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The Pathophysiology of C. botulinum toxin

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    11.APPENDIX “B”

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    Table of Contentss

    Anti-Plagiarism Declaration

    Introduction

    Clostridia: General Features

    C.tetani: Tetanus

    Symptoms

    Cause

    Pathophysiology

    Diagnosis

    Prevention

    Treatment

    Prognosis

    Epidemiology

    C.botulinium: Botulism

    Symptoms

    Cause

    Pathophysiology

    Diagnosis

    Prevention

    Treatment

    Prognosis

    Epidemiology

    C. perfringens: Cellulitis and Gas Gangrene

    Symptoms

    Cause

    Pathophysiology

    Diagnosis

    Prevention

    Treatment

    Prognosis

    Epidemiology

    Other Clostridial Diseases

    Food Poisoning

    Bacteremia

    Pseudomembranous Colitis

    Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobes

    Bibliography

    Introduction

    Anaerobic bacteriums can be classified as bacteriums with spores or without spores. All bacteriums that belong to theClostridiumgenus are spore forming and the stain Gram-positive. Non-spore-forming bacteriums have a wider assortment and they are non wholly characterised. These may stain gram-negative/gram-positive. Anaerobic bacteriums are debatable as they are by and large overlooked during an scrutiny due to the trouble in insulating and turning them in a pure civilization.

    Clostridia: General Features

    • Largest spore-forming species of bacteriums those are Gram-positive
    • With exposure to oxygen, they can decease
    • Short life span
    • An active metamorphosis
    • Can bring forth a assortment of toxicant toxins

    C.tetani: Tetanus

    Symptoms

    • Concerns
    • Jaw cramping, “ tetanus ”
    • High blood force per unit area
    • Increased bosom rate
    • Painful musculus stiffness
    • Not able to get down decently
    • Seizures
    • Fever
    • Sweating

    Cause

    Tetanus is caused by lacerations, scratchs, Burnss, organic structure piercings, any hurt to the eyes and being bitten by an animate being.

    Pathophysiology

    Tetanus toxins are really strong that marks proteins. They enter through the spinal cord and impact the synaptic junction. The toxins get in through the nerve cell terminuss and impact the lower motor nerve cells that control skeletal musculus ( voluntary motion ) . Proteins at the nervus terminus are affected which decreases neurotransmitter release. These effects will foremost take to paralysis so musculuss cramps.

    Diagnosis

    There are no medical lab trials that can corroborate the presence of lockjaw but diagnosing for it is based on the clinical disease. When person may hold lockjaw they need:

    • To be hospitalised
    • Get the inoculation
    • They will necessitate intervention with human lockjaw immune globulin ( TIG )
    • Muscles cramps will necessitate to be controlled with medicine
    • Antibiotics will be administered
    • Treatment of the lesion

    Prevention

    • Vaccination ( tetanus anatoxin ) – should get down from an baby of 6 hebdomads old
    • Neonatal umbilical cord lockjaw can be avoided by immunising the pregnant female that has non been immunized antecedently

    Treatment

    • Administration of lockjaws immune globulin when clinical lockjaw is indicated, this is an antitoxin which inactivates the lockjaw toxin at the neural synapse
    • Wound should be treated by taking any dead/damaged tissue
    • Antibodies are taken to forestall bacterial growing
    • Vaccination ( tetanus anatoxin ) is given to those who have non been immunized for the past 5 old ages
    • Antispasmodic medicine is merely administered if musculuss cramps have occurred

    Prognosis

    • 20-25 % of people will decease from infection
    • Young kids or older people will hold more terrible instances
    • Peoples older than 65 old ages old are likely to decease
    • The strength of the symptoms can bespeak the badness of the infection
    • Intensive attention can assist better serious instances of lockjaw
    • The perturbation of bosom beat and respiration failure is what causes decease due to tetanus infections
    • Infant deceases due to neonatal umbilical cord lockjaw is at 60-80 %

    Epidemiology

    • Materials in contact with carnal waste
    • Dirt
    • Wounds from war ( before inoculation )

    C.botulinium: Botulism

    There are 3 types of botulism: nutrient borne, lesion and baby.

    Symptoms

    Food borne and wound botulism:

    • Unable to speak/swallow
    • Eyelids are drooping
    • Facial failing
    • Vision is either doubled/blurred
    • Difficult to breath
    • Vomiting, sickness and abdominal spasms
    • Paralysis

    Infant botulism:

    • Constipation
    • Salivating
    • Eyelids are drooping
    • They have a weak attempt
    • The baby will be given to be really cranky
    • Problems with feeding/suckling
    • Fatigue
    • Paralysis
    • Muscle failing

    Cause

    • Food borne botulism: This is caused with contaminated nutrient with relation to infected dirt. If the nutrient is non preserved or cooked decently, theC. botulinusbacteriums can bring forth the harmful toxins
    • Wound botulism: This type of botulism is caused by the lesion being infected with the bacteriums and its instances are chiefly drug related ( sniffing/injecting )
    • Infant botulism: When an baby ingests the bacterium spores, they become septic with botulism as their immune system is non developed plenty to assail the bacterium. The bacteria goes into the digestive system where it will get down to bring forth toxins.
    • Other causes can include drinking H2O with the toxin ; take a breathing in the toxin when it is in a gas signifier and wrong injection of theC.botulinumtoxin

    Pathophysiology

    C.botulinum toxin that enter the organic structure are absorbed by the stomach/small bowels ; when the digestive enzymes do non denature so and they so affect the neuromuscular junction. The toxin will impact the release of acetylcholine from the presynaptic cleft of the nervus terminus, taking to the musculus non being active any longer. This leads to paralysis and finally hypotonia. This consequence is apparent in several other systems in the organic structure like the hormone system and nervous system.

    Diagnosis

    Since the early symptoms of botulism can be confused with those of other diseases, hints of the bacteriums need to be found in fecal matters, serums and stomachic lavation. The suspected nutrient that may be contaminated will besides be tested. It is really difficult to recognize the symptoms of botulism even when isolated, so tests on mice are performed to turn out its presence.

    Prevention

    Food should be prepared decently like home-canned nutrients, as to destruct any spores that may be present. By boiling the nutrient or seting it in a force per unit area cooker for several proceedingss, this will diminish opportunities of acquiring infected.

    Treatment

    Antitoxin will be administered when botulism is suspected. The antitoxin will merely neutralize the toxins in the organic structure and non mend the affected areas/nerves. In some instances, respiratory support is needed particularly in babies.

    Prognosis

    • Recovery is prolonged
    • Extensive rehab is needed
    • Respiratory musculuss are weak and take about a twelvemonth to work decently but the capacity to exercising is reduced
    • Mortality is about 7-10 %
    • Over the age of 60, the mortality rate is doubled
    • Patients will kick of fatigue, dry oral cavity, shortness of breath and failing

    Epidemiology

    • Due to home-canned/preserved nutrients
    • There are really rare instances of botulism with respect to commercially canned nutrients

    C. perfringens: Cellulitis and Gas Gangrene

    Symptoms

    Cellulitis:

    • Infected country is painful
    • Inflammation/redness
    • Rash/ skin sore that grows quickly
    • Swollen visual aspect of the septic tegument
    • Fever
    • Warmth in the septic country
    • Fatigue
    • Muscle strivings
    • Sweating

    Cause

    Cellulitis:

    • When the bacteriums can come in through the tegument due to cuts, surgical scratchs and insect bites

    Pathophysiology

    Cellulitis:

    • Lymphatic obstruction
    • Venous inadequacy

    Diagnosis

    Cellulitis:

    • Swelling of the tegument
    • Drain of the septic country
    • Swelling of the secretory organs
    • Redness & A ; heat

    Prevention

    Wound should be cleaned instantly and antibacterial unction should be applied. Prevent the tegument snap by maintaining it moist ; treat superficial infections ; wear protective vesture particularly when working ; inspect pess for any hurt.

    Treatment

    Cellulitis:

    • 2 hebdomads of unwritten antibiotics, elevate limb to cut down swelling

    Gas Gangrene:

    • Remove dead tissue, if the infection continues to distribute it will take to amputation

    Prognosis

    Cellulitis:

    • Response to intervention would be within 2-3 yearss. In rare instances, the patient can go earnestly sick. Surgery may be needed and will ensue in marking

    Epidemiology

    • Age: Facial cellulitis over the age of 50, or kids from 6 months to 3 old ages ; Perianal cellulitis chiefly affects kids
    • Gender: Cellulitis is by and large equal except for perianal cellulitis which is more in males than females
    • Geography: chiefly found in the coastal parts
    • Socioeconomical position: Immigrants that are non vaccinated against lockjaw andHaemophilus influenzaetype B ; Overcrowded countries ; people working in gardens, farms or sea life have an increased hazard.

    Other Clostridial Diseases

    Food Poisoning

    This is caused by the bacteria,C.perfringens. Food toxic condition is chiefly caused by eating contaminated meat was they can last the normal cookery temperature and thrive when the meat cools down. Once within the organic structure, the bacterium go into the bowels where they begin to turn and bring forth its comparative toxins. Symptoms of nutrient toxic condition are diarrhoea, abdominal hurting and spasms. The forecast of this infection is that it can non take to decease but can be fatal particularly in kids

    Bacteremia

    Bacteremia is when bacterium is in the blood stream. Cases like this are serious ; this status is associated with specific types of malignant neoplastic disease.

    Pseudomembranous Colitis

    The bacteria,C.difficileis the cause, and can be found in infirmaries. It is found in the enteric piece of land ( in a few instances ) , but is dominated by the normal bacteriums present. When antibiotics are taken, it destroys the normal bacteriums andC.difficileis able to take over and bring forth toxins. The toxins produced cause a aggregation of fluids and harm of intestine cells. A 3rd of the patients with this status dice as they have to contend against the initial infection and the bacteriums.

    Non-Spore-Forming Anaerobes

    Symptoms

    Bibliography

    Causes of Botulism( 2014 ) , 23 April, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Botulism/Pages/Causes.aspx [ 12 July 2014 ] .

    Causes of Tetanus( 2013 ) , 17 July, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Tetanus/Pages/Causes.aspx [ 12 July 2014 ] .

    Cellulitis, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.clinicalkey.com/topics/surgery/cellulitis.html # 707901 [ 12 July 2014 ] .

    Chan- Tack, M.K.M. ( 2013 )Botulism, 28 May, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //emedicine.medscape.com/article/213311-overview # aw2aab6b2b2aa [ 12 July 2014 ] .

    Charles Patrick Davis, M.P. ( 2014 )Tetanus ( cont. ), 30 May, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.emedicinehealth.com/tetanus/page10_em.htm # tetanus_prognosis [ 12 July 2014 ] .

    Hassel, B. ( 2013 ) ‘Tetanus: Pathophysiology, Treatment, and the Possibility of Using Botulinum Toxin against Tetanus-Induced Rigidity and Spasms ‘ ,Toxins, vol. 5, no. 10.3390, January, pp. 73-83, Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564069/ [ 12 July 2014 ] .

    Herchline, T.E. ( 2014 )Cellulitis, 1 April, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //emedicine.medscape.com/article/214222-overview # a0104 [ 12 July 2014 ] .

    Normandin, B. ( 2012 )Cellulitis, 15 August, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.healthline.com/health/cellulitis # Overview1 [ 12 July 2014 ] .

    Staff, M.C. ( 2012 )Botulism, 19 July, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/botulism/basics/symptoms/con-20025875 [ 12 July 2014 ] .

    Tetanus( 2013 ) , 9 January, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cdc.gov/tetanus/about/symptoms-complications.html [ 12 July 2014 ] .

    Wenham, T. and Cohen, A. ( 2008 )Botulism, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.medscape.com/viewarticle/574270_5 [ 12 July 2014 ] .

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    The Pathophysiology of C. botulinum toxin. (2016, Dec 04). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/the-pathophysiology-of-c-botulinum-toxin/

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