Training is a system for changing behavior in order to produce an increase in quantity or an improvement in quality of an individual’s contribution to the goals of the organization which employ him/her. As organization achieve when the work force is skilled to perform activities that change towards organizational achievements improving skills of employees is important for such objective. Based on this principle the regional health bureau of Tigray has conducted several training sessions since its establishment.
However, appropriateness, quality and impact of the training conducted in relation delivery performance need to be investigated. This research tried to investigate the training process and its impact on the health bureau objective and job performance of the employees. the types of investigation methodology secondary method using official documents. The number of health bureau staff 32 employees was to be selected. The ratio map to female was 69% and 31% respectively.
Information using standard questionnaire was collected from the staff (32) and the analyzed.
Most of the respondent ware the age of 36 and above and their educational status was 1st degree and above (62. 5%) of the questionnaire had attended in service training related to their job. All of them the trained respondent said that the training was based on need assessment and the impact on quality of service and performance were high to medium (62. 5% to 31. 5%).
Service provision had improved when compared to before training. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Training is learning process where by people acquires skills or knowledge to aid in the achievement of goals (American society for training and development)because learning process is tied to verity of organization purpose training can be viewed either narrowly or broadly(dyer,1989). In a limited sense, training provided to employee with specific identifiable knowledge and skills for use in present job.
Training is immediate and long run goals. The immediate goals include orienting new employees to the origination and their jobs, improving employees performance level on the their present job changes and long run goals of training as to prepare employees for new jobs and to develop more flexible work forces factors such as more intensive international competition, accelerated changes the organizational structure caused by trepid growth and downsizing indeed for training in the organization.
Training is as a processes of learning experience intend to enhance employee contribution to the organization and it involve changing what employees know how the work, their co-workers, their supervisors and their attitude towards their instructors. (Dyer, 1989) 1. 1. 1. Background of the organization The regional health Bureau is guided by the health of the country to address the health issues of the Tigray emphasizing on disease prevention and health promotion. Structurally, the bureau is divided in to nine departments; four core process and five support processes.
Currently, there are 13 hospitals and 1 referral hospital 91 health centers serving the people, (RHB). Health staff workers in the region are 410 doctors , nurses in degree 400, nurse midwife in degree 32, in diploma 588, clinical nurses 3330, professionals 8315, subordinates around 3500,(RHB). The bureau is committed to fulfill its vision: Establish a democratic and effective health system empowering and owned by the people of Tigray and characterized with low maternal and child mortality. 1. 2. Statement of the problem
Training of employees is a continuous process that enables the organization to be competitive in a dynamic environment and also increase the productivity and flexibility employees. Training is believed to increase employee motivation towards good customer handling and satisfaction and it increase productivity of the organization to achieve the set goals. In very general terms, training is an appropriate activity when there is an actual deficiency or a potential deficiency in the job performance of individuals. Different training sessions are conduct by the regional health bureau of Tigray.
However, appropriateness of quality and impact of training is conduct whether it is achieving the bureaus benefits through trainee employee satisfaction need to be investigating. This research paper was investigated the training process and its impact on the health bureau objectives and work performance of the employees. 1. 3 Objectives of the study 1. 3. 1 General objective The general objective of the study of the paper was identifying factors that affect the process of training in the organization and to give recommendation on the problem. 1. 3. 2 Specific objectives
-To study the method of training and its implementation -To study the policy of training in the organization -To examine the objective of training in the origination -To observe the present application of training process and its relation with its objective. 1. 4 Research methodology 1. 4. 1. Data Sources, Data type And Data Collection There are so many methods that are using to get information from this case area. But for this research, the researcher was used both primary and secondary data sources. As primary data source is more accurate, the researcher was used primary data as a first data source.
But it is not enough to get more information, so secondary data source was also important. Moreover, during conducting this paper the researcher was used both qualitative and quantitative types of data. For primary data source the research was prepared both questionnaire and inter- view. Set of questionnaire was administering for employees. And the secondary data was collected from fixed document internet and from the organization yearly or monthly published magazines. 1. 4. 2 Sampling design Since the scope of the study is wide, it may be difficult to collect information from each and every employees and managers.
To represent the whole population, the researcher was used convenience sampling technique because; it is the simplest and easiest type of sampling technique. The permanent number of employees of RHB is 215. From those employees, the researcher was taken 32 employees as a sample. And the researcher was distributed questionnaires for 32 employees randomly. 1. 4. 3 Data analysis After the necessary data was collected though, preliminary screening and sorting of the required data was done. There are several methods in analyzing the data.
From those, the researcher was used like tabular form. For analysis questionnaire part statistical tools such as ratio and percentage by employed. 1. 5 Scope of the study As stated in the health structure, one of the departments is the capacity building development. The department comprises a training division to supervisor training activities both on the job and off the job training. The training unite also supervises and supports training intuition (nursing school, health officers school, health extension package workers etc) both in technical and financial aspects.
On the job and off the job training sessions are organize at all level of the health system for all technical health personnel working in the health system 1. 6 Limitation of the study The major limitations that were faced during conducting this research paper were resistance and lake of confidence on some individual to release data, due to time and financial constraint and unavailability data in a given centralized place. 1. 7. Significance of the study Training is a learning process whereby people acquire skills to support in the achievement of one’s goals.
It provides employees with skill. So that they correct their deficiencies and try to achieve the organization stated objectives. Employees provide witch on the job training or off the job training was motivated. Hence improve their work performance. Improving employee work performance by means of training was of paramount significance to the organization goals. It also helps as a reference material to who may need to conduct similar research topic. CHAPTER TWO RELATED LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 INTRODUCTION
Economic process in any part of the world demands rapidly increase level of output in production and service, this generation some degree of increase in demand on the work force. Manpower programmer develops job skills. They help employee, make the transition to better pay and higher sill levels so that people move towards their employment goal (American society Training) An organization can achieve when the work force is skilled to perform activations that gear to wars organizational achievements. Improving skills of employees is important for such objective (celovsky, 1972).
To develop skills there by achieve organization the set organization objectives and goals thus training of the work force to new skills and new way become very determining factor. 2. 2 definition of training Training is a system for changing behavior in order to produce an increase in quantity or improvement infinity as individuals’ contribution to the goals of the organization which employs him /her (dyer, 1989). Defines training as a process of learning experience intended to enhance employee. Contribution to the organization, training involves employee contribution to the organization.
Training involves changing what employees know, how they work and their attitudes towards their instructor, their co-workers and their supervisors. 2. 3 The role of training In very general terms training is an appropriate activity when there is an actual deficiency or a potential deficiency in the job performance of human beings. This can happen when new jobs are being created, when old jobs will be performed in new way or when existing jobs are being performed in deficient ways According to caring there are reasons for training which include: improved in labor motivation
less wastage of materials improved quality of work man ship increased production for rapid development to full proficiency Before discussing the specific role of training it is necessary to distinguish between training and education. In general the job training differs from formal education in that it focuses on: immediate application of learning the development of skills and behavior direct relationship to job Current needs etc. Job training cannot be divorced from formal education, though their goals and approaches may differ (Dyer 1989,). 2. 3. 1 Organizational change and need for training
A change involves moving from one condition to another and it will affect individuals, groups and entire organization. All organization experience change of some sort of and the rate at which change takes place in accelerating the most prominent changes occurring today. These include: more intensive international computations Change in organizational structure cause by manager’s acquisition, rapid growth and downsizing. Accelerate technological change and the way people work Changes in human resource adverse work force consisting of many groups. Everyone is affected by change .
A change agent, managers or specialists involved with training and development must understand the difficulty associated with and the ways to reduce resistance to change. Because the impact of change on organization and its employees. Change should be under taken only when a real need for exists. Therefore training process should be designed depending on how to enable employees cope with the needed results of changes. Training may be an appropriate activity when one of the following conditions exists: When there is need for specific skill which does not exist in the present work force.
When there is a need for a specific skill which is not available insufficient number in the present work force When there is a need for a specific standard of skill performance but workers are not performance to the standard When there is a change in the technology methods for all required behavior. In all the above conditions, There are alternatives to training some of these alternatives may be efficient or economical than training will be (Dyer, 1989). 2. 3. 2 Selecting trainees Training with in organization has very specific purpose.
It should provide experiences which develop or no modify the behavior of employees to insure that the experiences employed work is effective in achieving the organization goals and objectives. Any action to train an individual must be considered in light of the prior experience and the behavior which he or she must develop in the current place. Selecting the right individual to the right training agenda is very important decision for both the organization and the employee. For effective training outcome, the concerned body of
the training within the organization should consider the following important points in the selection trainings Guide lines Skill obsolescence and retaining Employee need and motivation Multi skill From the organizations perspective the right selection can help create and maintain a well trained and stable work force conversely, mistaken in selection of trainees can be providing training to individuals with limited performance potential or lack of interest in simply a waste of time, effort and money (Dray, 1989).
2. 4 Training System A system is an arrangement of regularly inter action system people or events which work together to perform one or more functions. A training system is defined as the organizational principle by which a training operation may be developed (Neuschedl 1960). The training administer be must select a system by which he/she can achieve his/her goal. 2. 4. 1 The system approach Systems are groups of things which function together, the nervous system, irrigating system, and the solar system.
The system approach is great deal and far reaching development of our time. It is a set of principles which emphasize, of objectives and specific design and means of achieving the objective. The resulting system is maximally effective and efficient; it is especially effective for organizing training programmer. Dr Moon contends that training has only one legitimate purpose: to assist in achieving organizational goals by obtaining maximum performance at the lowest cost possible.
The term approach consists of four phases; analysis, design development and evaluation. As adapted for the solution of training problem, this model of the system approach consists of five major factors 1. In puts, output and subject mater 2. Operating conditions and constraints 3. Design and production of components 4. Evaluation of the system and 5. Operation al monitoring of the output for quality control. The system approach to training and development is diagrammatically shown below. Input system output
The input is the untrained person: characteristics of the trainees; Age, sex, bask skill, prior knowledge of the subject matter the output is what the trances must be able to do open completing of the training the subject matter is everything the trainees must learn. Now that we know what a system approach means in terms of training system, we can consider some of the training system (Neuscher, 1960). 2. 4. 2 Apprenticeship The apprenticeship system uses the methods of on – job work experience training for the manipulative skills.
It also included either class room or conference instruction for the related and technical informational training some of the advantages of the apprenticeship system includes (Broad well). There is less need to build experience trade school and furnish them with costly equipment The apprentices are trainee on the job with which they continue to work The apprentices are trained on the job by the skilled worker who is acquainted work process and procedure The apprentices are a production or service provide while he/she is learning 2. 4. 3. In service training
Technically apprenticeship training is in service training since the apprentices are employed workers although they are training also. In service training is concerned with the training of employed workers who are not apprentices i. e. with those who are excursively trainees (Broad well 1969). 2. 4. 3. 1. On- the job training Because of its practically on job training is the most frequently used training system. The learner uses actual material that he will when he/she has completed his/her training the training takes place in the actual environment of the job.
The operating procedures in the effect during training are the same procedures that will be in effect after training In on – job training both the trainee and the instructor operate in the actual job environment (Broad well, 1969). The trainer is a qualified and experienced worker who has been selected not only for his/her skills as a worker but also for his/her ability to teach those skills to someone unfamiliar with the job. 2. 4. 3. 2 Vestibule training Vestibule training is intended to gain all of the benefits of on the-Job training with few of its short comings.
In vestibule training the on- job situation, the production system itself is duplicated off- line. A separate area is set up in which the actual production/working area can be carried out. Such training is the practice of giving skills training to individual after they are hired but before they are assigned to specific jobs (Broad well 1969). 2. 5. Setting training Goals There are concepts of training goals. To the manpower planner the goal is a new member in work force people who are ready to contribute to the economy by giving a new skill to the national production process.
Another concept of training goals is perceived to be the enhancement of skill levels among existing worker no matter how few workers are involved in the program. At any level management of any agency or any section an enterprise would probably say that to bring even one deficient worker up acceptable performance standards is a worthwhile goal (Broad well 1969). 2. 6 training techniques After a training need had been properly validated a set of worthy goals has been established, a methods selected, and precise behavioral objective identified the next step is to choose appropriate training techniques.
Training techniques may be regarded as the devices by which learners are stimulated and directed toward behavioral objectives when we taking of training techniques we think of activities which constitute the learning situation one can list and analyze numerous out techniques available to designers and conductors of the learning experience (Broad well 1969). 2. 6. 1 Case study A case study is a written or filmed description of an actual situation, presented in some detail. Cases may deal with a total activity but that usually high light one aspect of the activity.
It is this special aspect which relates to the learning objectives in connection with which the case is used. Group of trainees read the case and then analyze it for some specific consideration provided to them by the instructor of the time he/she gives them the case itself (Dyer, 1989). 2. 6. 2 Conference The world conference has two meanings in training technology. Most frequently if it is a gathering of professionals or workers with similar job assignments for the purpose of brining themselves up to date on new technology and trends in common field.
In class room management or in the learning environment, a conference is a meeting of several people to analyze a topic or a problem, plan a course of action, and adjust difference. The lecture or conference approach is well adapted to concerning specific information. The use of audiovisual or demonstrating can often make a formal class presentation more interesting while increasing retention (Dyer, 1989). 2. 6. 3 Discussion Discussion is conversation between trainees aimed to word a learning objective.
As a learning technique, discussion very from social conversation by the addition of one or more of these controls, a moderator, specific goals for the group to achieve, time limits, prepared agendas. Discussion may take several formats Forum, in which all participate, is most common Panels, in which a few experts or specialists speak first. Question answer sessions in which all participants direct question to one or more specialists. In all these varieties, there is an implied orderliness; no more than one discussion is taking place of any one time so the focus of all learners is on a single verbal analysis of the topic being learned.
(Dyer, 1989). 2. 6. 4 Lecture A lecture is an organized verbal presentation by a speaker to group of trainees listeners who are expected to retain the key concepts and certain specific bits of knowledge contained in the lecture. However, even the best organized and most stimulating lectures suffer one great weakness the passive role of the leaper. Skill Teachers, therefore use lectures sparingly or permit questions from learners even as the lecture proceeds, to be effective, a lecture should: Center around a single central concept Divide all other data in to relevant, memorable areas of discussion.
Begin with interesting attention getting polarizer which gathers all listeners’ attention around the one concept. 2. 6. 5 Seminars A seminar is traditionally a group advance students gathering to study under a leader, with doing research and all exchanging results through reports and discussion. The seminar differs from a workshop in its emphasis on original research. Seminars use a design which is appropriate for people with considerable back ground (Dyer, 1989). 2. 6. 6 Films Films in all form are media-not techniques they can used during any of the other techniques discussed above.
Films are meant for projection, and may be either static or motion picture. They may be captured on celluloid or video tape. Films are designed to strengthen and clarity the visual stimulus applied to the learner. They elicit a visual sensory response by the trainee (Dyer, 1989). 2. 7. Formulating Budget Identifying development needs, establishing training goals, specifying standards of performance, or evaluating the results of training all these are futile if there is no budget for the activity. A training system costs in two ways human resources and monies.
Formulating budget will be an attractive process with the other steps in developing skills of training program. Costs that must be included in the training budget include staff planning time, trainer wages and direct expense such as the cost of training material travel, accommodation and others. If the desired training program does not fit within the budget constraint, the human resource manager must consider modification such as peer trainee different trainers, different techniques and different training location (Dyer, 1989). 2. 8. Evaluating Training
The final stage in the training program is the evaluation of the training. At training system should be maintained only as long as it produces the desired results. Therefore, measurements of the effectiveness of day training are vitally important. The evaluation is to decide whether the training meets the training needs. Good evaluation will identify those aspects which should be improved. In total measurement system the evaluation activation activities take in four distinct but complementary stages. During the initial planning Throughout the learning experience At the conclusion of the training
At periodic intervals, after the program ends. A simple and another method of evaluation of training of outcome are to measure competence. This is done by a real group and control group. At more advanced level the task is to determine how many changes in knowledge, attitude, skill and job behavior has been gained and to what extent this change can reasonably be attributed to their participation in the program (Dyer, 1989). 2. 9. How do you define performance and why do we measure it? Despite the importance of performance appraisal, few organizations clearly define what it is they are trying to measure.
In order to design a system for appraising performance, it is important to first define what is meant by the term work performance. Although a person’s job performance depends on some combination of ability, effort and opportunity. It can be measured in terms of outcomes or results produced. Performance is defined as the record of outcomes produced on specified job functions or activities during a specified time period. (Human source mgt; H. john Bernard, 2003). 2. 10 Defining training and development Training is define as a any attempt to improve employees performance as a currently held hob or one related to it.
This usually means change in specific knowledge, skill, attitudes or behavior. Development refers to learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Such opportunities do not have to be limited to improving employees’ performance on their current jobs. (Human source management (H. John Bernardian). 2. 11 Needs assessment The first step in training is to determine that a need for training actually exists. An organization should commit its resources to a training activity only if the training can be expected to achieve some organizational goal. (Human source mgt H. John Bernard, 2003). 2. 12 Evaluation
Evaluation involves the collection of information on whether trainees were satisfied with the program. (H. John Bernard, 2003). 2. 13 Types of criteria Trainers should try to collect five types of data when evaluating training programs. Measures of reactions, learning, and behavior change, organizational results, and return on environment (ROI). The first four of these criteria are widely used to evaluate corporate training programs and the cost ROI, has recently been added as another important source of evaluation criteria:- Reactions trainees’ attitudes toward the training program, instructor, facilities, and so forth.
Learning change in knowledge by trainees or level of knowledge reached after training. Behavior change in job performance or level of job performance, reached after training. Results, change in organizational; measures (e. g. productivity, turn over absences) due to training. ROI monetary value of the results (benefits of training minus costs of training; expressed as percentage). 2. 14 Designs for evaluating training After determine the criteria to use in evaluating the training program, the trainer should choose an experimental design.
The design is used to answer two primary questions: 1. Whether or not a change has occurred in the criteria (e. g. learning, behavior, organizational results) and 2. Whether or not the change can be attributed to the training program. (Human resource management H john Bernard, 2003). 2. 15 Benchmarking training efforts To conduct through evaluation of a training program, training departments, Can benchmarking their practices against the best in the industry. They can compare their training department to leading edge companies in terms of. 1. Training activities in terms (e.
g. percent of payroll spent on training, overage training hours per employees, trained per year, training staff per 1000 employee). 2. Training results (e. g. average percent of positive trainee ratings per year, average percent of satisfied trainees, average percents gain in learning per course, average prevent of important in job performance, cost saving as of training expense, revenues per employee per year profits per employees). 3. Training efficiency (e. g. training costs per training hour, time on task) (American society for training and development ASTD).
2. 16 Employee orientation programs New employees are given a brief introduction to be the company and are then left to learn the ropes by themselves. After this leads to feelings of confusion, frustration, job satisfaction is off after related to an employee’s orientation. If employee dissatisfaction leads to turn over, this can be quite costly for the firm. Generally, the objectives of an employee orientation program are three fold: 1. To assist the new employee in adjusting to the organization and feeling comfortable and positive about the new job.
2. To clarity the job requirements, demands, and performance expectations; and 3. To get the employee to understand the organization culture and quickly adopt the organization’s goals, values, and behavior. (Human source mgt H John Bernard 2003). 2. 17 Training for Teams Training techniques can be chosen for individual level training or for training that is conducted for work teams, with the increasing popularity teams in organization it is common for employers to send their teams to training sessions. 2. 18. Information technology training
As employees adopt more sophisticated hard ware and soft ware system, it has become increasingly more important to provide relevant training to use these effectively. 2. 19 Diversity awareness training Managing diversity effectively is one of the greatest challenges for organizations solver he next country. Many firms throughout the world face discrimination claims from immigrants, women, older workers, various racial and ethnic groups, those with physical disabilities, and those of varying religious affiliations. (Human Resource Management H. John Bernardian, 2003).
CHAPTER THREE 3. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Chapter three of this study paper includes the analysis of the data information gathered through questionnaires from the workers of Tigray Regional Health Bureau. 3. 1. Socio- demographic information Table 3. 1. Personal data Number Item Response No % 1 Sex ;male 22 69 Female 10 31 Total 32 100% 2 Age:21-25 2 6. 3 21-30 5 15. 6 31-35 8 25 36 and above 17 53. 1 Total 32 100% 3 educational status 1st degree and above 20 62. 5 Diploma 10 31. 2 12th completed 2 6. 3 Below 12 0 0 Total 32 100% Source; questionnaires of 2005 E. C
As shown on the above table the respondents were 69 %( 22) male and 31 % (10) were female. Majority of the respondents, 25%, were between the age of 31-35 and 53. 1% of respondents were within the age range of 36 and above. Educational status of the respondents as indicated in table 1 item 3 is 62. 5% (20) of them are 1st degree holders and above, 31. 2% (10) are diploma holders and 6. 3% (2) have completed grade 12th. Therefore this indicates most of the respondents are obtained 1st degree and above. 3. 2 Information on training Table 3. 2. In service attendance Number Item Response no % 1
Have however been trained in your field of work Yes 32 100 No – – Total 32 100% 2 Place of training Within the organization 14 43. 8 Outside of the organization 13 40. 6 Both site 5 15. 6 Total 32 100% 3 Times of training Once 1 3. 1 Twice 2 6. 2 Three times 7 21. 9 More than three 22 68. 8 Total 32 100% Source; questionnaires of 2005 E. C As shown from the above table 100 %( 32) of the respondents were trained related to their fields of work. And regarding to the place of training, 43. 8% (14) of them were trained within the organization, 40. 6% (13) were trained outside the organization and 15.
6 %( 5) respondents were trained in both sites. Moreover, 3. 1% (1) of the respondents said that they were trained once, 6. 2 %( 2) of the respondents said that they were trained twice, 21. 9 %( 7) of the respondents responded that they were trained three time, and 68. 8% (22) were trained more than three times. 3. 3 effects of training Table 3 questions related to change after training Number Item Response number % 1 Was the training based on assessment High 11 34. 4 Medium 15 46. 9 Low 2 6. 2 Not at all 4 12. 5 Total 32 100% 2 Training impact an job quality and performance High
20 62. 5 Medium 10 31. 2 Low 2 6. 3 Total 32 100% 3 The impact on employee morale and satisfaction High 22 68. 8 Medium 8 25 Low 2 6. 2 Total 32 100% 4 Is there any incremental or promotions of salary after training Yes 7 21. 9 No 25 78. 1 Total 32 100% 5 Improvement in performance compared to condition before training High 22 68. 8 Medium 8 25 Low 2 6. 2 Not at all – – Total 32 100% 6 Relationship of training to job High 18 56. 2 Medium 11 34. 4 Low 3 9. 4 Total 32 100% 7 Capacity of the trainer in relationship to the training which is given High 20 62. 5 Medium 10 31. 3 Low
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