The Properties And Uses Of Bricks Construction

Table of Content

Brick is a nucleus stuff that is normally used to construct the wall of a edifice. Clay bricks are the most common brick type. It is made from sand and clay and uniformly burnt at temperatures between 800A°C and 1200A°C. Surface coatings are sometimes applied, e.g. glazed bricks. Glazed bricks are still being produced in big measure and can be obtained from major English brick makers and providers. Calcium Silicate bricks is manufactured from sand-lime ( calcium silicate ) . The bricks are pressed under great force per unit area and steamed in an sterilizer. The bricks are smooth, all right textured and light in coloring material. The coloring material of the brick is produced from stuff beginning, composing and firing temperature.

The size of bricks over clip has changed well. Some early medieval bricks were 13 inches by 6 inches by 2 inches. By the late fifteenth century a brick 9.5 inches by 4.5 inches by 2 inches became the norm and a charter in 1571 stipulated bricks by the measuring of 9 inches by 4.5 inches by 2.25 inches. By the eighteenth century, 8.25 inches by 4 inches by 2.5 inches brick was introduced. Modern bricks are 8.5 inches by 4 inches by 2.5 inches which is following metrification translated to 215mm by 102.5mm by 65mm. Modern bricks are the bricks that are most used in edifices presents.

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2.1.2 Defect of Size

Poor material choice and readying or underfiring is the chief job of outsize bricks. Undersized bricks are caused chiefly by hapless stuff readying, faulty molds and overfiring.

2.1.3 Defect of Shape

There are many evidences which contribute to defects in form. These are including hapless readying of molds or modeling technique, mistakes in stacking, unsmooth handling and uneven drying. If the bricks are well over burnt, inchoate merger takes topographic point and the bricks, called burrs, will come out of the kiln or clinch and acquire stuck together. Burrs are suited merely for hardcore intents.

2.1.4 Defects of Body

Mistakes in the natural stuff can give rise to defects such as snap, bloating and laminations. Cracking and warping of bricks, doing incipient failing, may be due to exposure of green bricks to direct sunshine or rapid drying air currents. Similar effects will be produced by seting green bricks into the kiln excessively shortly. Large clefts possibly caused by rain acquiring onto hot bricks.

2.1.5 Defect of Appearance

These defects are caused chiefly by defective wires in the instance of wire-cut bricks. Dark musca volitanss are caused by the presence of unevenly distributed Fe sulfide in the clay.

2.2 Types of Brickwork Defects

2.2.1 Introduction

Most parts of a edifice are built utilizing bricks. Nowadays, brickwork defects are normally found in edifices. This job is acquiring more serious as yearss go by. Brickwork defects may do a batch of jobs to the residents. The chief job encountered in edifice with traditional outside bearing wall of brickwork and concrete inside bearing construction is caused by differences in the temperature and moisture-induced motion. Cracks may be discovered in walls and solutions have to be found to relieve this job. ( Verhoef, 2001 )

Brickwork defect which occurs in edifices has a assortment of grounds. This is possibly non surprising when one considers the broad scope of different bricks and techniques in the building of edifice, differences in the building sites and the varied occupational or proprietor use of the completed edifice.

Brickwork will deteriorate and disintegrate if non decently maintained. Such impairment can be caused by a figure of factors and can take assorted signifiers. The chief marks that the brickwork is afflicted are surface growing and staining, flower, loosed brick going dislodged, clefts appear through the bricks or howitzer and etc. ( Moses Jenkins, 2007 )

In this bomber chapter, the different types of the brickwork defect will be determined. This chapter gives an overview of assorted types of brickwork defects and understanding the brickwork defects. By placing the different types of the brickwork defects, it will be easy for the residents or proprietors to happen out the causes of the defects and later take the suited redress methods to turn to the job.

2.2.2 Brick Wall Settlement

Any motion in a structuralA brick wall will put on the line holding the bond classs in the wall broken. Any motion in aA brick veneer wall which has broken or loosened the connexions between the veneers to the implicit in construction is potentially unsafe and hazard fall ining the masonry.

2.2.3 Bulging Brick Wall

This is likely to be a bond-brick or bond-course failure. This defect is potentially highly unsafe and immediate action must be taken. If non, it will do the edifice to all of a sudden prostration.

2.2.4 Cracks and Bulges in Brick Walls

Frost and earth burden can force a below-grade brick foundation wall inwards. The wall is frequently bulged inwards every bit good as demoing horizontal and measure snap and loose bricks will come up over the bulged country. The harm occurs from somewhat above land degree to approximately the hoar line.

2.2.5 Cracks and Loose Bricks

Normally, cleft and loose bricks are caused by hoar, colony, enlargement, diagonal and stair-stepped. These defects frequently happen at edifice corners where the roof spillage is concentrated.

2.2.6 Loose Bricks and Missing or Lost Mortar

This is the motion where the howitzer is badly exhausted by roof spillage or other H2O motion against the foundation. Loose and lost bricks may besides happen where wood blocks, originally set into a wall to allow nailing of interior constituents, is damaged by insects or decay. Similarly, if the wood joists are damaged and dead set overly or collapsed ( insect harm, putrefaction, fire ) , the fall ining joist can, as its in-wall terminal moves, damage the foundation or edifice wall. Fire cuts on wood joists in brick walls were intended to minimise this harm beginning by angling the terminal of the joist where it was set into the wall pocket.

2.2.7 Spalling Bricks

Spalling is caused by H2O and hoar, such as H2O leaking into a brick construction at any entry point: a cleft, a brick which has lost its difficult surface, or at gaps by window and door incursions. It is best to besides mind of calking bricks.

2.2.8 Exfoliating-Rust Damage to Bricks

Masonry wall will hold these defects when brick walls have been improperly caulked where calking should hold been omitted. The most common illustration of this defect is the harm that occurs to a brick wall when a steel header over a window or door is caulked tightly between the brick and the steel. Moisture perforating the brick wall through clefts or howitzer articulations is trapped around the steel header. Rust developing on steel headers has enormous raising power as the corroding exfoliating metal expands, sufficient to check and damage bricks around the header.

Improper Repair MortarA on Brickwork

During fix plants, tuck indicating or re-pointing bricks can do surface spalling of bricks if the Mason uses a excessively difficult howitzer with high Portland content or howitzer on soft bricks in a clime exposed to stop deading conditions. The high Portland content means that the howitzer will be non merely harder, but more waterproof than the environing bricks. Water trapped around the difficult howitzer can stop dead taking to come up spalling of the bricks. This is peculiarly likely to be seen when a wall has been tuck pointed utilizing difficult high-portland howitzer where originally a soft high-lime howitzer was used and where the original bricks were soft.

Salts on Brickwork

Salts are a major cause of impairment. Salt can come in bricks through contaminated H2O immersion. In coastal countries, salt can come from the sea and, in winter, the nearby application of route salt is a changeless menace. Salt is damaging because it creates a steady enlargement of crystals within the bricks. This can finally coerce the construction of the brick apart. The beginning of salt can happen from within the bricks themselves or from the application of contaminated howitzers or renders. Brick lined chimney flukes are besides vulnerable as sulfates can be introduced when flu gasses condense. This is a common defect where a chimney has been sealed without equal airing.

2.2.11 Flower on brickwork

Flower appears as a white powdery sedimentation on the brick. It is a phenomenon that soluble salt dissolved in H2O are carried, deposited and bit by bit accumulated on brick surfaces to organize an unsightly trash. Without H2O, flower can non happen. The soluble salts may be originated from the natural stuff of bricks. But in most instances, flower is caused by salts from the external beginnings such as land H2O, contaminated atmosphere, howitzer ingredients and other stuffs in contacts with the bricks. To minimise the hazard, ( it can ne’er be wholly avoided in brickwork exposed to enduring ) the edifice item should be designed, every bit far as is possible, to avoid impregnation. In other words, good overhangs, headers and Sillss with trickles, need to be considered. Flower can be ‘helped on its manner ‘ by sponging down the wall with clean H2O ( avoiding significant wetting ) or dry brushing with soft coppices. Any other intervention should be avoided as it may deface the bricks.A

2.2.12 Thermal Movement on Brickwork

Every stuffs expand or contracts as the temperature of the stuff alterations, typically spread outing as its temperature additions and undertaking as its temperature decreases. Different stuffs expand and contract at different rates when they undergo similar alterations in their temperatures. Brick veneer can spread out and contract about. When finding the enlargement or contraction of a brick veneer, it is of import to retrieve the effects of the Sun on stuffs. The energy from the Sun ‘s beams raises the temperature of a stuff good above the air temperature. On a twenty-four hours when the air temperature is 32° F, the energy from the Sun can raise a wall ‘s temperature to above 100° F. Thermal enlargement failures in Structural or Veneer Brick Walls

A separate factor that can do really big motions and extended harm to brick constructions or brick veneer walls is the thermic enlargement which occurs across a long or tall brick wall when that wall is heated by intense Sun exposure. The exposure show important thermic enlargement harm in a long brick construction.

Significant interruptions and gapsA at perpendicular brick howitzer articulations due to thermic enlargement and possibly some hoar and H2O harm.

Figure1: Significant interruptions in howitzer

Horizontal skiding breaksA in brick howitzer articulations, A exposing reenforcing wire to corrode, exfoliation, and extra harm from those forces as the exfoliating wire produced still more force per unit area on the howitzer articulation.

Figure2: Horizontal interruptions in howitzer

Step crackingA following howitzer articulations near the edifice corners and where the wall motion was resisted by first narrative crossing brick walls bordering at right angles the in-between subdivision of the long brick wall.

Figure3: Measure checking in howitzer

Cracks and broken bricks at the intersections of brick walls and gaps.

Figure 4: Cracks and broken bricks

( InspectApedia, 2007 )

2.2.13 Moisture Movement on Brickwork

Moisture affects all porous masonry stuffs, including bricks, howitzers and concrete masonry units but in really different ways. These effects must be considered when a combination of these stuffs is used, such as when bricks rest on a concrete foundation, brick veneer units are used with block back up, and when brick and architectural concrete merchandises are used in the same Wythe sets of precast concrete or architectural concrete block in a brick veneer. After their initial commixture or casting, howitzer, poured-in-place concrete and concrete masonry units shrink as the hardening of the Portland cement returns. This is an ineluctable effect of the hardening of concrete merchandises and is accommodated in design.

2.2.14 Sulphate Attack on Brickwork

Most ordinary clay bricks contain sulfates of Na, Mg or Ca. These salts are soluble in H2O, Ca sulfate being less soluble than the other two. Normally, these sulfates are seen as the harmless flower which affect visual aspect merely and necessitate merely to be brushed off. In theory, most brick walls with howitzers based on OPC ( Ordinary Portland Cement ) are apt to sulphate onslaught. The most vulnerable walls are earth-retaining walls and parapet walls but sulphate onslaught is a job besides on rendered, and confronting brickwork.

On rendered brickwork, sulphate onslaught is manifested by checking of the rendition, the clefts being chiefly horizontal and matching to the howitzer articulations below. The rendition may adhere rather good to the bricks early in the onslaught but countries are likely to go degage as the enlargement of the implicit in brickwork causes rupture of the bond between the two stuffs. ( Eldridge, 1976 )

2.2.15 Lime Staining on Brickwork

Lime staining occurs when Ca hydrated oxide is deposited on the face of brickwork. Lime staining will rapidly absorb C dioxide from the air and becomes calcium carbonate. It is virtually indissoluble and can merely be removed by expert which is a dearly-won intervention. The Ca hydrated oxide can come from three chief beginnings:

Ca hydrated oxide caused by the hydration of Portland cement

from hydrated calcium hydroxide added to mortar

from brickwork in contact with wet concrete

2.2.16 Porosity on Brick

Porosity is an of import feature of bricks. In contrast to other moulded or pre-cast edifice stuffs, the porousness of bricks is attributed to its all right capillaries. By virtuousness of the capillary consequence, the rate of wet conveyance in the brick is 10 times faster than in other edifice stuffs. Moisture is released during day-time and re-absorbed during night-time. The ability to let go of and re-absorb wet by capillary consequence is one of the most utile belongingss of brick that helps to modulate the temperature and humidness of ambiance in a edifice. This typical belongings makes bricks an admirable edifice stuff, peculiarly suited for edifices in the Torrid Zones. On the other manus, all porous stuffs are susceptible to chemical onslaughts and apt to taint from enduring agents like rain, running H2O and polluted air.

2.2.17 Crack in Brick Faces / Firecracks

The finished visual aspect of clay brick can change greatly ; this is because it is dependent on clay and the fabrication procedure. Some merchandises contain clefts of changing grade ( sometimes referred to as firecracks ) as an built-in characteristic. Firecracks are normally seeable on the merchandise as delivered. However, firecracks can be masked by the texture and surface littorals used in the fabrication procedure which becomes seeable after the bricks are laid as a consequence of natural weathering of open brickwork.

2.2.18 Dampness of the Brick Wall

More or less lasting moistness demoing more clearly on the internal wall surface from land degree up to a tallness of about 750mm, but may be higher in terrible instances or if the outer face is covered with a non-porous coating. The ornaments may be moist, blistered or discoloured, or, if dry, may hold been pushed off the wall by a movie or salts which will frequently be seen as a downy crystalline growing. The possible causes of moistness in the brick wall are deficiency of DPC ( moist cogent evidence class ) , by-passing of the DPC, and failure of the DPC stuff.

2.2.19 Brick Growth and Expansion Gaps in Brickwork

Bricks undergo long-run lasting enlargement over clip. This enlargement continues for the life of the brick, but the bulk of the growing occurs early in its life. Most general intent bricks have a coefficient of enlargement in the scope of 0.5-1.5mm/m ( millimetres per metre ) over 15 old ages. Interior designers can utilize the values of the coefficient of enlargement to suit for the growing of bricks by the size and spacing of the control articulations. The proviso of control spreads or articulation articulations between parts of the construction during building will suit motions within the construction over clip. Numerous beginnings of motion exist and include:

The alteration in size of edifice stuffs with temperature, lading conditions and wet content

The differential alteration in size of edifice stuffs ( for illustration, cement merchandises shrink over clip, whilst clay bricks expand easy over clip )

Foundation and termss motion

Frame motion

Frame shortening

Temperature motion

Internal horizontal and perpendicular motion

2.3 Causes of the brickwork defects

2.3.1 Introduction

Brickworks are used chiefly in the building of walls. To build the brick wall required many accomplishments, design, experience, choice of stuff, and technique. Lack of all expertness may do the brickwork defects or failure of the edifice. The defects that occur in brickwork possibly the consequence of built-in mistakes, lacks in production, design, stuffs or craft, and onslaught by environmental agents.

After the brickwork has been constructed, it possibly meets of assorted demands, clime, burden, and occupational in usage. It is non surprising that defects happened or occurs often.

In this bomber chapter, the causes of the brickwork defects will be list out. To happen out the existent causes of the brickwork defects will be easy for the occupational to take the right redresss instantly and reduces the brickwork defects happen.

2.3.2 Choice of bricks

The pick of bricks is frequently influenced by the monetary value but the quality required must besides be carefully considered in order to avoid defects developing during the service life of the stuff. Therefore, the choice of suited bricks for any peculiar intent has frequently to be a tradeoff between visual aspect and lastingness demands on the one manus, and cost on the other.

This is non ever possible to measure the quality of bricks by the coloring material, variableness of coloring material of bricks of the same beginning and method of production can frequently be an indicant of strength and lastingness fluctuations.

2.3.3 Storage of bricks

Bricks on site are seldom kept under equal screen. Defects in the bricks ensuing from the deficiency of equal protection on the site are seldom evident before usage. However, bad conditions conditions can be damaging to bricks in that impregnation by rain can be responsible for both subsequent flower and ornament defects.

2.3.4 Soluble Salts in Bricks

Under burnt bricks contain a high salt content. The salts semen from the natural clay from which the bricks are made, or are formed in the combustion procedure. Most clay bricks contain some soluble salts, but the types and sums vary appreciably. The consequence of the soluble salts on both flower and the more serious job of decomposition of bricks themselves are mostly governed by the strength and pores construction of the bricks.

2.3.5 Sulphate onslaught

Sulfates are salts which are of course present in industrial waste, gypsum merchandise, clay bricks, flue condensates and in some land Waterss. In persistently moist conditions, sulfate will respond easy with tricalcium aluminate organizing a compound called Ca sulphoaluminate. This reaction causes the cement howitzer or render of the brickwork to use and finally disintegrate.

2.3.6 Solar Radiation

While drying out of dirt by trees is the most common ground for checking in brickwork, some clay are besides really susceptible to drying out by direct solar radiation. The northern facing wall is the most likely to be affected and stepped diagonal snap is the most common symptom, normally happening at the north E and north west corner of the edifice. ( Loveder, 2000 )

2.3.7 Migration of wet

The motion of wet beneath a edifice can bring forth the phenomenon known as long term dome and disk consequence. The dome consequence is a slow heave of the dirt caused by motion of wet from the margin of the house to its Centre, and the disk consequence is moisture traveling in the opposite way, from the Centre towards the margin. The dome consequence causes the walls to lean outwards and the keeping influence of the roof produces horizontal clefts on the outside wall. These will be wider on the outside surface instead than the inner.

2.3.8 Planting of tree

Some of the brickwork defects may do by large trees roots that works nearby the edifice country. When be aftering to works trees, the thought to be sing is the strength of the termss under the house. If deficiency of strength, the roots of the trees possibly grow into the land under the edifice and do the brick wall colony and snap.

2.3.9 Uneven colony of foundations

Where a peculiar heavy burden is placed on the foundation such as a big column, motion may happen as wet is squeezed out of the dirt or the dirt readjusts itself. This consolidation will halt when the dirt has eventually compacted sufficiency to back up the burden. Brick wall or masonry wall may check which may ensue from motion during compression.

2.3.10 Excessive quiver

Damage caused by quiver from Earth shudders, heavy traffic or heap drive is reasonably rare, nevertheless if the quiver is great plenty to really do the foundation to travel, brickwork snap or defect can happen. The cleft will demo up irregularly if the beginnings of the quiver can non be removed. ( Loveder, 2000 )

2.3.11 Extra edifice

Constructing an add-on edifice onto a house or add more floor of houses can enforce a burden strength on the dirt different that which is there already and so cause differential colony. Even if the burden strengths are similar, the difference in clip between when the two colonies occurred can be plenty to make the brick wall clefts.

2.3.12 Approach of design

Design of brick wall is really of import. The interior decorator must hold the cognition about the brick experience in chosen the types of brick to be used. The interior decorator must be to the full cognizant of the client ‘s demands. Defects frequently occur because of a deficiency of apprehension of the different types of bricks and the method of concept the brick wall.

2.3.13 Lack experience of worker

Workers in the masonry building is non in rigorous conformity with the building and criterions, masonry howitzer is non full, particularly in perpendicular howitzer articulations are non full, and even produce heavy seam, seam permeableness. In add-on, the dry brick on the wall, howitzer in the brick H2O was absorbed, doing low strength of howitzer, brick and howitzer separation, so that the overall stiffness of masonry fell, grey howitzer articulations cleft.

2.3.14 Overloading

Cracks of brickwork may ensue from overloading of the land on which the edifice remainders, or of the edifice itself or parts of it. Let go ofing the burden does non necessary allow the masonry wall to return to its original province since the overloading may hold been partly accommodated by a lasting compression of the bricks. The forces responsible for the overloading may be of external beginning, such as inordinate air current, or may be internal, such as those originating from the installing of overly heavy equipment for which the masonry wall was non designed. A alteration of occupational may hold same consequences.

2.3.15 Lack of care

Care must be taken for all the edifice to minimise the cost of fix work for earnestly defects happen. Lack of care will do a little clefts or defects on brickwork alteration to more serious and serious.

2.3.16 Improper dirt analysis and readying

When a builder chooses an country of land to construct on, it is of import to make some kind of dirt analysis and readying. The analysis will supply the developer and/or builder with adequate information to take the equal dirt readying and building scheme that should be used to develop the land. Improper dirt analysis and readyings can be really detrimental to a lodging development. For illustration, a builder can detect that the land dirt is made up of expansive dirt. If this is the instance, houses need to hold a foundation that will be able to back up the changing force per unit area and consistence of the dirt. This is because expansive dirt will swell when moisture and so shrivel once it dries. If one physique on this type of dirt and is non cognizant of it, there will necessarily be issues to manage. There will be cleft in the brick wall or masonry wall. The fix of this is really dearly-won and really intrusive. Unfortunately, the world is improper dirt analysis and readyings happen all the clip.

2.3.17 Negligence of building

Negligent building is an unfortunately common happening. A builder has to be really careful when taking a contractor or subcontractor. A builder will sometimes utilize one contactor for assorted undertakings. A contractor may hold accomplishments to put in floor tiles but non the cognize how to construct a brick wall. The duty can fall on several parties when there is a defect, and that ‘s up to your lawyer to find.

2.3.18 Movement of the land

Mining remission, landslides, temblors, or wet alterations of shrinkable clay dirt may do the motion of the land. The brick wall of the edifice will be cleft because the wall of edifice has become displaced from the remainder without any alteration in existent size of the stuffs. In theory, this is possible to reconnect the displace parts to convey the edifice back to its original status but in pattern this seldom can be done.

2.3.19 Acid rain

Acid rain is precipitation that is much more acidic than normal rainfall, and the acid rain is normally caused by pollution such as S and nitrogen emanations. Several different mechanisms are operant in the impairment of brick masonry through the action of acid rain. The bricks are susceptible to acid rain through the selective disintegration of their glassy stage. The howitzer is affected chiefly by the reaction of the chalky constituents. The soluble salts ensuing from these reactions, in solution with rain H2O or condensed wet, will migrate through the porous matrix of the masonry. In the topographic points where the H2O evaporates the salts will be deposited. Repeated disintegration and re-crystallization of these salts leads to the mechanical break of the masonry construction. Since the salts will concentrate in the more porous stuff, either the brick or the howitzer will be more earnestly affected, depending on their comparative porousness.

2.3.20 Environment

Two facets of the environment have been well which is air current and temperature. This is because they cause lading to be applied to the construction. The strong air current may do the brick wall or the whole edifice move, this may do checking to the portion of the edifice. The high temperature applied to the brickwork may do spalling and brick prolong to high temperature can take to come up vitrification. ( Swoden, 1990 )

Table 1: Causes of the brickwork defect and the preventative method to avoid it go on


Causes of brickwork defects

Preventive method


Choice of bricks

Use the bricks that are strength and lastingness


Storage of bricks

Keep the bricks under dry topographic point


Soluble Salts in Bricks

Use the bricks that are less contain of soluble salts


Sulphate onslaught

Guaranting the wall does non acquire and remain in unduly wetted. Use cement depression in tricalcium aluminate


Solar radiation

Make certain trees works far off from the brick wall


Migration of wet

Use of moist cogent evidence class below the brick wall


Planting of tree

Make sure there have no large tree nearby the brick wall


Uneven colony of foundations

Make sure the foundation is strong plenty


Excessive quiver

Make sure the foundation is strong plenty


Extra edifice

Do non construct extra edifice of brick wall after a long period coating of brick wall


Approach of design

Designer must be experienced and knowing


Unskilled worker

Make sure the brick wall is built by skilled worker



Brick wall must be design harmonizing to edifice usage


Lack of care

Must me maintenance the brickwork yearly


Improper dirt analysis and readying

Check the dirt properly and do certain the design of brick wall is strong plenty


Negligence of building

Careful when take the contractor


Motion of the land

Make sure the foundation is strong plenty


Acid rain

Wash or clean the brickwork before it decay or surface intervention



Use the brick that are strength and lastingness

2.4 Remedies method of the brickwork defects in edifice

2.4.1 Introduction

As known early, brickwork is one of the largest parts of most of the edifice. The strength, stableness, and lastingness of brickwork are really of import. If deficiency of all those factor, the brick wall or masonry wall possibly fall down or prostration all of a sudden.

If the brickwork occurs any snap or defects, the right method of redresss must be taken instantly. This is to guarantee that the occupational or proprietor use the edifice under safety and healthy intents.

Brickwork will deteriorate and disintegrate if non decently maintained. Such impairment can be caused by a figure of factors and can take assorted signifiers. The chief marks that brickwork is enduring are surface growing and staining, flower, loosed brick going dislodged, cleft appears throw the bricks or howitzer and etc. So, the right redress must be taken to guarantee the brickwork do non disintegrate and deteriorate. ( Moses Jenkins, 2007 )

In this bomber chapter, the redresss method for assorted types of defects will be list out. This is to avoid the brickwork defect acquiring serious in edifice in building industry. The defects of brickwork must be fix instantly, if non the defects will be more serious. For illustration, checking can be due to enlargement or shrinkage the clay brickwork itself.

2.4.2 Redresss of flower

Flower can be minimized by puting dry bricks and by rushing up the drying procedure after the bricks have been laid by supplying good airing. The salts that cause flower are soluble in H2O. Hosing with H2O will do the salts to fade out and be re-absorbed into the brickwork, and so re-emerge when the brick wall dries out once more. Acid or alkalic interventions are non recommended as they increase the salt content of the wall. The best method is merely brush off the sedimentation with a stiff dry bristle coppice after the wall has dried out. Then sponge the surface with a moist man-made chammy or high suction sponge. Use really small H2O and rinse sponge often in fresh H2O.

2.4.3 Sand-Blasted BricksA

Which have been “ cleaned ” of old pigment, algae, or discolorations utilizing high force per unit area sand blasting or perchance even really high force per unit area H2O blasting can be for good damaged by loss of the harder surface of the bricks which had been provided by their original fire. Once the softer internal brick has been exposed, the bricks will be more inclined to absorb H2O and to endure H2O and hoar harm. Sandblasting brick is considered a hapless pattern in constructing redevelopment and care.

2.4.4 Redresss of sulfate onslaught

The effects of sulphate onslaught manifest themselves as enlargement of the jointing howitzer. On rendered walls the marks are horizontal snap of the rendering with parts falling off. Advanced phases of onslaught may do the construction insecure. When reconstructing is necessary, the bricks usage should be of low sulfate content and the howitzer should be of a mix of 1:1:6 sulphate-resistance Portland cement: hydrated calcium hydroxide: sand. In add-on, attention should be taken to except all conditions of moistness. On rendered walls, the rendition should be removed and the brickwork allowed to dry before reapplying a weaker mix of sulphate-resistance cement, calcium hydroxide and sand.

2.4.5 Tackling Decay

Where decay has occurred, take action to rectify the harm will be necessary before this leads to greater jobs. The usage of chemical interventions to stabilise brick should merely be considered with utmost cautiousness. Whilst the defects may be effectual ab initio, there has been deficient research carried out on the possible long term harm such interventions could hold. Chemical sealers can pin down wet within the brick merely every bit efficaciously as the claims to maintain H2O out.

2.4.6 Cleaning

Cleaning soiled brick edifices should be undertaken carefully. In the yesteryear, the usage of inappropriate cleansing techniques has resulted in considerable harm being done. If considered indispensable little graduated table trials should be employed to measure the effectivity and likely harm which could be caused before any big graduated table work is carried out. There are some ushers when making the cleansing works: –

Make non re-clean brickwork with the same chemicals unless recommended by the cleaning chemical maker.

If there is impairment, or suspected impairment, in the howitzer articulations, extra H2O and chemicals needed to take the cleansing job may animate the same job. Reach your cleaning chemical provider for re-cleaning solutions.

Always test the remedial cleansing process on a little, out of the manner part of the edifice.

( Brick Development Association, 1986 )

2.4.7 Surface interventions

Surface interventions are normally H2O repellants, graffiti barriers or consolidants. These should non be used on disintegrating brickwork. Causes of moistness should ever be ascertained. Surface interventions frequently produce a semi shininess, and besides can forestall the wall external respiration and should for this ground be avoided if possible.

2.4.8 Treatment of Bulges and Fractures

In common with other types of masonry, a careful diagnosing should foremost be carried out prior to the fix. Fractures are normally caused by local remission, failure of headers, or changes and add-ons to the original construction. Bulging may likewise be the consequence of changes in burdens and deficiency of bond between brick teguments or consecutive articulations at wall junctions. From this initial diagnosing a determination is so made to follow one of the undermentioned steps. ( Clews et al, 1997 ) Leave entirely

If the bing province has reached equilibrium and there is no job impacting stableness and H2O incursion. Sometimes more harm may be caused by cutting out or trying to grout than by making nil. ( Clews et al, 1997 ) Cut out and re-point

Where the bing province has reached equilibrium and the cause has passed but the breaks are vulnerable to H2O incursion and future structural failing. In this instance the break should be carefully cut out with hack saw blades, masonry proverbs and diamond wheels, flushed with H2O and pointed. If fracturing has extended through some of the bricks, these should be cut out and replaced. ( Clews et al, 1997 ) Stitch and Grout

The intent of sewing is to forestall farther motion taking topographic point which would endanger the stableness of the construction. Achieved with unstained steel ties, unstained steel bed joint support and reinforced concrete precast unit laid in subdivisions as backup to confronting brickwork. The method usage to depend on the construction and method of failure encountered, analysis and intervention recommended by the construction applied scientist. ( Clews et al, 1997 ) Taking down and reconstruct

This method may be the lone solution to walls that are pouching or tilting with serious supplanting around break. The reconstructing work should follow the original coursing, adhering and joint profile. It is a painstaking undertaking and is undertaken merely when preservation is necessary. ( Clew et al, 1997 )

2.4.9 Control of biological growings

Biological growings which should have attending include unsightly algal sludges on perpendicular surfaces and pavement, lichens doing impairment of brickwork. The recommended method for handling masonry covered with algae, lichens, mosses and little workss is as follows:

Remove as much of the growings as possible by manus or other AIDSs.

Fix a solution of quaternate ammonium-based biocide harmonizing to the maker ‘s specification, and make full a pneumatic garden type sprayer two-thirds full with the prepared solution.

Use a inundation coat, get downing from the top of the perpendicular surface to be treated and traveling across horizontally and easy. The following horizontal base on balls should be made across the old run-down.

Leave the treated country for at least one hebdomad. Brush off every bit much dead growing as possible, taking attention to avoid next troughs and hoppers.

Fix a solution of proprietary biocide based on a quaternate ammonium compound and integrating tributyl Sn oxide or other proved lasting biocide harmonizing to the maker ‘s specification.

Fill a 2nd pneumatic sprayer with the diluted biocide and use in the same mode as antecedently described.

Allow the surface to absorb and transport out a 2nd application of proprietary biocide as ( 5 ) above.

2.4.10 Treatment of structural harm

To handle brickwork badly damaged by causes such as fires or detonations, the undermentioned method are used:

Tie rods are fixed at the floor or roof degree to ground the suspect wall to another sound wall or structural member.

Buttresss are keyed into the suspect wall and carried to a stable base by underpinning to do certain that the buttresses really thrust against the wall in the right way.

Permanent fix involves the rebuilding of the damaged wall either partly or entirely.

2.4.11 Interpolation of wall ties

Interpolation of wall ties is preferred to transport out the work in dry walls. If both walls are wet, confidence should be sought from the rosin providers that the peculiar rosin class proposed will put decently in contact with wet.

2.4.12 Replacement of whole bricks

Limit the sum of break to the next sound brickwork. Replacement should fit the coloring material, texture and size of the original bricks. Second manus bricks may be located through renewal providers. Replacement confronting bricks must hold been exposed to enduring when antecedently used or could quickly neglect. Damaged, stained and antecedently painted bricks should be rejected. Change by reversaling bricks is non ever an option in the doing good procedure as the brick that has failed may be inherently hapless quality, for illustration: underfired and vulnerable to future harm. To go forth bricks to darken down with natural weathering is preferred. Make non stain brickwork to get the better of hapless brick matching by utilizing proprietary toners. Some disguise staining may take a piece to rinse off before uncovering the true mutual exclusiveness

2.4.13 Damp Proofing ( Undersetting )

Older edifices tend to hold a moist cogent evidence barrier ( sand/asphalt ) this can interrupt down over clip particularly where inordinate H2O impregnation occurs. Once the barrier is breached lifting moistness can ensue. In some instances where there is moistness in winter and waterlessness in summer, staining or spalling to the brickwork can happen. This is a serious job should be addressed every bit shortly as possible undersetting can rectify the job. This procedure involves the remotion of faulty bricks and a dpc rolled out. Completed in short phases a whole wall can be repaired without the demand to reconstruct wholly or inject Si.

2.4.14 Tuck-pointing

Tuck-pointing normally found in older edifices. Tuck-pointing is the arrangement of a white or black line on a colored fillet ( the fillet fills the howitzer articulation and hides any defects in the bricks ) . This gives the feeling the bricks are of unvarying size and have been laid to an accurate gage. Modern production of bricks has superceded this procedure and is seldom applied today. Replacement of the articulation is a clip honoured accomplishment. Incorrect commixture or application can ensue in early failure. Correctly done with traditional stuffs and the consequence are impressive.

2.4.15 Re-pointing howitzer

To avoid irreparable brick harm, the compressive strength of the re-pointing howitzer should be similar to or weaker than the compressive strength of the original howitzer. Under burden, a stronger re-pointing howitzer will deform less than a weaker original howitzer, doing the burden to be concentrated on the thin strip of stronger re-pointing howitzer. This stress concentration can take to spalling of the brick face. The brick masonry is loaded by its self-weight and any externally applied loads nowadays. In add-on, the brick masonry is subjected to internal tonss due to its thermic enlargements and contractions and the shrinking of the re-pointing howitzer.

2.4.16 Sealant replacing

Missing or deteriorated sealers in and between brickwork and other stuffs such as Windowss, door frames and enlargement articulations may be a beginning of wet incursion. The sealant articulations in these countries should be inspected closely to detect countries where the sealer is losing, or was installed but has deteriorated, torn or lost snap. Deteriorated sealers should be carefully cut out and the gap cleaned of all bing sealant stuff. The clean articulation should so be decently primed and filled with a angel rod ( bond ledgeman tape if the articulation is excessively little to suit a angel rod ) and a full bead of high-quality, elastic sealer compatible with next stuffs.

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The Properties And Uses Of Bricks Construction. (2016, Dec 10). Retrieved from

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