Tamil Nadu (/ˈtæmɪl ˈnɑːduː/ tam-il-nah-doo; Tamil pronunciation (help·info); Tamil: தமிழ்நாடு; literally “Tamil Country”) is one of the 28 statesof India. Its capital is Chennai (formerly known as Madras), the largest city. Tamil Nadu is a land most known for its monumental ancient Hindu temples and classical form of dance Bharata Natyam. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by theunion territory of Puducherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bound by the Eastern Ghats in the north, the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Gulf of Mannar, the Palk Strait in the south east, and by theIndian Ocean in the south.
Tamil Nadu is the eleventh largest state in India by area and the seventh most populous state in India. It is the second largest state economy in India as of 2012. The state ranked 6th among states in India according to the Human Development Index as of 2011.  The state has the highest number (10.56 per cent) of business enterprises and stands second in total employment (9.97 per cent) in India, compared to the population share of about 6 per cent. In the 2013 Raghuram Rajan panel report, Tamil Nadu was ranked as the third most developed state in India based on a “Multidimensional Development Index”. The region has been the home of the Tamil people since at least 1500 BCE. Its official language Tamil which holds a status of being a classical language. Tamil has been in use in inscriptions and literature for over 2500 years. Mythical traditions dictate that Lord Shiva himself taught sageAgastya this language. Sage Agastya is considered as the Father of Tamil literature and compiled the first Tamil grammar called Agathiyam, but the scripts of Agathiyam does not exist. It is believed that he has lived in the 6th or 7th century B.C and specialized in language, alchemy, medicine and spirituality (yogam and gnanam). There are 96 books in the name of Agathiyar. Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources, classical arts, classical music, classical literature, Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture, hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in Indian peninsula. In Adichanallur, 24 km (15 mi) fromTirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons and bones, husks and grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago. The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is “very rudimentary” Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies.About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, and most of these are in the Tamil language.Virumandi Andithevar, of the Piramalai Kallar community from the Tamil Nadu region of southern India, was identified by the Genographic Project as one of the direct descendants of the first modern human settlers in India. His Y-DNA belongs to Haplogroup C and he carries the M130 marker which defines the first migrants to South East Asia and Australia from the African coast 60,000 years ago; more than half of Australian Aborigines also carry the M130 gene.
Indus valley script between 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.C
The Neolithic people of Tamil Nadu shared the same language family of the Harappan group. Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Dravidian language.The discovery of a Neolithic stone celt, a hand-held axe, with the Indus script on it at Sembian-Kandiyur in Tamil Nadu is, according toIravatham Mahadevan, “Stone axe with Indus Valley script found near Mayiladuthurai,Tamil Nadu was a major discovery because for the first time a text in the Indus script has been found in the State on a datable artefact, which is a polished neolithic celt. He estimated the date of the artefact with the script to be around 1500 B.C. Early period :
The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil sources known as Sangam literature. Numismatic, archaeological and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about six centuries, from 300 BCE to 300 CE. Three dynasties, namely the Chera, Chola andPandya, ruled the area of present-day Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The Chera ruled the whole of present day Kerala and parts of western Tamil Nadu comprising Coimbatore, Karur, Salem and Erode districts from the capital of Vanchi Muthur (thought to be modern day Karur). The Chola dynasty ruled the northern and central parts of Tamil Nadu from their capital, Uraiyur; and the Pandya dynasty ruled southern Tamil Nadu, from capitals at Korkai andMadurai. All three dynasties had extensive trade relationships with Rome, Greece, Egypt, Ceylon, Phoenicia, Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia. Trade flourished in commodities such as spices, ivory, pearls, beads and gems. Chera traded extensively from Muziris on the west coast, Chola fromArikamedu and Puhar and Pandya through Korkai port. A Greco-Roman trade and travel document, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (c. 60–100 CE) gives a description of the Tamil country and its ports. Between the third and the seventh centuries CE, the three Tamil kingdoms were overwhelmed by the Kalabhras which is sometimes referred to as the “Dark Age” in Tamil history and little is known about it. The Kalabhras were expelled by thePallavas, Badami Chalukyas and Pandyas in the sixth century. Medieval period :
Kallanai or Grand Anicut, is an ancientdam built on the Kaveri River inTiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India. It was built by the Chola king and Karikala Chola around the 2nd Century AD and is considered one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world, which is still in use. It still stands as a symbol of Dravidian Engineering. During the Kalabhras’ rule Buddhism flourished in the land of the Tamils. The didactic work Naaladiyar was composed during their reign. It consists of moral sayings in the venpa meter, 400 in number in 40 chapters, each by one Buddhist ascetic, according to tradition. Following the tradition of Tamil Buddhism, Naaladiyar emphasises virtues such as control of the senses, Dhamma (Lord Buddha’s teaching), renunciation, and other desirable social qualities. Pali was the court language of the Kalabhras who were also called Kalapara or Kalaparaya according to the Koramangalam inscription. Shore Temple built by the Pallavas atMamallapuram during the eighth century, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. During the fourth to eighth centuries C.E., Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallavas under Mahendravarman Iand his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I. The Pallavas ruled a parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Dravidian architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. They came into conflict with the Kannada Chalukyas of Badami. During this period, The great Badami Chalukya King Pulakesi II extended the Chalukya Empire up to the northern extents of the Pallava kingdom and defeated the Pallavas in several battles. PallavaNarasimhavarman, however, reversed this victory in 642 by attacking and occupying Badami temporarily.However, a later Chalukya King Vikramaditya II took revenge by repeated invasions of the territory ofTondaimandalam and his subsequent victories over Pallava Parameswarvarman I and the temporary occupation of Kanchipuram. The Meenakshi Amman Temple inMadurai is one of the grand Hindu temples in India. The Pallava dynasty was overthrown in the 9th century by the imperial Rashtrakutas who ruled from Gulbarga. King Krishna III, the last great Rashtrakuta king consolidated the empire so that it stretched from the Narmada River to Kaveri River and included the northern Tamil country (Tondaimandalam) while levying tribute on the king of Ceylon.
 Much later, the Pallavas were replaced by the Cholas as the dominant kingdom in the 10th century C.E. and they in turn were replaced by Pandyas in the 13th century C.E. The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast. They had extensive trade links with the south east Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire. During the 13th century C.E. Marco Polo mentioned the Pandyas as the richest empire in existence. Temples such as the Meenakshi Amman Temple atMadurai and Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli are the best examples of Pandyan temple architecture. The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the south coast of India coast, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world . Vijayanagar and Nayak period (1336–1646)
Main article: Vijayanagara Empire
The Muslim invasions of southern India triggered the establishment of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire with Vijayanagara in modern Karnataka as its capital. The Vijayanagara empire eventually conquered the entire Tamil country by c. 1370 C.E. and ruled for almost two centuries until its defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by a confederacy of Deccan sultanates. Subsequently, as the Vijayanagara Empire went into decline after the mid-16th century, many local rulers, called Nayaks, succeeded in gaining the trappings of independence. This eventually resulted in the further weakening of the empire; many Nayaks declared themselves independent, among whom the Nayaks of Madurai and Tanjore were the first to declare their independence, despite initially maintaining loose links with the Vijayanagara kingdom. The Nayaks of Madurai and Nayaks of Thanjavur were the most prominent of Nayaks in the 17th century. They reconstructed some of the well-known temples in Tamil Nadu such as the Meenakshi Temple.
Early struggle for Independent states
The fall of Nayaka period brought up many small Nayakars of southern Tamil Nadu, who ruled small parcels of land called Palayams. Some of these Palaiyakkarar (‘polygar’ as called by British) were ruling under Nawabs of Carnatic. Nawabs granted taxation rights to the British which led to conflicts between British and the Palaiyakkarar, which resulted in series of wars to establish independent states by the aspiring Palaiyakkarar. Puli Thevar was one of the earliest opponents of the British rule in South India . He was involved in a vendetta with the Nawab of Arcot who was supported by the British. Thevar’s prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam, who later rebelled against the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s. The author of the Thirunelveli District Gazetteer, H.R. Pate, observes as follows: Nelkatumseval is chiefly memorable as having been in the eighteenth Century stronghold of the redoubtable Puli Thevar, who figured for many years as the leader of the Marava Confederacy against the troops of the Nawab and the Company.
Azhagu Muthu Kone (1728-1757) was an Indian revolutionary and independence activist. He is regarded for having raised one of the revolts against the British East India Company in India. Kone was born and brought up in Kattalankulam, a village in erstwhile Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. Puli Thevar (1715-1767), Vennikkaladi Kudumbar, Thalapathi in Puli Thevar Force chieftain who fought the British East India Company in the 1750s and 1760s. Rani Velu Nachiyar, First Woman Freedom fighter of India and Queen of Sivagangai. She was drawn to war after her husband Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar (1750–1772), King of Sivaganga was murdered at Kalayar Kovil temple by British generals Joseph Smith and Benjour. Before her death, Queen Velu Nachi granted powers to Maruthu brothers to rule Sivaganga. Kattabomman (1760–1799), Palaiyakkara chief of Panchalakurichi who fought the British in the First Polygar War. He was captured by the British at the end of the war and hanged near Kayattar in 1799. Veeran Sundaralingam (1700-1800) was the General of Kattapomman Nayakan’s palayam, who died in the process of blowing up a British ammunition dump 1799 which killed more than 150 British soldiers to save Kattapomman Palace. Oomaithurai, younger brother of Kattabomman, took asylum under the Maruthu brothers Periya Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu and raised army.
They formed a coalition withDheeran Chinnamalai and Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja which fought the British in Second Polygar Wars. Dheeran Chinnamalai (1756–1805), Polygar chieftain of Kongu and feudatory of Tipu Sultan who fought the British in the Second Polygar War. The Vellore Mutiny on 10 July 1806 was the first instance of a large-scale and violent mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company, predating the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century. The revolt, which took place in the South Indian city of Vellore, was brief, lasting only one full day, but brutal as mutineers broke into the Vellore fort and killed or wounded 200 British troops, before they were subdued by reinforcements from nearby Arcot. European rule :
Around 1609, the Dutch established a settlement in Pulicat, while the Danes had their establishment in Tharangambadi also known as Tranquebar. In 1639, the British, under the East India Company, established a settlement further south of Pulicat, in present day Chennai. In the late 18th century, the British fought and reduced the French dominions in India to Puducherry. Nizams of Hyderabad and the Nawabs of the Carnatic bestowed tax revenue collection rights on the East India Company for defeating the Kingdom of Mysore. After winning the Polygar wars, the East India Company consolidated most of southern India into the Madras Presidency coterminous with the dominions of Nizam of Hyderabad. Pudukkottai remained as a princely state.
Governance and administration :
The Governor is the constitutional head of the state while the Chief Minister is the head of the government and the head of the council of ministers. TheChief Justice of the Madras High Court is the head of the judiciary. The present Governor, Chief Minister and the Chief Justice are Konijeti Rosaiah, J. Jayalalitha and Rajesh Kumar Agarwal respectively. Administratively the state is divided into 32 districts. It has 10 city corporations, 125municipalities, 529 town panchayats and 12,524 village panchayats. Chennai (formerly known as Madras) is the state capital. It is the fourth largest city in India and is also one of the eight Metropolitan cities of India. The state comprises 39 Lok Sabha constituencies and 234 Legislative Assembly constituencies. Tamil Nadu had a bicameral legislature until 1986, when it was replaced with a unicameral legislature, like most other states in India. The term length of the government is five years, as is elsewhere in India. The present government run by the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK)-led alliance came to power in 2011 and consists of a council of 33 ministers, headed by the Chief Minister J. Jayalalitha. The Tamil Nadu legislative assembly is housed at the Fort St. George in Chennai. The state had come under the President’s rule rule on four occasions – first from 1976 to 1977, next for a short period in 1980, then from 1988 to 1989 and the latest in 1991. The local administration is divided into revenue administration and developmental administration. Revenue administrative units are classified based on the district.
Each of the 32 districts in Tamil Nadu is divided into divisions, which are further divided to Taluks. Each of these Taluks have a list of revenue villages under them. Tahsildar is the head of these Taluks. Developmental administration, in contrast, is carried out by Panchayat Unions (called blocks) in rural areas. These panchayat unions have a set of panchayat villages under them. In urban areas, the governance is done by municipal corporations, municipalities or town panchayats based on the size of the town. Tamil Nadu has 10 municipal corporations: Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Tiruchirappalli, Salem, Tirunelveli, Tirupur, Erode, Thoothukudi andVellore. Nagercoil and Thanjavur are soon going to be upgraded as the next two Municipal corporations. Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of E-Governance initiatives in India. A large part of the government records like land ownership records are digitised and all major offices of the state government like Urban Local Bodies — all the corporations and municipal office activities – revenue collection, land registration offices, and transport offices have been computerised. Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely successfully. TheTamil Nadu Police Force is over 140 years old. It is the fifth largest state police force in India and has the largest strength of women police personnel in the country. As of 2003, the state had a total police population ratio of 1:668, higher than the national average of 1:717. The current Director G Literature
Most early Tamil literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. Throughout its history, Tamil literature has sought to inform and inspire, educate and entertain. Notable examples of Tamil poetry include the Tirukkural, written during the Tamil Sangams period. The poem encompasses a universal outlook, as the author, Tiruvalluvar, does not mention his religion, land, or the audience for his work. He is often portrayed as a holy saint of Tamil Nadu today. Ancient Tamil literature is predominantly secular and deals with everyday life in the Tamil Context.The only religious poems among the shorter poems occur inparipaatal. The rest of the corpus of Sangam literature deals with human relationship and emotions. கேடில் விழுச்செல்வம் கல்வி யொருவற்கு மாடல்ல மற்றை யவை
(திருக்குறள் – 400)
Learning is a wealth that none could destroy
Nothing else gives genuine joy
The first Tamil printing press was established at Tarangambadi by the Danish missionaries. During the Indian freedom struggle, many Tamil poets and writers sought to provoke national spirit, social equity and secularist thoughts among the common man, notably Subramanya Bharathy and Bharathidasaneneral of Police (law and order) of Tamil Nadu is K. Ramanujan. Economy
Main articles: Economy of Tamil Nadu, List of conglomerates in Tamil Nadu, and List of rivers of Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu is the second largest contributor to India’s GDP. Tamil Nadu’s gross state domestic product for the year 2011-2012 was 4.28 lakh crore or $145,868 Million. The state has shown a growth of 9.4 per cent in the year 2011-2012. Tamil Nadu is the second most industrialised state in India. It ranks third in foreign direct investment(FDI) approvals (cumulative 1991–2002) of 225,826 million ($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra and Delhi constituting 9.12 per cent of the total FDI in the country. The per capita income in 2007–2008 for the state was 72,993 ranking third among states with a population over 10 million and has steadily been above the national average. Agriculture
Tamil Nadu has historically been an agricultural state and is a leading producer of agricultural products in India. In 2008, Tamil Nadu was India’s fifth biggest producer of Rice. The total cultivated area in the State was 5.60 million hectares in 2009–10. The Cauvery delta region is known as the Rice Bowl of South India. In terms of production, Tamil Nadu accounts for 10 per cent in fruits and 6 per cent in vegetables, in India. Annual food grains production in the year 2007–08 was 100.35 lakh mt. Mango and banana are the leading fruit crops in Tamil Nadu accounting for over 87 per cent of the total fruit production. The main vegetables grown aretapioca, tomato, onion, brinjal (eggplant), and drumstick. Tamil Nadu is also a leading state in the production of flowers with the total production of horticultural crops standing at 99.47 Lakhs during 2003–04. The main flowers grown in Tamil Nadu are jasmine, mullai,chrysanthemum, marigold and rose Tourism :
The tourism industry of Tamil Nadu is the second largest in India, with an annual growth rate of 16 per cent. Tourism in Tamil Nadu is promoted by Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC), a Government of Tamil Nadu undertaking. Approximately 2,804,687 foreign and 111,637,104 domestic tourists visited the state in 2010. The state boasts some of the grand Hindu temples built in Dravidian architecture. The Brihadishwara Temple in Thanjavur, built by the Cholas, the Airavateswara temple in Darasuram and the Shore Temple, along with the collection of other monuments in Mahabalipuram (also called Mamallapuram) have been declared as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Madurai is home to the Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple. Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam. Tiruchendur is the largest functioning temple in the Tamil Nadu, Tiruchirappalli where the famous Rockfort Temple is located, Rameshwaram whose temple walk-ways corridor (Praagarams) are the longest 1.2 km (0.75 mi) of all Indian temples in the world, Kanchipuram and Palani are important pilgrimage sites for Hindus. Other popular temples in Tamil Nadu include those in keelaiyur (East Thirukoilur), Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Chidambaram, Thiruvannaamalai, Palani, Tiruvarur, Kumbakonam,Srivilliputhur, Tiruttani, Namakkal, Vellore, Karur, Bhavani, Coimbatore, Kanniyakumari. Tamil Nadu is also home to hill stations like Udhagamandalam (Ooty), Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Coonoor,Topslip, Valparai, Yelagiri and Manjolai. The Nilgiri hills, Palani hills, Shevaroy hills, Kolli Hills and Cardamom hills are all abodes of thick forests and wildlife. Tamil Nadu has many National Parks, Biosphere Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Elephant and Bird Sanctuaries, Reserved Forests, Zoos and Crocodile farms.
Prominent among them are Mudumalai National Park, The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Anaimalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary and Arignar Anna Zoological Park. The mangroveforests at Pichavaram are also eco-tourism spots of importance. Kanyakumari, the southernmost tip of peninsular India, is famous for its beautiful sunrise, Vivekananda Rock Memorial and Thiruvalluvar’s statue built off the coastline. Marina Beach in Chennai is one of the longest beaches in the world. The stretch of beaches from Chennai to Mahabalipuram are home to many resorts, theme parks and eateries. The prominent waterfalls in the state are Courtallam, Hogenakkal, Papanasam, Manimuthar, Thirparappu,Pykara and Silver Cascade. The Chettinad region of the state is renowned for its Palatial houses and cuisine. With medical care in Chennai, Vellore, Coimbatore and Madurai, Tamil Nadu has the