The effect of pest infestation in the hospitality industry A

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There are so many ways that pest infestation can have negative impact in the hospitality establishment which ranges from profit losses to lower employee morale, legal actions in form of fines, sanctions, closure of the hospitality premises, health risk etc. pest infestation not only destroy the hospitality reputation but can also cause physical damage to the structure of the building. Rodents fall into the category of pest that destroy the hospitality equipment at a fast rate because they can burrow through walls, food containers, clothing, books etc. this is because they need food as any living organism. As they burrow through equipments, they can leave wiring or electrical installation open thereby increasing the rate of electric and fire accidents. Apart from burrowing, rodents constantly urinate, defecate and spit thereby soling whatever they happen to be standing upon from fabrics to food items, kitchen utensils, work surfaces and so on, this will increase the rate of food contamination and bacteria infection.

Pest infestation constitutes serious problem to human health as the national institute of environmental health report that one in five children have severe sensitivity to cockroach allergens which increases the severity of asthma symptoms. These allergens are commonly introduced in places where cockroach saliva, droppings and decomposing bodies are found. Apart from these, cockroaches can also carry E-coli and salmonella on their bodies and this is a deadly infection when they come in contact with food items especially cooked food, kitchen equipments, work surfaces etc. (Robinson et al, 2008).

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In addition to health risk, pest infestation in the hospitality industry constitute environmental nuisance for instance, one can not imagine seeing rats running shelter scatter in the restaurant or bulk of flies flying around in the kitchen, this would be extremely irritating and this would also make guest to loose the confidence and trust that they have in the service of the hospitality industry.

Furthermore, pest infestation in the hospitality industry causes unpleasant order in the environment. Due to the need to search for food, pest go around an get stocked in the rubbish outside the hospitality environment, once they gain entrance into the hospitality environment with their already stinking bodies, they mess up the environment by defecating and urinating here and there and the effect is serious smell, in fact by the smell one would be able to tell the type of pest that have infested the environment.

In general, the hospitality industry is a place where the highest standard of hygiene is expected to be observed and as a result the environment of the hospitality industry is expected to be free from any form of pest. Due to this reasons pest infestation is a big threat to the growth of the hospitality industry as it brings negative reputation which can last for decades, serious ill health to the hospitality patron and collectively cause bad quality service.

The hospitality industry is a place where most people believe that once they are there i.e. in the hospitality industry, they are safe in terms of quality hygiene services. Sincerely, most hospitality establishment recognize the fact that pest are deadly and undesirable in their establishment but in most cases attention are not paid to some areas of pest infestation such as spider, wall gecko, wood moth, silver fish, termites etc. this category of pest are usually neglected in the hospitality establishments and they cause gradual damage as they gradually destroy the aesthetics of the investment. Pest need food, shelter and conclusive environment and as a result that can be controlled with adequate attention, most establishment understand that pest should be avoided and as a result they pay attention to common pests such as rodents, flies cockroaches etc. this does not mean that common pest do not need to be controlled but no matter small or light a pest is, it is a threat (David et al, 2004)

Pest infestation in the hospitality industry brings about negative stigma to the progress of the hospitality industry. Although most hotels recognize the fact that pests are problematic to the environment and in most cases adequate attention are not paid to their total eradication. Pest infestation in the hospitality industry is far beyond common pests, they include all sorts of organisms that are unwanted or any sort of organism whose interest can conflict the interest of humans and they include spider, mites, wall gecko, silver fish, ants etc.

Some pests are specific in targets and as a result pest infestation in the hospitality industry hinders quality services, this is because the hospitality establishments make use of different equipment that are made of different materials including wood, wool, cushions etc. this pest attack the specific materials that they are capable of working on and as a result they gradually destroy them. Therefore, attentions should be paid to all area of pest infestation in the hospitality establishment.

This research seeks to examine the critical situations of pest infestation in the hospitality industry, identify the cases and proper solution to the problems.

The general objective is to assess the effect of pest infestation in the hospitality industry.

1. To examine the cause of pest infestation in the hospitality industry. 2. To evaluate method of pests control in the hospitality industry 3. To analyze the effects of pest infestation in the hospitality industry. 4. To evaluate the methods of waste management in the hospitality industry 5. To determine the most effective method of pest control and waste management in the hospitality establishment

1. What is the effect of inadequate maintenance of equipment, furniture and fitting on pest infestation in the hospitality industry? 2. Is there a relationship between improper storage of food items and pest infestation in the hospitality industry 3. Could guest in the hospitality industry be a source of pest infestation? 4. How is improper management related to pest infestation in the hostility industry? 5. Can negligence or improper staff training be a reason for pest infestation in the hospitality establishment?

This study would be limited to the various types of pests that infest the hospitality industry and the research would be done in hotels within Lagos territory, also the research would encompass how the hospitality industry manage their waste to prevent pests from infesting their environment.


Pests are unwanted organisms whose interest conflicts with the interest of the environment where they are found. They live on human food in other to obtain their nutrient while some of them are parasitic in nature as they can live on human hair or infest the skin of domestic pests such as dog, cat etc. when pest obtain food, they usually leave behind their hair, weak body parts or droppings, some pest lay their eggs on food which could be consumed by human, this is a deadly food poison.

In this write up, pest would be classified based on their area of specialization i.e. base on what they actually do and they include:

Parasitic Pest: These are non symbiotic pests, they live by deriving their nutrient from other organisms especially humans and other domestic animal like dog, cat, cattle, sheep etc. this category of pest include bed bugs, lice and mosquitoes. Bed bugs: These are small parasitic insect, the most common species is the cimex lectularius, and the term is usually referred to species that prefer to feed on human blood. All insects in this family live by feeding exclusively on the blood of warm blooded animals. The general name bed bug” is derived from the insects preferred habitats of houses and especially beds or other area where people sleep. Bed bugs though not strictly nocturnal are mainly active at a night and are capable of feeding unnoticed on their hosts. They have however been known by a variety of means including wall louse, mahogany flat, crimson rambler etc.

Adult bed bugs are reddish brown flattened, oval and wingless. Bed bugs have microscopic hairs that give then a banded appearance. Adults grow to 4 – 5 mm in length and 1.5 – 3mm wide, newly hatched nymphs are translucent lighter in color and become browner as they Moth and reach maturity: bed bugs use pheromones and kairomones to communicate regarding nestling location, feelings and reproduction. The life span of bed bugs varies by species and is also dependent on feeding. Beg bugs can survive a wide range of temperatures and atmospheric compositions. Below 16.1 (61.0of), adults bed bug enter semi hibernation and can survive longer. Bed bugs can survive for at least five days at – 100c (140F) but will die after few minutes of exposure to -32oC C-26oF). they show high desiccation tolerance, surviving low humidity and a 35 – 400C range even with loose of one third body weight, earlier life stages are more susceptible to drying out than later ones. The thermal death point for C. lectularius is high 450C (113OF) and all stages of life are killed by 7 minutes of exposure to 46Oc (1150F) bed bugs apparently cannot survive high concentrations of carbon dioxide for very long; exposure to nearly pure nitrogen atmospheres however, appears to have relatively little effect even after 72 hours.

Bed bugs are obligatory hermatophagous (blood sucking) insects. Most species feed on humans only when other prey is unavailable. Bed bugs are attracted to their hosts primarily by carbon dioxides, secondarily by warmth and also by certain chemicals. A bed bug pierces the skin of its host with two hollow feeding tubes shaped like tongues. With one tube it injects its saliva which contains anticoagulants and anesthetics, while with the other it with draws the blood of its host. After feeding for about five minutes, the bedbug returns to it hiding place. It takes between five to ten minutes for a bed bug to become completely engorged with blood.

Although bed bugs can live for a year without feeding they normally try to feed every five to ten days. In cold weather, bed bugs can live for about a year, at temperatures more conducive to activity and feeding.

Reproduction all bed bugs mate by traumatic insemination, female bed bugs posses a reproductive tract that functions during ovipositon, but the male does not use this tract for sperm insemination instead, the male pierces the female’s abdomens with his hypodermic genitalia and ejaculates into the body cavity. In all bed bug species except primicemex cavernis, sperm are injected into the mesospermalege , a component of the spermalege, a secondary genital structure that reduces the wounding and immunological costs of traumatic insemination. Injected sperm travel via the haemolymph (blood) to sperm storage structure called seminal conceptales with fertilization eventually taking at the ovaries.

Male bed bugs sometimes attempts to mate with other male and pierce the latter in the abdomen. This behavior occurs because sexual attraction in bed bugs is based primarily on size and males will mount any freshly fed partners regardless of sex.

The bed bug alarm pheromone consists of 2 octenal and 2 hexenal. It is released when a bed bug is disburbed. A 2009 study demonstrated that the alarm pheromobe is also released by male bed bugs to repel other males who attempt to mate with them.

Life stages
Bed bugs have six life stages (five immature and an adult’s stage) they still shed their skin through a molting process (ecdysis) throughout multiple stages of their lives. The discarded outer shells look like clear, empty exoskeletons of the bugs themselves. Bed bugs must molt six times before becoming fertile adults (stoev P. 2005).

Control and prevention of bed bug
It is very important that the hospitality management provide proper training to all staff members on bed bug surveillance, control and prevention. Training should be provided at the commencement of employment and annually thereafter. Training should be conducted by an experienced and knowledgeable individuals and the training should include the following elements.

1. Identification of bed bug and discussion of their life cycle. 2. Review of routine inspection procedures for guests rooms including close inspection of: a. All seams on mattresses and upholstered furniture as well as the joint of bed, frames and other furniture b. The area at the top and bottom of base boards, windows sills and door frames. c. Any known cracks and crevices in the room including the floors and the portion of walls behind picture frames head boards and furniture’s. 3. Instructions on how to conduct routine inspections that include rooms dedicated to storage of unused furniture and house keeping supplies such as maid carts 4. An assessment of housekeeping and maintenance procedures including vacuuming and appropriate disposal of refuse. 5. Review of reporting and referral procedures subsequent to detection of bed bug or evidence of an infestation 6. An evaluation of prevention and control measures aimed at reducing or eradicating bed bug populations and limiting their spread within the infested area.

Educating house keeping and management staff to recognize the signs of bed bug infestation will provide the means for a timely response by pest management professional and this will help to prevent bugs from spreading throughout the establishment. A prompt response to the problems will reduce the financial burden of bed bug control and significantly diminish inconvenience to guests. However, due to the elusive nature of bed bugs, control can be expensive and time consuming; therefore successful eradication of bed bug requires that the hospitality management fully cooperate with the recommendation of the pest management professionals (Peter G. 1997).

LICE: (Pediculus humaus capitis) is an obligate ectoparasite of humans. Head lice are wingless insects spending their entire life on human scalp and feeding exclusively on human blood. Humans and chimpanzees are the only known hosts of this specific parasite. Head lice differ from other hematophagic ectoparasites such as the flea, in the sense that lice spend their entire life cycle on a host. Head lice cannot fly and their short stumpy legs render them incapable of jumping or even walking efficiently on flat surfaces.

Adult morphology
Like other insects of the suborder anaphora, adult lice are small (1-3mm log) dorso-ventually flattened and entirely wingless. The thoracic segments are fused, but otherwise distinct from the head and abdomen, the later being composed of seven visible segments. Head lice are grey in general but their precise color varies according to the environment in which they were raised. After feeding, consumed blood causes the louse body to take on a reddish color. One pair of antena, each with five segments, protrudes from the insects head. Head lice also have one pair eyes, eyes are present in all species within pediculidae (the family of which the head louse is member) but are reduced or absent in most other members of the anoplura suborder. Like other members of anoplura. Head lice mouth parts are highly adapted for piercing skin and sucking blood. These mouth parts are retracted into the insects head except during feeding,

Reproduction: in male lice, the front two legs are slightly larger than the other four. This specialized pair of legs is used for holding the female during copulation. Males are slightly smaller than females and are characterized by a pointed end of the abdomen and a well developed genital apparatus visible inside the abdomen, females are characterized by two gonopods in the shape of a “W” at the end of their abdomen. Like most insects, head lice are oviparous. Louse eggs contain a single embryo and are attached near the base of a host hair shaft. Egg laying behavior is temperature dependent and likely seeks to place the egg in a location that will be conducive to proper embryo development. In cool climates, eggs are generally laid within 1cm of the scalp surface. In warm climates and especially the topics, eggs may be laid 6inches [15cm] or more down the hair shaft. To attach each egg, the adult female secretes glue from her reproductive organ. This glue quickly hardens into a “nit sheath” that covers the hair shaft and the entire egg except for the operculum, a cap through which the embryo breaths. The glue was previously thought to be chitin based, but more recent studies have shown it to be made of protein similar to hair keratin.

Egg is oval shaped and about 0.8mm in length. They are tan to coffee colored so long as they contain an embryo but appear white after hatching. Typically, a hatching time of six to nine days after oviposition is cited. However, these data are from work with body lice (not head lice) that show hatching time and hatching probability are extremely temperature dependent.

After hatching the louse nymph leaves behind its egg shell still attached to the hair shaft. The empty egg shell remains in place until physically removed by abrasion or the host or until it slowly disintegrate which may take months or years

Copulation in P. humans is usually done by the female being on top and the male below. Dilation of the females vagina against his back (dorsal surfaces). The male vesica which contains the penis (not seen) is fully inserted into the vagina. Adults head lice reproduce sexually and copulation is necessary for the female to produce fertile eggs. Pairing can begin within the first 10 hour of adult life. After 24 hours, adult lice copulated frequently with mating occurring during any period of the night or day. Mating attachment frequently lasts more than an hour. Young males can successfully pair with older females as vise versa

Head lice are hermimetabolous. Newly hatched nymphs will molt three times before reaching the sexually mature adult stage. Thus, mobile head lice population contains members of up to four developmental stages. Three nymphal instars and the adult [imago]. Metamorphosis during head lice development is subtle. The only visible different between instars and the adult, other than size, is the relative length of the abdomen, which increases with each molt. Aside from reproduction, nymph behavior is similar to the adult. Nymphs feed only on human blood and cannot survive long away from a host. The time required for lice to complete their nymph development to the imago depends on feeding conditions Feeding behavior:

All stages are blood –feeders and bite the skin four to five times daily to feed. To feed, the house bites through the skin and injects saliva which prevents blood from clothing, it then sucks blood into its digestive tract. Blood sucking may continue for a long period if the house is not disturbed while feeding, lice may also excrete dark red faces onto the skin (Ralf K. et al, 2003)

Spread of head lice
1. Direct transfer: head to head contact may be responsible for most lice transfer 2. Indirect transfer sharing objects (e.g. hair brushes, hats, head phones etc) that had contact with human hair infested with lice within the previous 2days, may allow transfer of live lice.

Facts on the spread of head lice
a. Head lice cannot jump or fly from head to head
b. Head lice crawl very quickly from hair to hair and from the head of an infested person to the head of a non infested person if their heads are touching c. Pests do not spread head lice (but can spread body lice) head lice feed on human blood only d. Head lice are not an indication of poor personal hygiene or living in an unclean environment e. Head lice cannot live without a blood meal from a human host for more than 48 hours, usually not more than 24 hours.

Symptoms of head lice infestation
Persons infested with head lice develop itching on the scalp. Repeated scratching may lead to inflammation, and may create a mode of entry into the scalp for germs or lice feces resulting in secondary infections on the scalp. Persons with secondary infections may develop a mild fever and irritability. The itching associated with head lice infestation is caused by an allergic reaction to the anticoagulant saliva of the head louse. Allergic reactions to the saliva are not immediate and may take several weeks to appear.

Treatment of head lice
Lice killing medications should be used according to the manufacturers’ instruction. Misuse or over use of these products may be dangerous. In addition to the manufacturers instructions the following precaution should be given to people using a lice killing medication

a. Do not treat an infested person more than three times with the same lice killing medication b. Do not use more than the recommended amount of lice killing dedication c. Do not treat children under 2yeatrs old with lice killing medication, for children under two years old remove the lice manually. d. The infested person should remove all clothing [prior to being treated and put on clean clothing after the treatment e. Prior to using a pediculicidal treatment, do not use a shampoo that contains a conditioner or any pediculicide containing crème rinse because it may decrease the absorption of the medication making it less effective.

Other anti ectoperasitic and anti parasitic agents ivermection (stromectrol) an oral anti parasite drug approved by the food and drug administration (FDA) for treatments of strongyliodiasis and onchoreciases (river blindness) in humans, Ivernection is effective in treating scabies and is now recognized by the medical letter as an alternative treatment for head lice.

Permethrim 5% (elimite): the primary use of this product is as a full body treatment for scabies. Several clinical studies have shown elimite left in the hair overnight under a shower cap to be an effective treatment to head lice infestation

Note: the food and drug administration (FDA) has not approved 5% permethrim for use in treating head lice.

Antibiotics: antibiotics such TMP/SMX (Bacterium, septra are not an effective treatment for head lice. Head lice feed on human blood and not bacteria found on the skin. The use of antibiotics to treat head lice is strongly discouraged. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics may lead to antibiotic resistance to bacteria or antibiotic related colitis (clostridium difficile infection). Antibiotics may be used at the discretion of the physician to treat secondary infections resulting from head lice infestation (Taplin, Meinkig TL, 1987)

Mosquitoes: All mosquitoes belong to one of two groups flood water mosquitoes or permanent and stagnant water mosquitoes. Membership in one or the other group is dependent on the type of environment in which the female mosquitoes chooses to lay her eggs.

Flood water mosquitoes, such as aedes vexans, lay their eggs on dry ground in areas that are subject to flooding following rainfall, these eggs lay dormant until sufficient inundation occurs to initiate hatching. Hatching is synchronized and development from egg to a blood feeding adult can occur within 7 – 10 days.

Stagnant water mosquitoes lay their eggs directly on the water surface, either singly or in a cluster or raft. The reproductive sources are constantly replenished with the next generation’s eggs resulting in constant emergence of new adults during the course of the summer.

In order to survive all mosquitoes must have water to complete its life cycle. Each species has its own preference for the type of water needs. Water quality can range from fresh rain water to sewage and mosquitoes will lay their eggs any where water is found [from plastics to marshes) this is because they can exploit a variety of different aquatic habitats. It is the female mosquitoes that bite humans and other animals (mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians) males only feed on plant juices. Females require a blood meal in order for her eggs to develop and be viable.

Mosquitoes undergo complete metamorphosis meaning they go through four stages (egg, larva, pupa adult). During the summer, mosquitoes typically go from egg to adult in 7 -10 days but this will vary depending on temperature, humidity and other environmental factors. Males tend to live a very short time, usually about one week, and females live about one month, depending on environmental factors. Adult’s mosquitoes only have a pair of wings (fore wings) the second pair of wings have been reduced to small organs called halterers. Halterers are used as balancing organs during flight.

Mosquito’s larva and pupa complete their part of the life cycle in an aquatic environment, they have adapted special structures to aid them. The larvae have a siphon on their eight segments which they use as a snorkel to gather air at the surface of the water. The pupa has two structures coming off of the posterior region of the thorax called trumpets. These trumpets are used in the same manner as the siphons in the larval stage. They also have ‘paddles’ on the last segment of the abdomen which aid in swimming

Mosquitoes are generally considered annoying and they transmit diseases, thus leading to a variety of human effort to eradicate or reduce their presence. Mosquito control operations are targeted against three different problems. Nuisance mosquitoes bothering people around homes or parks and recreational areas Economically, mosquitoes reduce real estates values, adversely affect tourism and related business interests, or negatively impact livestock or poultry production. Public health is the focus when mosquitoes are vectors or transmitter of infectious diseases Since many mosquitoes breed in standing water, source reduction can be as simple as emptying water for containers around the home. This is something that anyone can accomplish. The removal of unused plastics pools, Old tires or buckets by cleaning dogged gutters and repairing leaks around faucets by tree stumps. The elimination of mosquitoes breeding areas can be extremely effective and permanent way to reduce mosquito’s populations without resorting to insecticides. Biological control or biocontrol is the use of natural enemies to manage mosquito’s populations. Here are several types of biological control including the direct introduction of parasites pathogens and predators to target mosquitoes. Effective biocontrol agents include predatory fish that feed on mosquitoes larva such as mosquito fish (gembusia affinis] and some cyprinids (carps and minnows) and killifish such as tilapia will also consume mosquitoes larvae.

A newer approach to killing mosquitoes in a non toxic way is to use a device that burns propane, this generating carbondioxized, warmth and water vapor, these three elements often coupled with a chemical attachment heated in this process, draws the mosquitoes towards the propane flame, where they are then sucked into a net or holder where they collect. Some newer mosquitoes traps or known mosquitoes attractants emit a plume of carbon dioxide together with other mosquitoes attractant such as sugary scent, lactic acid, octenol, water vapor and sounds. By mimicking a mammals scent output, the trap drawn female mosquitoes towards it, where they are typically sucked into a net or holder by an electric fan where they are collected (Chevillion et al 1999) Infectious pest: these are pests that transmit infestious diseases and they include tsetse fly, cockroaches and flies. This category of pests usually obtain their food from the category or pasts usually obtain their food from the refuse or any food debris found on the floor, they can walk on work surfaces and thereby leave their droppings behind.

Tse tse fly: These are large biting flies that live by feeding on the blood of vertebrate animals and they are the primary biological vectors of trypanosomes which cause human sleeping sickness and animal trypanosomiasis, tsetse fly include all the species in the genus glossia. These flies are multivoltine, typically producing about four generations yearly and up to 31 generations total over their entire life span. Tsetse fly are crudely similar to other large flies, such as the house fly but can be distinguished by various characteristics of their anatomy two of which are easy to observe. Tsetse fly folds their wings completely when they are resting so that one wing rests directly on top of the other over their abdomen. Tsetse fly also has a long proboscis, which extends directly forward and is attached by a distinct bulb to the bottom of their head

Morphology: Tsetse fly first become separate from their mother during the third larval instar, during which they have the typical appearance of maggots. However, this life stage is short, lasting at most a few hours and is almost never observed outside of the laboratory. Tsetses next become a Puparia, small, hard shelled, oblongs with two distinctive small dark lobes at one end tsetse puparia are under 1.0cm long. Within the puparial shall, tsetse complete the last two larval instar and the pupal stage. Tsetse then emerge as adult flies. Tsetse adults are relatively large flies, with length of ½ – 1 ½ cm and have a recognizable shape or bauplan so they can usually be distinguished with out trouble from other flies. Tsetse have large heads distantly separated eyes, and unusual antennae. The tsetse thorax is quite large, while the abdomen is wide rather than elongated and shorter than the wings.

Life cycle: tsetse have an unusual life cycle which may be due to the richness of their food sources, female tsetse only fertilize one egg at a time and retain each egg with their uterus to have the offspring develop internally during the first larval stages, a strategy called adenotrophic viviparity. During this time, the female feeds the developing offspring with a milky substance secreted by a modified gland in the uterus in the third larval stage, the tsetse larva finally leave the uterus and begin their independent life. However, the newly independent tsetse larva simply crawls into the ground and form a hard outer its morphological transformation into an adult fly. This life stage has a variable duration into an adult fly. This life stage has a variable duration, generally twenty to thirty days and the larva must rely on stored resources during this development before it emerges from the puparia as a full adult occurs without feedings based only on nutritional resources provided by the female parent (Rueda L. 2008)

Control of tsetse fly
Tsetse populations can be monitored and effectively controlled using simple inexpensive traps. These often use electric blue cloth, since this color attract the flies Early traps mimicked the form of cattle but this seems unnecessary and recent traps are simple sheets or have a bioconial form. The traps can kill by channeling the flies into a collection chamber or by exposing the flies in to insecticide sprayed on the cloth tsetse are also attracted to large dark colors like the hides of cow and buffaloes.[peter .g.1997]

Cockroaches: (perplaneta American) is one of the several species of cockroaches that in habit our country. Generally cockroaches are among the most common house hold pest. Cockroaches are a nocturnal omnivorous animal, it feeds on any kind of organic matter. Cockroach has a dorso ventrally flat, compressed body which is covered by a hard, chitinous exoskeleton. It is in the form of separate plates. The dorsal plate is called Targum and the ventral plate is called sternum. Laterally the plates are joined by pleura. The body is divided metamerically into segments. Three regions is divided in the body namely head, thorax and an abdomen. The head is a region formed by the fusion of six embryonic segments covered by very hard exoskeleton plates called sclerites. The head is triangular in shape and it is held at right angles to rest of the body. The head bears a pair of compound eyes, a pair of antennae, a mouth terminally and a group of appendage collectively known as mouth parts (trophi).

The thorax is formed by three impendent segments, prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax. Each thoraic segment bears a pair of walking legs on the ventral side, dorsally; the mesothrax and the metthorax bear each, a pair of wings. The anterior pair of wings called forewings is used as wing covers for the posterior pair of wings called hind wings, which are used for flight. The abdomen consists of 10 segments.

Reproduction: cockroaches undergo egg nymphal stages before emerging as adults. Eggs produced by female cockroaches are enclosed in resident egg cases known as oocethecae. The oocethecae of most cockroach species contain 16 nymphs. The time it takes for egg to hatch into nymphs varies between species and depends upon environmental conditions; nymphs free themselves from the oocethecae by working in concert. Nymphs resemble adults in appearance and behavior although they are smaller in sizes and do not have wings. Nymph undergo a series of molts before becoming a fully matured adults, after the final molt nymphs are equipped with wings. After nymph malt, they are pale in color. Nymph cockroaches that have recently molted are often misidentified as albino roaches. Within a few hours, they will become darken to the proper color. Adult cockroaches have an average life span of up to 2 years, temperature and other environmental conditions greatly affect the survival of cockroaches. Adult cockroaches reproduce rapidly and are known scavengers. Cockroach gestation begins when a female specimen creates an ootheca or an egg case, which contains a number of eggs. Most species deposits the egg in a safe protective area, where it remains until it hatches. Some species of the female cockroaches demonstrate maternal care. the diplotera punctata cockroach produces protain rich milk in other to support its young.

Cockroaches species exhibit one of four types of reproduction ovoviviparity, false ovoviviparity, true ovoviviparity and viviparity in ovoviviparity reproduction, the ootheca is dropped shortly after being produced. In false ovoviviparity, the ootheca is reattached to the uterus for the duration of its gestation period in true ovovivpaity, an ootheas is not formed, rather the eggs are kept within the mother’s uterus. In vivipaitrty, the ootheca is rotated and retracted into the uterus.

Prevention is the best control of cockroaches because cockroaches not only live for about 2 yeas, but also they have high reproductive rate. Therefore, keeping the environment from being a roach egg incubator will ultimately be the best method of controlling unwanted brown legged pests from invading the environment. The following tips can help to prevent cockroaches. Purchase and use garbage can and compost bins that can be sealed. Regularly wash the containers with anti bacterial based products. Store garbage containers always from the entry points of a home Apply cockroaches specific pesticides around the garage area

A cockroach have a high degree of residency that can allow it to withstand everything from cold temperatures to chemical to lack of food and water. By preventing cockroaches from thriving in the establishment, management should try as much as possible to keep the environment from, cockroach infestations. Pest removal of cockroaches can be overwhelming the following points are the common places to start a cockroach investigation.

Wherever you sport coffee grounds, because they probably aren’t really coffee grounds they are cockroach droppings Keep toilet lids closed and drains plugged. One of the most disgusting entry points for cockroaches is the sever the same cockroaches that just ran up a server pipe can be crawling across a guest’s tooth brush. All dark places should be inspected for signs of cockroaches. Check inside shoes, underneath appliances, near the dog food bin and around the kitty liter containers all are havens for cockroaches. Behind wall paper cockroaches have the ability to flatten their bodies and weasel just about anywhere. Any place where there is food, cockroaches love human food, so inspects the refrigerator, the bag of flour, the box rice krispies etc. Cockroaches prefer to hide in the dark depth of a home, only coming out when they are searching for a food or water sources. By considering all of these potential hiding spaces, it would be easier to locate the cockroaches.

Before embarking on a cockroach control cleaning spree, it is also important to consider the types of cleanser, insecticides and traps being used around human and pet food. There is pest control produces designed for almost any scenario to help with cockroach extermination. By using effective pest control methods establishment can successfully prevent cockroaches from ever entering their homes (Armstrong P et al, 1997)

Another category of pests are those pests that destroy house hold equipment, they do not transmit infectious but they are quick at destroying house hold equipment examples include wood moth, silver fish etc. some of them do not necessarily destroy house hold equipment but may be irritating to guest these category of pest include spider, wall gecko etc.

Silverfish: They are so called silverfish due to the silvery glittering of the scales covering their bodies. Their movement is fish like and makes it look as if they are swimming. They are less than I centimeter (0.39 inch) long and found in damp comers or amongst books and papers.

Silver fish have fathered bodies and may be elongated or oval in shape. They have short mandibles and relatively unspecialized mouth parts many species also shave a number of short appendages on their binominal segments, but the most distinctive features of the group is the presence of three long, fail like filaments extending from their last segment the two lateral filaments are formed from the abdominal cerci.

Silverfish fed on cereals, paste paper, starch in clothes rayon fabrics and dried meats, silver fish can smoothness be found in bathtubs or sinks at night as they have difficulty in moving on smooth surfcease and they become trapped. Wild species often are found in habitats such as caves and some are commensals livings in association with other colonies.

Silverfish have an elaborate courtship ritual to ensure exchange of sperm, the male spins a silken thread between the substrate and a vertical objects. He deposits a sperm packet (spermatophore) beneath this thread and those coaxes a female to walk under thread. When her cerci contact the silk thread, she picked up the spermatohore with her genital opening. Sperm are released into her reproductive system and then she ejects the empty spermatophre and eats it.

Silver fish continue to molt throughout their life cycle, with several sexually mature instars. Unlike more advanced insects. They are relatively slow growing and lifespan of up to four years have been recorded.

Reduce humidity: water is the key elements for sliver fish survival. Ventilate attics and basement. Invest in dehumidifiers and fans remove water sources. Replaces of fix leaky pipes, silica gels in corners holes, cracks and in the cupboard under the sinks Sanitation: Silverfish are able to live up to a year without food, be sure to sweep, vacuum or mop diligently. silverfish eats all sorts of starchy materials such as paper, books glue, cotton, silk linen etc, therefore all this materials should be placed in their right places. Regulate heat and light: silver fish do not like heat or light. They proper temperature between 700 and 800f. heat the infested rooms above 80 of or cool it to 600f Cover or fill entry points: look carefully for any holes or cracks in walls and floors. Use plaster or caulking to fill them. Silver fish use these holes for enhances into your home or into the establishments they will also use these same protected places to deposit eggs. Pay extra attention to the small crack between the runner board and the floor.

Taking care of an existing silverfish fish infestation will usually requires
a combination of preventive measures plus a substances for killing silverfish. After removing the water, food and humidity, the number of commercial products for silver fish pest control is astounding. Residual sprays containing cypermethrin such as demon WP, signoff Wp and cyper Wp, leave a film on surfaces allowing these insecticides to work for several months. Telstra one works in the same manner but does not leaves a visible residue desiccants, like drione dust, dry the silverfish out and work very well for filling in cracks . Aerosols, such as raid and air devil, are also nice for harder to reach places. As with all insecticides read the directions and warning very carefully because not all are meant for indoor use where people and animals might come into contact with them. Spider: [order araneae) they are air breathing arthropods that have eight legs, and chelicerae with fangs that injects venom, they are the largest order of arachnids and ranks seventh in total species diversity among all other groups of organisms, spiders are found world wide on every continent. Anatomically, spiders differ from other arthropods in that the usual body segments are fused into the tagmata, the cephalothoraxes and abdomen are joined by a small, cylindrical pedicel, unlike insects, spiders do not have antennae.

In all except the most primitive group, the mesothelae, spiders have the most centralized nervous systems of all arthropods, as all their ganglia are fused into one mass in the cephalothorax. Unlike most arthropods, spider has no extender muscles in their limbs and instead extends them by hydraulic pressure. Their abdomen bears appendages that have been modified into spinnerets that extrude silk from up to six types of silk glands within their abdomen. Spider webs vary widely in side, shape and the amount of sticky thread used. It now appears that the spiral orb web may be one of the earliest forms and spiders that produce tangled cobweb are more abundant and diverse than orb – wed spiders. Reproduction and life cycle: spiders reproduce sexually and fertilization is internal but indirect, in other words the sperm is not inserted into the females body by the males genitals but by an intermediate stage unlike many land living arthropods male spiders do not produce ready made spermatophores (package of sperm) but spin small sperm webs on which they ejaculate and then transfer the sperm to syringe like structures on the tips of their pedipals. When a male detects sign of a female nearby he checks whether she is of the same species and whether she is ready to mate, for example in species that produce webs or safety ropes” the male can identify the species and sex of the other spider by particular smell.

Spiders generally use elaborate courtship rituals to prevent the large females from eating the small males before fertilization, except where the male is so much smaller that he is not worth eating. If courtship is successful, the male injects his sperm from the pedipalps into the female’s genital opening, known as the epigyne, on the underside of her abdomen. Female’s reproductive tracts vary from simple tubes to systems that include seminal receptacle in which females store sperm and release it when they are ready.

Females lay up to 3,000 eggs in one or more silk egg sacs which maintain a fairly constant humidity level. In some species the females die afterwards, but females of other species protect the sacs by attaching them to their webs, hiding them in nests, carrying them in the chelicerae or attaching them to the spinnerets and dragging them along.

Baby spiders pass all their larval stages inside the egg and hatch as spider lings, very small and sexually immature but similar in shape to adults. Some spiders care for their young for example a wolf spider’s brood chig to rough bristles on the mother’s back and females of some species respond to the “begging” behavior of their young by giving them their prey, provided it is no longer struggling, or even regurgitate food.

Like other arthropods, spiders have to molt to grow as their cuticle (skin) cannot stretch. In some species males mate with newly molted females which are too weak to be dangerous with the males. Most spiders live for only one to two years, although some tarantulas can live in captivity for over 20 years. CHAPTER THREE

Spiders have a narrow gut that can only cope with liquid food and spiders have two sets of filters to keep solids out. They use one of two different systems of external digestion. Some pump digestive enzymes from the midgut into the prey and then suck the liquefied tissues of the prey into the gut, eventually leaving behind the empty husk of the prey. Others grind the prey to pulp using the chelicerae and the bases of the pedipalps, while flooding it with enzymes; in these species the chelicerae and the bases of the pedipalps form a pre-oral cavity that holds the food they are processing. The stomach in the cephalothorax acts as a pump that sends food deeper into the digestive system. The mid gut bears many digestive ceca, compartments with no other exit, that extract nutrients from the food; most are in the abdomen, which is dominated by the digestive system, but a few are found in the cephalothorax.

Most spiders convert nitrogenous waste product into uric acid, which can be excreted as a dry material. Malphigian tubules (“little tubes”) extract these wastes from the blood in the hemocoel and dump them into the cloacae chamber, from which they are expelled through the anus. Production of uric acid and its removal via malphigian tubules are a water conserving figures that has evolved Independently in several arthropods lineagesthat can live far from water, for example the tubule of insect and arachnids develop from completely different parts of the embryo. However a few primitive spiders, the sub-order myalomorphae, retain the ancestral arthropod nepridia [‘little kidney’] which uses large amount of water to excrete nitrogenous waste as ammonia. (Ralf K et al, 2003) SPIDER BITES: Spider will only bite humans in self defense, and few produce worse effects than a mosquito bite or bee-string. Most of those with medically serious bites, such as recluse spiders and widow spiders, are shy and bite only when they feel threatened although this can easily arise by accident (Rudas L. 2008). MOTH: A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly being to 250,000 different species of moth, with thousands of species yet to be described.

Most species of moth are nocturnal, but there are crepuscular and diurnal species. Moths frequently appear to circle artificial lights, it has been suggested that the reason for moths circling lights may have to do with a usual distortion called a mach hand. The theory says that in the pursuit of cover and safety, moths fly towards the dark areas of the sky and are thus inclined to circle ambient objects in the mach band region. The celestial navigation theory should cause moths to circle lights, not to head directly toward them, as many are seen to do. Mach conjectures that moths, which are nocturnal creatures, must find a place to hide from predators when daylight comes, but cannot do so in darkness. Their instinct when morning comes is to fly toward the light and then down again.

Several moths in the family tineidae are commonly regarded as pests because their larvae eat fabrics such as clothes and blankets made from natural protein fibers such as wool or silk. They are less likely to eat mixed materials containing artificial fibers. There are some reports that they can be repelled by the scent of wood from juniper and cedar, by lavender or by other natural oils. However, many consider this unlikely to prevent infestation, Naphthalene (The Chemical use in moth balls) is considered more effective, but there are concerns over its effects on human health. Moth larvae may be killed by freezing the items which they infest for several days at a temperature below 8OC (

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