The Ulahingan is the epic of the Livuw (1) Agyu and his relatives are the characters in Ulahingan. A conflict develops between them and their rulers, usually Muslims, because of a forced tribute and the killing of the ruler. They flee, guided by a diwata or spirit, who promises them immortality after they have overcome various obstacles. They leave behind Mungan, the wife of Banlak who is Agyu’s brother, because she has leprosy. Mungan, however, is the first among them to become immortal.
It is she who tells Agyu and the clan to go to Aruman to await the sarimbar/salsimbar or magical flying boat that will take them to paradise. (2) When the appointed day comes, Agyu and his relatives ascend to heaven. A diwata showers them with the oil of immortality and gives them the betel nut of immortality to chew. He blesses them, but tells them that the Midlimbag, the Highest God, sends them to live in Nalandangan, an earthly paradise, and not in heaven.
That is their reward for enduring and having confidence in the Midlimbag. 3) However, Baybayan, Agyu’s son, does not join them in Nalandangan. Three incidents in the past explain his exclusion. He did partake of a boar which Agyu and his men had killed with the help of a meresen etew, a heavenly messenger. His withdrawal from the feast signaled that he would not join them on their trip to paradise. Consequently, he is tasked to go around the world seven times to gather converts before he can enter paradise. A similar incident happened in Kituyed, where Baybayan was absent in the distribution of a dead fish.
Agyu again decrees that Baybayan should circle the world and win converts before he can join them in heaven. Before Baybayan can start on his journey, however, Agyu’s grandfather tells him to dance the sa-ut, a circular war dance. Instead of circling three times as dictated by tradition, Baybayan circles seven times. The grandfather then declares that Baybayan must circle the world seven times. (4) In his wanderings, Baybayan encounters many adventures, converting many peoples, including Chinese and Muslims.
He and his followers would stop journeying every seven days. In one episode, his followers run out of food and drink. They stop by a tree laden with fruit. Baybayan performs the first ulahing, and the fruit falls from the tree and turns into linepet, leaf wrappings of rice. A bowl of viand appears beside each linepet. Baybayan and his followers feast on food, which do not run out. After more wanderings, they are finally lifted to heaven in the salimbar, where the highest katulusan, a divinity, makes them immortal.
Midlimbag gives them powers of a different nature than those he has given Agyu, and provides them with another paradise to stay in. He exhorts Baybayan to inspire mortals to perform the ulahing so that they may not forget Agyu. CARAGA ** WHERE: CARAGA is located in the northeastern portion of Mindanao. It has a land area of 1,913,842 hectares (has. ), of which 582,351 has. are alienable and disposable and 1,331,491 has. are forestland. It is composed of 2,095,367 population with five provinces – Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, and Dinagat Islands. ) Agusan del norte – Located in the northeastern part of Mindanao, it is bounded on the north by Butuan Bay and Surigao del Norte; east by Surigao del Sur; west by Misamis Oriental; and south and southwest by Agusan del Sur. Agusan del Norte occupies a total land area of 2,503. 9 sq. kilometers. Agusan del Norte is divided into 11 municipalities. The highly-urbanized city of Butuan, being geographically located in Agusan del Norte, is traditionally grouped with the province, although it is governed independently from it.
Cabadbaran City is the officially-designated capital of the province per Republic Act 8811, which has a total barangays of 31, area of 311. 02 km², population of 55,006 and population density of 177 per km². Agusan Del Norte is famous for its Lake Mainit. “On August 16, 2000. The seat of provincial government was transferred from Butuan City to Cabadbaran by virtue of Republic Act 8811, although the province is yet to complete the transfer of provincial services and functions to the new capital. As per RA 8811, Cabadbaran is the officially-designated capital of the province.
However, the provincial government still holds office in Butuan City, pending the actual transfer of provincial offices to the new capital. ” 2) Agusan del Sur – Agusan del Sur known also as “Land of Golden Opportunities” is one of the Philippine’s largest provinces – the 4th largest province in the country and the largest province in Caraga Region. Agusan Marsh is one of the highlights of Agusan del Sur. It is one of the most significant ecological wetlands and finest eco-tourism destinations in the Philippines. The Agusan Marsh is the largest in the Philippines found at the center of the Agusan Basin in Mindanao.
During summer season, numerous migratory birds came from Russia, China and Japan are coming to escape the chilly winter winds in northern hemisphere. Overall, there are 200 distinct species of migratory birds and wild animals species every year, making it a transient point for visiting species living from the other side of the globe. 3) Surigao del norte- Dubbed as the country’s surfing capital and one of the best game fishing areas in this side of the Pacific, Surigao del norte host the Annual International Surfing Cup and Annual International Game Fishing Tournament, both in Siargao Island.
Other than adventure sports, the province has also a diverse tourism destinations that has lured both domestic and foreign tourists to visit the place – vast mangrove forests, mystical caves and lagoons, waterfalls and vast stretches of white sand beaches, to name a few. 4) Surigao del sur – Surigao del Sur is one of the five province of Caraga Regionlocated at the eastern coast of Mindanao facing its coastlines in the Pacific Ocean. The province is elongated in structure from north to south.
It has more in length compare to its width in size approximately 300 kilometers in length and 50 kilometers at its widest stretch which makes a shape of wiggling snake moving to the south. Surigao del Sur is called Shangri-La by the Pacific because its long coastlines faces the Pacific Ocean where beautiful sunrise beginning to emerge against the charm of green mountains, rock and coral islands, white sand beaches, and the amazing waterfalls and rivers.
Of course the distance from the shorelines is the deep blue sea which is called the Philippine Trench or in some simplified as the Philippine Deep – the deepest in the world – next to Marianas Trench. 5) Dinagat Islands – Way back before, this island was a part of Surigao Del Norte’s first district. But during the year 2006, precisely on December 2 of that year, the island has become a province. This is because of the approval of the Republic Act No. 9355. But on the month of February in 2010, there is declaration from the Philippine Supreme Court that Dinagat Islands Province is null and void.
This is due to the inability of the place to come up with the population requirements as well as land area standards. Since then, the island returned as part of the Surigao Del Norte Province. But on the same year, specifically on March 30, 2011, there is reversion of the ruling of the Supreme Court and the place is successfully declared as a new legitimate province. ** WHO: The majority of the inhabitants of the region are of Visayan heritage. The province is home to several minority groups, totaling 675,722 in 1995, representing 34. % of the region’s population. Most numerous were the Manobos with 294,284 or 43. 55% of the total population of ethnic minorities. Manobos – Their origins can be traced back to the early Malay peoples who came from the surrounding islands of Southeast Asia. Today, their common cultural language and Malay heritage help to keep them connected. The most common lifestyle of the Manobo is one of rural agriculture. Unfortunately, their farming methods are very primitive. For example, the Bukidnon grow maize and rice as their principal crops.
Some of the farmers have incorporated plowing techniques, while others have continued to use the “slash-and-burn” method. The Cotabato use a farming system called kaingin. This is a procedure in which fields are allowed to remain fallow for certain periods of time so that areas of cultivation may be shifted from place to place. This is very inefficient since many plots of land are not being used at one time. Social life for the Manobo is patriarchal, or male-dominated. The head of the family is the husband.
Polygyny (having more than one wife at a time) is common, and is allowed according to a man’s wealth. However, among the Bukidnon, most marriages are monogamous. The only exception is that of the powerful datus, or headmen. The religious beliefs of the Manobo are revolved around the concept that there are many unseen spirits who interfere in the lives of humans. They believe that these spirits can intrude on human activities to accomplish their desires. The spirits are also believed to have human characteristics. They are both good and evil in nature and can be evoked to both anger and pleasure.
Other cultural groups in the region with significant population were the Kamayo, Higa-onon, Banwaon, Umayamnon, and Mamanwa. Most members of these cultural groups reside in the province of Agusan del Sur. ** HOW: read page 215 of the book ** WHY: why visit and get to know more about region 13? Show slide with pictures of famous tourist attraction. 1) Surfing Lying at the edge of the Philippine archipelago, Siargao (located in Surigao del norte) is reputed as the surfing capital of the Philippines, and hosts an annual international surfing event.
Its waves combine the best features of top-rated waves of Hawaii’s fabled “pipeline” and the top-billed waves of Indonesia. The huge and powerful “pacific rollers” have been ranked among the top five breaks in the world, including the “Cloud Nine” which is considered one of the world’s top surfing waves. Other excellent breaks, which offer the adventurous surfer top-class exploratory surfing without crowds, are found in the towns of Cantilan, Tandag and Lanuza. 2) Mountain-biking Great trails run all around the Cities of Butuan and Surigao, Surigao del sur, Agusan del Norte and Siargao.
There are regular cross-country and downhill competitions done in these areas which are participated by local and international bikers. Caraga has an active and hospitable biking scene. Butuan or Surigao-based bikers regularly tour the rugged terrain of the region and are eager to show their routes to newcomers. 3) Trekking or mountain climbing Mt. Mas-ai and Mt. Hilong-Hilong are the best sites for trekking or mountain climbing. The views from the mountains are superb, taking in the full scope of the vast lower Agusan Valley.
Close to Mt. Mas-ai lies the picturesque Lake Mainit, which is considered the fourth-largest lake in the country, with a total land area of 147 km². Through the years, the lake has been a known lair for pidjanga, tilapia, kasili, banak, haw-an, gingaw, saguyon and igi. Migratory birds, pagosi and tabokali flowers are its intermittent added attractions. From the coastal areas of Lake Mainit to the hills of Jabonga, Tubay, and Santiago, hikers are offered the opportunity to explore the quiet and interesting life of these places.
There are a few established treks in the region, but everywhere else you will be hiking in areas virtually untouched by tourism. 4) Scuba diving Scuba diving is a new sport in the region, the coasts of Surigao offer interesting dive site while the islands of Sagisi and Corregidor are excellent for snorkelling activities. Scuba diving with Surigao Dive Club and Mabua dive center in Surigao City offers diving lessons, equipment rental and dive safaris. The Blue Cathedral in Siargao is worth exploring. 5) Spelunking – exploring caves as a hobby
The limestone karst bedrock of some areas in Surigao and Agusan provinces (particularly in the towns of San Agustin, Tagbina, Lianga, Rosario, and Bislig) features dozens of caves, but none of these are regular destinations for recreational cavers. Located within the towns of Tagbina and Bislig, Banbow and Tatol caves (which are ranked the 6th and 9th longest caves in the Philippines) have recently been declared by the Japanese cave explorers as the third longest cave in the country. Further expeditions are expected as more cave systems are discovered.
Some of the most frequently visited and accessible caves in the region are Buenavista and Silop Caves in Surigao City and Libas Cave in Jabonga-Agusan del Norte. These caves have impressive limestone formations and naturally carved stalagmites, stalactites and columns. 6) Bird-watching The Agusan Marsh in Agusan del Sur is the biggest marsh in the country and is host to diverse species of birds. *marsh- An area of soft, wet, low-lying land, characterized by grassy vegetation and often forming a transition zone between water and land. WHAT – literature… (to be reported by angel)
Cite this The Ulahingan is the epic of the Livuw
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