been defined as the systematic study of designing, developing and evaluating instructional programs, processes, and products that must meet criteria of internal consistency and effectiveness.

Developmental research is particularly important in the field of instructional technology. The most common types of development research involve situations in which the product-development process is analysed and described, and the final product is evaluated. A second type of developmental research focuses more on the impact of the product on the learner or the organization. A third type of study is Oriented toward a general analysis of design development or evaluation processes as a whole or as components. (http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED373753&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED373753) The proponents used the internet in gathering the necessary information about how to develop and make a progress with the project. It is so because web searching is much faster, does not require extensive preparations, returns multiple results, and can be done in the comfort of your home. Search engines are programs that search documents for specified keywords and return a list of the documents where the keywords were found. A search engine is really a general class of programs; however, the term is often used to specifically describe systems like Google, Bing and Yahoo! Search that enables users to search for documents on the World Wide Web.

Respondents of the study

The respondents of this study are Teachers that will use COGSYS. They are the ones who are the knowledgeable enough to answer the problems posed in the present study. They answered the questionnaire that the researchers gave them which supplies the information the researchers need.

Table 1.0: Distribution of Respondents
RESPONDENTS
Frequency
Percentage
NEUST IT Instructors
2
80%
ACLC IT Instructor
1
20%
TOTAL
3
100%

Data Gathering Tools

The methods of gathering data in this research are made through Interviews and Observation.

Interview

An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interview. Although interviews are a standard part of journalism and media reporting, the focus of this piece is on how interviews can be used as a tool for psychological research. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interview)

We conducted our interview using asking a question, asking for opinions and ideas that will enhance and improve our system.

Observation

This technique is used when the researcher cannot secure adequate or valid data through the use of the questionnaire or some other technique. It is considered to be the most direct means of studying people in so far as their overt behavior is concerned. Observation of a current operating procedure is another data gathering tool seeing the system in action gives you additional perspective and better understanding of system procedures.

Is either an active of a living being, such as a human, consisting of receiving knowledge of the outside world through the senses, or the recording of data using scientific instruments. The term may also refer to any data collected during this activity. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observation)

Questionnaire

It is a research instruments which has a list of planned written questions related to a particular topic, with space provided for indicating response to each questions, intended for submission to a number of persons for reply. It is simply a set of questions which. When answered properly by a required number of properly selected respondents, will supply the necessary information to complete a research study.

Statistical Tools

The following statistics were used for data analysis.
Weighted Mean. The weight mean for all indicators in the factors that affect product sales were acquired using the Likert Scale. Formula:X = ∑x
N

Where:
∑x = sum of all data
N = number of respondents

The corresponding percentage was used to describe the profile of the subjects. Formula:% = F
N
Where:% = percentage
F = Frequency
N = Number of Respondents

Guide to Interpretation:

Likert scale

A Likert scale is a psychometric scale commonly involved in research that employs questionnaires. A Likert’s Scale is a rating scale that requires the subject to indicate his or her degree of agreement or disagreement to a statement. In this type of questionnaire, the respondents were given five response choices. These options served as the quantification of the participant’s agreement or disagreement on each question item. (“Wikepedia”)

5 = Excellent
4 = Very Good
3 = Good
2 = Fair
1 = Poor

System Design

The System’s design process partitions the requirements to either hardware or software system and establishes on overall system architecture. Software design involves representingthe software functions so that they may be formed into one or more executable programs. Systems design is simply the design of systems. It implies a systematic and rigorous approach to design-an approach demanded by the scale and complexity of many systems problems.

The following tools are used by the proponents in developing the proposed website:

Analytical Tools

The following are the different analytical tools that are as a guide for the proponents to develop their proposed system.

1. Context Diagram

Context diagram are used early in a project to get agreement on the scope under investigation. Context diagrams are typically included in a requirements document. These diagrams must be read by all project stakeholders and thus should be written in plain language, so the stakeholders can understand items within the document.(See Appendix A)

A system context diagram (scd) in software engineering and systems engineering is a diagram that represents the actors outside a system that could interact with that system. This diagram is the highest level view of a system. It is similar to a block diagram. Scds show a system, often software-based, as a whole and its inputs and outputs from/to external factors. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_context_diagram)

The Proponents use the context diagram to show the cycle of the system it also shows the input, process, and output of the system.

2. Data Dictionary

A data dictionary is prepared for data management system software. It specifies the form, style, and content of the records in database so that all entries will conform to a uniform standard. This greatly expands the utility of the database.(See Appendix B) (System Analysis and Design, p. 258)

3. Data Flow Diagram

A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the “flow” of d1ata through an information system, modelling its process aspects. Often they are a preliminary step used to create an overview of the system which can later be elaborated.[2]DFDs can also be used for the visualization of data processing(structured design).(See Appendix C)

A DFD shows what kinds of information will be input to and output from the system, where the data will come from and go to, and where the data will be stored. It does not show information about the timing of processes, or information about their processes will operate in sequence or in parallel (which is shown on a flowchart).

The proponents use data flow diagram to visualize and understand the flow or the process of the system. The proponent used Data Flow Diagram because it shows how data moves through an information system but does not show program logic or processing steps. It provides a logical model that shows what the system does, not how it does it.

4. Visual Table of Contents (VTOC)

Visual Table of Contents (VTOC) is a diagram that shows levels of detail increasing from top to bottom. (System Analysis and Design, p.422) The chart shows a hierarchy in which the level of detail increases from the top to the chart to the bottom, moving from the general to the specific. This is called to top down development. In our figure, the levels are coded with reference numbers. At the top of the chart is the general level 1.0 module and lower levels of detail are marked 1.1.1, 1.1.2, etc. (System Analysis and Design, p.82).(See Appendix D)

The proponents use the Visual Table of Contents for them to visualize and organize the flow of their proposed system. They use the VTOC to show the menus and its designated submenus. It also presented the reference number of all the menus and submenus of the program.

PRESENTATION OF DATA, INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS AND SOFTWARE PRODUCT ANALYSIS

In this chapter, the researcher tackled what the presentation of data and how it interpreted by the respondent. It includes the result of the analysis that helps in the production of the system.

Respondents of the Study
Table 1.1: Set of Respondents
RESPONDENTS
Frequency
Percentage
NEUST IT Instructors
2
70%
ACLC IT Instructor
1
30%
TOTAL
3
100%

Table 1.2: Functionality Evaluation Results

CRITERIA
RATINGS
MEAN
Functionality
5
4
3
2
1

1. Does the grading system is accurate?

1
1
1

2.33
2. Does the system create and register account?

3

3
3. Does the admin can manage the website?

2
1

2.5
4. Does all the portals are functional?

1
2

2
5. The texts are well-written and grammatically correct.

3

3
Average
2.56

Tab
Table 1.3: Usability Evaluation Results

CRITERIA
RATINGS
MEAN
Usability
5
4
3
2
1

1. Accurate editing and adding of grades.

3

3
2. Friendly User Interface.

1
2

2
3. Does the content management system is usable?

3

3
Average
2.6
Tabl
Table 1.4: Security Evaluation Results

CRITERIA
RATINGS
MEAN
Security
5
4
3
2
1

1. Does the content cannot be edited by the viewer or user?

2
1

2.5
2. Every user has their own account

2
1

2.5
3. The system is able to secure the user

2
1

2.5
4. Does all the login has security?

1
1
1

2.33
Average
2.45
Table Table 1.5: System Benefits Evaluation Results

CRITERIA
RATINGS
MEAN
System Benefits
5
4
3
2
1

1. The website useful for the schools, teachers and students

1
2

2
Average
2
TablTable 1.6: Maintainability Evaluation Results

CRITERIA
RATINGS
MEAN
Maintainability
5
4
3
2
1

1. The website safe from any form of hacking

1
1
1

2.33
2. The website protected from virus

2
1

2.5
3. The website easily reconstructed by other webmaster

1
2

2
Average
2.27

Table 1.7: Portability Evaluation Results

CRITERIA
RATINGS
MEAN
Portability
5
4
3
2
1

1. Is the website compatible with any kind of browser?
1
2

2
2. Is the database can be moved to any other databases software for the purpose of checking or updating? 1
2

2
Average
2

Cost Analysis

Table 1.8: Cost Analysis

Cost
Category
Total

1. Web hosting
₱ 5,000

2. Web domain
₱1,500

3. Professional fee
₱20,000

4. Maintenance
₱1,000

₱27,500.00

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary of Findings

Table 1.9: Summary of Findings

CRITERIA
AVERAGE
Functionality
2.56
Usability
2.6
Security
2.45
System Benefits
2
Maintainability
2.27
Portability
2

Conclusion

We the researchers conclude by the use of Customizable Online Grading System will lessen the time of the teacher on encoding their grades online, and the student that will view their grades online. Based on the result of the evaluation most of the correspondents agreed the used of customizable online grading system.

Recommendation

Based on our findings and conclusion made the following recommendation:

1. Instructors – the use of our online grading system may gain portable for them by the used of internet they can encode grades through online.

2. Students – the use of our online grading system will help the students to inquire grades through online and lessen their time looking for their respective teachers.

3. Future researcher – by the used of the system, they will use this as a guide for the future developer.

Cite this Systems Analysis and Online Grading

Systems Analysis and Online Grading. (2016, Jul 22). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/systems-analysis-and-online-grading/

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