The purpose of this essay is to supply an analysis of the SABRE reserve system produced by American Airlines. showing how Business Information Systems ( BIS ) can be used to derive a strategic advantage. This will be achieved by depicting the overall attack adopted by American Airlines and how SABRE provided them with a competitory advantage. The factors that led American Airlines losing their competitory advantage will besides be discussed.
One of the cardinal factors in supplying clients with an optimum service is guaranting convenience. flow of information. economy clip. and the efficient usage of available client service resources. On the other manus. in times of rigorous competition it is extremely necessary for concerns to be able to supply such services at the lowest cost and in the most convenient mode possible ( Linoff and Barry. 2011 ) .
In order to assist concerns with client direction. there are now client direction package plans which enable persons and concerns to organize all their information and retain utile information rapidly and expeditiously. Such plans help execute maps such as gross direction. doing optimum pricing determinations. pull offing client trueness plans. client profiling. and engagements and reserves. amongst many other options ( Linoff and Barry. 2011 ) .
One such system. introduced by American Airlines in the 1960’s. is the SABRE reserve system. SABRE. which is an acronym for ‘Semi-Automated Business Research Environment. ’ was the first information system of its sort and was the consequence of a joint venture between IBM and American Airlines. Initially. it was used as an electronic reserves system and replaced the old manual process of hand-written reserves. This enabled American Airlines to rapidly and expeditiously pull off its reserves through a computer-based application ( Duliba et al. . 2001 ) . The initial episode of the system cost about $ 40 million ( ?25 million ) and was about every bit advanced as the system held by the US authorities. This was a major promotion for American Airlines as one of the cardinal countries of its concern procedure was now automated. doing other maps simpler.
In the undermentioned old ages. new applications were added to SABRE. which laid the model for efficient processs in gross direction. optimum pricing determinations. programming of flights. lading and stock list direction. crew rotary motion. and assorted other flight operations. More late. e-commerce applications and a choice of hotels. auto rental bureaus. travel bureaus. and other travel and amusement concerns have been added to the system to enable entree to wider countries of related industries with a simple chink of a mouse ( Varian. 2010 ) .
As it became one of the largest data-processing installations the in air hose industry. the system was installed in assorted travel bureaus around the US and Canada in the 1970’s and began to automatize the travel industry. Over one million menus were recorded in the system. doing operations at a travel bureau more efficient and enabling American Airlines to easy inform travel agents about alterations in menus and the available options. Applications such as BargainFinderSM. easySabre. Sabre Airline Solutions. Sabre Sonic. Sabre eVoya. and others were added to the system doing it one of the biggest and most widespread concern applications available ( Cardinal American Common Market. CACM. 2009 ) . SABRE gave American Airlines a competitory border and delivered many great benefits to the company.
All processes became more efficient. information was dispersed widely. and American Airlines rapidly gained gross revenues and acknowledgment amongst its clients. Customers were provided with the chance to see a figure of options available to them via one system. which they would antecedently hold been unable to obtain. Customers now had the possibility of accessing sole offers. booking tickets to assorted finishs while comparing menus. and pull offing hotel. auto. and other engagements via one system. In the same mode. American Airlines was able to happen optimum monetary values for selling each place. rapidly pull off their flight agendas and employee rotary motion. and distribute information to go agents rapidly. therefore enabling them to sell American Airlines tickets on a larger graduated table ( Burgelman et Al. . 2008 ) .
Since this system was unavailable to other air hose companies. American Airlines gained a outstanding advantage in cost leading. invention. and merchandise distinction. Cost leading means that American Airlines was able to salvage inordinate costs and supply the same services to its clients as other air hoses at a lower monetary value. or supply greater value for the monetary value offered. Since the SABRE Reservations System provided American Airlines with ample convenience and information scattering. it enabled the company to salvage about 30 % of its costs on staff ( Burgelman et Al. . 2008 ) . This was because less staff were now needed to execute specific maps. as the system enabled the easy public presentation of the same maps at a more efficient gait.
The application of Sabre Airline Solutions allowed for new methods of gross direction and the maximization of air hose income. while besides supplying services such as output direction and crew rotary motion. This enabled the air hoses to cut down costs and supply efficient services at a lower cost than rivals. It besides provided clients with options such as the BargainFinder. which helped them happen deal monetary values in menus and included an application which gave American Airlines the possibility to put menu monetary values while comparing their ain monetary values to rivals. Hence. with all of the information available. it was easy for American Airlines to obtain an advantage in cost leading by cut downing its ain costs and supplying clients with more valued service ( Melville and Ross. 2010 ) .
Invention was one of the chief competitory strengths that American Airlines capitalised on as it was the innovator user of the SABRE system. This new advanced engineering gave them the opportunity to get down patterns that no other company could offer or had offered in the past. Giving clients a individualized service and the possibilityof accessing their engagements. reserves. and all travel agreements in one topographic point while salvaging costs was a extremely advanced characteristic of the SABRE reserve system ( Melville and Ross. 2010 ) .
The construct of invention refers to making something new or doing alterations to bing merchandises. and American Airlines was able to capitalize on their advanced merchandise by adding new characteristics such as the antecedently mentioned BargainFinder. Sabre Airline Solutions. and easySabre. These options and new characteristics added to the innovative facet of American Airlines as they were ever supplying their clients and themselves with new options and new services. Hence. American Airlines was able to offer new services and characteristics on a regular basis ( Stair and Reynolds. 2012 ) . Through the usage of the SABRE system. merchandise distinction was besides achieved as American Airlines was able to offer its clients merchandises that differed from other air hoses.
Offers were made entirely to certain clients and the assorted available applications were customised and differentiated to function the demands of specific client sections. Applications enabled clients who wanted inexpensive deals to happen economical monetary values. book holidaies with hotel and auto adjustment. and happen and buy certain points all in one topographic point. Furthermore. the client relationship direction tool easySabre enabled a individualized service for each client. offering them picks and information harmonizing to their personal demands. Hence. American Airlines gained a competitory advantage in merchandise distinction ( Stair and Reynolds. 2012 ) .
Competitive advantage refers to the particular border or the benefit that a company may hold in relation to its rivals. With SABRE. American Airlines had an border over its rivals because it was the first company that possessed an extended and technologically advanced information system. The system offered benefits such as decreased costs and communicating channels that no other company had. In add-on. organizational maps and gross direction installations enabled the company to be more efficient and efficaciously aim its clients by offering a individualized service. Hence. American Airlines was the most affiliated company amongst all of its rivals and was able to offer and use services from an information system that was non available to other companies ( Bocji et al. . 2009 ) .
With the usage of SABRE. and holding all information sing rivals at their disposal. American Airlines had the advantage of making barriers to entry and be leading which made it hard for other companies to vie in the air hose industry. The bing houses besides faced increased competition from American Airlines. which made their survival highly hard ( Power and Shards. 2009 ) .
With the above in head. it has been demonstrated that American Airlines used their reserve system to derive competitory advantage in a figure of ways: reduction costs relative to their rivals ; distinguishing merchandises to offer individualized services ; making and heightening new characteristics and options to the system ; presenting high shift costs for clients so that they would go used to utilizing the Sabre system ; puting expensive barriers to entry for rivals ; and. doing confederations with IBM in making the system ( Sabre Airline Solutions. 2012 ) .
In the 1980’s. SABRE emerged as a separate company whose portions were sold on the stock exchange and became separate individuality from American Airlines. perchance taging the terminal of American Airlines’ competitory advantage and taking to the rise of debatable issues between the two administrations. It became clear that the competitory advantage of American Airlines was non lasting as the market place of the company began to deteriorate with clip. Issues occurred when other companies gained entree to the system and it became connected to a figure of travel agents and air hoses. However. one time inducements such as the cancellation of committees for travel agents were removed by American Airlines. many travel agents and web sites began to conceal the menus offered by American Airlines and chose non to expose them.
As a effect. many travel agents today may happen themselves pushed out of concern as they are unable to sell American Airline menus because of the predominating difference between Sabre and American Airlines ( Sabre Airline Solutions. 2012 ) . While the SABRE system has expanded to give entree to other air hoses and is used to link travel agents everyplace and disperse information worldwide. American Airlines has lost its chief competitory advantage and is unable to utilize the system as an entirely advanced engineering. However. if American Airlines refuses to sell its tickets via the system because of the loss of trust between the two companies. it will harm the concern of travel bureaus all over the universe. put on the lining the popularity of SABRE ( Sabre Holdings. 2012 ) .
American Airlines may be after to revenge against the loss of trust between the two administrations by following another information system. This may do Sabre a great loss. while American Airlines may besides incur new shift costs for following a new system and enabling travel agents to entree the same package as them. However. Sabre may seek to decide the issues between American Airlines and itself before their contract ends in August ; therefore. American Airlines may be able to retain their usage of the system they originally launched ( Curtis and Cobham. 2009 ; Reinartz et Al. . 2004 ) .
This essay has demonstrated that the importance and public-service corporation of information systems may last a long clip. until the systems become disused and do non carry through their intent. However. it is hard to prolong the competitory advantage of a system in the modern-day concern environment as other companies may derive easy entree to the system and the engineering may go widespread faster than expected ( Curtis and Cobham. 2009 ) . Therefore. while American Airlines ab initio gained advantage from the initial execution of the system in the 1960’s. they were unable to prolong this competitory advantage in an epoch of technological promotion.
While Sabre connected other companies to the system and travel agents used it to happen the cheapest menus comparative to all air hose suppliers. other companies besides began to derive benefits from the system ( Payne and Frow. 2005 ) . As Sabre began to sell its stocks publically and became a separate company. it began to seek its ain involvements and charge engagement fees to air hose suppliers that listed their menus on their system. As American Airlines wanted to forestall such unneeded costs. issues arose between the Sabre system and the air hose service supplier ( Boody et Al. . 2009 )
In decision. competitory advantages do non last for good and in the current concern environment advantages gained from engineering frequently have a short life rhythm. Companies normally must go on to introduce in other countries to prolong such advantages or heighten their place by utilizing better and more advanced engineering than what they are presently utilizing. Since American Airlines lost control of the SABRE reserve system. they were unable to prolong their competitory advantage and maintain barriers to entry erect for other houses. However. they still have a strong place in the Sabre-American Airlines difference and may be able to recover their former place.
Linoff. G. & A ; Barry. M. ( 2011 ) Data Mining Techniques: For Marketing. Gross saless. and Customer Relationship Management. Indianappolis: Wiley Publishing Co. Duliba. K. A. . Kauffman. R. J. & A ; Lucas. H. C. ( 2001 ) Allowing Value from Computerized Reservation System Ownership in the Airline Industry. Organization Science. 12 ( 6 ) pp. 702-728. Varian. H. ( 2010 ) Computer-mediated Transactions. American Economic Review. 6 ( 2 ) pp. 1-28. CACM ( 2009 ) Logic of lemmings in Compiler Innovation. Communications of the ACM. 52 ( 5 ) . pp. 7-9. Burgelman R. A. . Clayton. M. C. & A ; Wheelwright. S. C. ( 2008 ) Strategic Management of Technology and Innovation. United States: McGraw Hill Publishers. Melville. M. & A ; Ross. S. ( 2010 ) Information Systems Innovation for Environmental Sustainability. MIS Quarterly. 34 ( 1 ) pp. 1-21. Stair. R. & A ; Reynolds. G. ( 2012 ) Fundamentalss of Information Systems. New York: Cengage Learning. Bocji. P. . Chaffey. A. & A ; Hickie. A. ( 2009 ) Business Information Systems: Technology. Development. and Management. Harlow. England: Prentice Hall. Power. D. & A ; Shards. R. ( 2009 ) Decision Support Systems. SpringerHandbook of Automation. 1. pp. 1538-1549 Sabre Airline Solutions. ( 2012 ) Customer Gross saless and Service. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. sabreairlinesolutions. com/home/products_services/customer_sales_service [ cited 20 July 2012 ] . Sabre Holdings. ( 2012 ) Sabre History. [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. saber. com/home/about/sabre_history/ [ cited 20 July 2012 ] . Curits. G. & A ; Cobham. D. ( 2009 ) Business Information Systems: Analysis. Design. and Practice. Harlow. England: Pearson Education. Boddy. D. . Boonstra. A. & A ; Kennedy. G. ( 2009 ) Pull offing Information Systems: An Organizational Perspective. Harlow. England: Pearson Education. Reinartz. W. J. . Kraft. M. & A ; Hoyer. W. D. ( 2004 ) The Customer Relationship Management Procedure: Its Measurement and Impact on Performance. Journal of Marketing Research. 41. pp. 293-305. Payne. A. & A ; Frow. P. ( 2005 ) A Strategic Framework for Customer Relationship Management. Journal of Marketing. 69 ( 4 ) pp. 167-176.