Behavioral Perspective the approach that suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment 3. Cognitive the approach that focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world 4 Humanistic Perspective theory that contends that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior 5. Contextual Perspective the theory that considers relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds 6.
Evolutionary Perspective hat seeks to identify behavior that is a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors Psychodrama Perspective Fraud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: Term Definition Example I _ Psychoanalytic Theory the belief that Linocut’s forces act to determine personality and behavior.
Not Applicable 2. Unconscious part of the personality about which a person is unaware” containing “infantile wishes, desires, demands, and needs that, because of their disturbing nature, are hidden from conscious awareness”. Not Applicable 3. D raw, unrealized, inborn part Of personality that is present at birth I Sally was thirsty.
Rather than waiting for the server to refill her glass of water, she reached across the table and drank from Mr.. Smith’s water glass, much to his surprise. 2. A hungry baby cried until he was fed. 3. A toddler Who wanted another helping Of dessert Whined incessantly until she was given another serving. 4. Primitive Drives Not Applicable hunger, sex, aggression, ; irrational impulses. 5. Pleasure Principle maximized satisfaction and reduced tension. Not Applicable 6.
Ego the part of the personality that is rational and reasonable 1 . Sally was thirsty. However, she knew that her server would be back soon to refill her water glass, o she waited until then to get a drink, even though she really just wanted to drink from Mr.. Smith’s glass. 2. Even though Michael needed money, he decided not to steal the money from the cash register because he didn’t want to get in trouble. 7. Buffer between the Outside World and Primitive old. Not Applicable 8. Reality Principle the restraint of instinctual energy to maintain individual’s safety and to integrate individual into society.
Not Applicable 9. Superego a person’s conscience, incorporating distinctions between right and wrong Sarah knew that she could steal the supplies from work and no one would now about it. However, she knew that stealing was wrong so she decided not to take anything even though she would probably never get caught, Fraud’s Psychosocial Theory: Theory or Stage of Theory Definition or Description Ages Examples I Psychosocial Theory a series of stages that children pass through in which pleasure, or gratification, focuses on a particular biological function or body part Not Applicable Not Applicable 2.
Oral A child’s primary source of pleasure through the mouth Birth to 1 Year Eating, sucking, and tasting 3. Anal Children gain a sense of mastery and competence by controlling bladder and Lowell movements. I to 3 years Toilet training and using panties 4. Phallic The libido’s energy is focused on the genitals. Children begin to identify with their same-sex parent 3 to 6 years Not Applicable 5. Latent The libidos energy is suppressed, and children are focused on other activities such as school, friends, and hobbies. To 1 1 years Not Applicable 6. Genital Children begin to explore romantic relationships. Adolescence Young adulthood to late adulthood Fraud’s Psychosocial Theory: Stage Pleasure Sources Conflicts 1. Oral Mouth Sucking, Biting, : Swallowing Weaning from Bottle or Breast Feeding 2. Anal Anus Defecating or Retaining Feces Toilet Training) 3. Phallic Genitals/Oedipus boys or Electra-?girls 4 _ Latent Suppression of Sexual Feelings Through Friendships Same-Sex Relationships 5.
Genital Once Suppressed Sexual Needs Emerge Due to Sexual Gratification Needs Needs/Socio Rules Erosion’s Psychosocial Development: Term Definition or Description Ages Positive and Negative I _ Psychosocial Development the approach that encompasses changes in our interactions with and understandings Of one another, as well as in our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society Not Applicable Not Applicable 2. Trust vs.. Mistrust Children learn either to trust or mistrust their caregivers. Birth to 1 Year Positive – Feelings of trust from environment support Negative – Fear and concerns regarding others 3.
Autonomy vs.. Shame/Doubt Children develop self-sufficiency by controlling activities such as eating, toilet training, and talking. 1 to 3 years Positive-Self sufficiency Negative-doubts about self, lack of independence 4. Initiative vs.. Guilt Children begin to take more control over their environment, 3 to 6 years Positive – Discovery of ways to initiate actions Negative – Guilt from actions and thoughts S. Industry vs.. Inferiority Children develop a sense of competence by mastering new skills. 7 to 11 Positive – Development of sense of competence Negative -? Peelings of inferiority, no sense of mastery 6.
Identity vs.. Role Confusion Children develop a personal identify and a sense of self. Adolescence Positive – Awareness of uniqueness of self, knowledge Of role to be followed Negative – Inability to identify appropriate roles in life 7. Intimacy vs.. Isolation Young adults seek out romantic relationships and companionship. (Early) Young adulthood Positive – Development of loving, sexual relationships and close reindeer’s Negative – gear Of relationships With Others 8. Generatively vs.. Stagnation Middle-aged adults nurture others and contribute to society.
Middle Adulthood Positive- Sense of contribution to continuity of life Negative – Transplantation of one’s activities 9. Ego-Integrity/ Integrity vs.. Despair Older adults reflect on their lives, looking back with a sense of fulfillment or bitterness, Late Adulthood Positive – Sense of unity in life’s accomplishment Negative – Regret over lost opportunities of life Erosion’s Psychosocial Development: Stage Virtue Significant Relationship Existential Question Examples 1. Trust vs.. Hope Mother Can I trust the world? Feeding, abandonment. Autonomy vs.. Shame/Doubt Will parents Is It Okay To Be Me?
Toilet Training, Clothing themselves 3. Initiative vs.. Guilt Purpose Family Is it okay for me to do, move and act Using tools or making art 4. Industry vs.. Inferiority Competence Neighbors, school Can make it in the world of people and things? School, sports 5. Identity vs.. Role Confusion Fidelity Peers, role model Who am I? What can be? Social Relationships 6. Intimacy vs.. Isolation Love grinds, Partners Can love? Romantic Relationships 7. Generatively vs.. Stagnation Care Household, Workmates Can make my life count Work, parenthood 8. Ego- Integrity/ Integrity vs..
Despair Wisdom Mankind, my kind Is it okay to have been me? Reflection on Life Behavioral Perspective Behavioral Perspective Components: 1. No Series of Stages 2. Exposure to Environmental Stimuli 3. Developmental Patterns (Reflection of Set of Environmental Stimuli) 4. Behavior (Result of Continued Exposure to Set of Environmental Stimuli) 5. Problem- Solving Capabilities (Greater Mental Capacities Over Kind of Thinking) Watson: Filibusterer Definition Example 1. Belief 1 Gain a full understanding of development by carefully studying the stimuli that composed the environment Not Applicable 2.
Belief 2 By effectively controlling a person’s environment, it was possible to produce virtually any behavior Not Applicable 3. Classical Conditioning a type of learning in Vichy an organism responds in a particular viva to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response Individual receives injections of drugs, which are administered in a small examination room at a clinic. The drug itself causes increased heart rate but after several trips to the Lenin, simply being in a small room causes an increased HRS Skinner: Terms Definition Example I.
Operant Conditioning a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences 1 -A lion in a circus learns to stand up on a chair and jump through a hoop to receive a food treat. 2. Your car has a red, flashing light that blinks annoyingly if you start the car without buckling the seat belt. You become less likely to start the car without buckling the seat belt. 2. Reinforcement the process by which a stimulus is provided that increases the probability that a receding behavior will be repeated. Not Applicable 3.
Behavior Modification a formal technique for promoting the truculence of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones. Not Applicable Bandanna’s Social Cognitive Learning Theory: Theory/Step Definition/Explanation 1 Social Cognitive Learning Theory learning by observing the behavior of another person (a model). 2 Step I Close Attention by Observer: Perception of Most Critical Features of Model’s Behavior 3 Step 2 Successful Recall of Observed Behavior 4 Step 3 Accurate Reproduction of Observed Behavior by Observer Step 4 Motivation by Observer to Learn and to Carry Out Observed Behavior.
Cognitive Pigged: Terms Definitions 1. Schemas organized mental patterns that represent behaviors and actions 2 Equilibrium is the use of a force that eases children from one stage of development to another 3. Assimilation process in which people use an existing schema to make sense of or to give meaning to a new object or situation. 4. Accommodation process in which people Cannot use an existing schema to make sense of a new object or situation, so they use a new schema. Piglets Stages of Cognitive Development: Stages Ages Details of Stage I.
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