The chief intent of this chapter is to show all the theories related to the employee motive. Such theories and constructs have contributed in the development of this construct. This chapter proceeds with focal point on the theories of motive and the chief grounds that may alter the degree of motive. The purpose is to analyze that how organisations can hold consistence in the organisational public presentation by holding extremely motivated work force. An equal apprehension of motive and its background is required to analyze the chief focal point of the survey.
Motivation is defined as a map of an person ‘s personality and environment and it is argued in some quarters that divergencies in an person ‘s character might be Momentous in the work motive of that person ( Chiu, 1999 ) .To understand the construct of motive it can be said, that it ‘s the province of holding encouragement in any individual, to make any undertaking.
All the surveies done in the yesteryear deduced that there is a small relationship between the satisfaction of employee and their productiveness ( Walker 1980 ) , because some good performing artists are non satisfied and some bad performing artists are to the full satisfied.
There has been a small relation between them, non a direct 1. There are legion variables that may impact them both. Cut the narrative short, that motive is the nexus between these both, occupation satisfaction & A ; occupation public presentation.” Employee motive ” is the term used for the degree of motive in the workers or employee at work topographic point. It is related to the all the demands and wants of the employee working in an organisational environment, that need to be fulfilled to be satisfied at occupation. These demands may be societal, psychological or any other demand. Job satisfaction may take to the province of motive for work.
Historical development of the construct of employee motive:
1938 – A behaviourist theory of human motive ” was published by Harvard psychologist named as BF, in 1938. His work has remained and I appreciated till now.
1943 – Abraham Maslow ( 1908-1970 ) another psychologist published an article named as Motivation and Personality in 1943. It was related to psychological science and was related to the work topographic point motive. He besides proposed that motive can be characterized as a hierarchy of demands. His work was a treasure rock to the whole development.
Elton Mayo ( 1945 ) was besides a research worker who was good known for his work related to the human dealingss. Through experiments he proved that productiveness can be increased by actuating the worker. Focus was on motive through cooperation with them. ( O’Brien )
1959 – Frederick Herzberg gave 2 good known theories “ 2 factor theories & A ; Motivation Theory ”
1963 – Another theory named as Adams ‘ Equity Theory, who was a workplace & A ; behavioural psychologist. And he presented the construct occupation motive theory really much a similar theories by Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs.The Adams ‘ Equity Theory is named for John Stacey Adams, a workplace and behavioural psychologist, who developed this occupation motive theory in 1963. Much like many of the more prevailing theories of motive ( theories by Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg ‘s Theory, etc. ) , the Adams ‘ Equity Theory acknowledges that subtle and variable factors affect an employee ‘s appraisal and perceptual experience of their relationship with their work and their employer.
Cofer and Appley ( 1968 ) provided an interesting history of the early historical development of the employee motive construct
1974 – Then the bookman named as Atkinson presented the achievement motive theory in 1974.that was besides a part.
Till now the construct of motive is to the full developed and unlike the past, conservative thought, motive is said to be more than merely money. It ‘s approximately good relationships, feeling of accomplishment, other benefits sense of security and ego esteem etc
The chief intent of the theories of motive is to explicate people ‘s behaviour. Such theories given in the past provide apprehension to the new research workers and to the H R directors and employees besides. They get the apprehension that how others can actuate their subsidiaries or workers and how the employees can prosecute themselves in their ain motive attempts. ( Drafke & A ; Kossen, 2002:273 ) .
For decennaries, The Subjects Of Employee Motivation, Job Satisfaction, Productivity Etc Are Widely Studied by the industrial organisational psychologists. And the issue of actuating employee and maintaining them motivated has caused a batch of confusion that what it precisely that human psyche demands is. Everywhere individual ‘s the penchants are different. The Comparison of four motive studies conducted in the yesteryear in the old ages 1946, 1980, 1986 & A ; 1992 revealed that employees ‘ motivational penchants vary clip to clip. ( Wiley 1997 ) Thus all these constructs are extremely complicated to understand and to acquire one exact answer out of it.
All the good work done by the research workers from their probe, has concluded that money is non the lone thing that motivates the employee & A ; employees ‘ behaviour is connected with their internal satisfaction and the attitudes. ( dickson1998:1 )
Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs:
Need is something that can fulfill the individual by its fulfilment, and homo is ever carving to carry through his demands, and as we know that the construct of motive starts from the demand, so we will travel through the demand theory. This will explicate the motive. Maslow has proposed a fantastic construct of demand and its relation with motive. ( Buhler, 2003:20 ) theory is all about the hierarchy of demands, consisted of 5 degrees that are presented in pyramid signifier, as shown in the figure.
He proposed that that first the lower demand must be fulfilled foremost so phase by phase the other demands. And the workers are more likely to be motivated when their higher degree demand is satisfied. Maslow has categorized the demands into five classs of demands: physiological, safety, love, respect, and realization. This theory can be a aid for the directors in happening out what sort of the wagess and benefits could be used to actuate his employees.This theory besides indicates that the power of the net incomes or money is limited as compared to other factors. ( Drummond, 2000:63 ) .
- Physiological needs – basic demands such as nutrient shelter, H2O, apparels etc
- Safety – demand for a safe physical environment and personal safety ( e.g. topographic point to populate, a safer workplace )
- Social – demand for friendly relationship and relationship.as homo is a societal animate being
- Esteem – demand to hold self-respect and to acquire regard from others
- Self-actualization – demand for self-development, to carry through personal purposes and life ends.
Herzberg ‘s Two-Factor Theory:
Herzberg gave this theory of motive in the twelvemonth 1945, and he concluded different attitudes of workers towards their occupations, from his work. ( Gouws, 1995 ) . The chief construct which was the Centre of the attending in his theory was the occupation satisfaction, but the construct of motive was more attracted.
Motivation originated from the occupation itself and non from any external features, this was the premise he made in this theory. It is consisted of 2 factors that influence the motive of the employees. The factors that lead to occupation satisfaction ( incentives ) are different from the factors that lead to dissatisfaction ( hygiene/maintenance factors ) ( Herzberg, 1966 ) .
The chief construct of the theory is that, there is no intermediate province, motive is present or it ‘s non. He said that the antonym for satisfaction is non dissatisfaction.
Herzberg ‘s Two-Factor Theory
The hygiene factors can alter employee ‘s province from dissatisfaction, to no dissatisfaction. These factors do non take to occupation satisfaction but the employee on the same clip make non gets dissatisfaction. Incentives on the other side positively impact the employees and heighten the productiveness. The actuating factors can alter employee ‘s province from a extremely motivated to a extremely unmotivated province. ( Roos 2009 )
McGregor ‘s Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor ‘s Theory X and Theory Y in the twelvemonth 1960 represented an add-on to his thoughts on the construct of motive that how the employee are directed and in their workplace.
Harmonizing to his Theory X, which is coherent to the traditional attack towards motive which people are lazy on work, and seek to acquire rid of it and avoid it every bit much as possible. And for this director must hale employees and must be controlled through penalizing steps to execute good. As we all know that an mean individual is believed to be missing aspiration and gets lazy at work, and seek to avoid duty, and still struggles to acquire pecuniary benefits and compensations. They are egoistic, and non at all mindful of organisational ends. ( Roos 2009).
Theory Y, in differentiation, explains the broader and modern attack to motive. It describes that the most people are seen as responsible and acute towards their work. And in add-on there are originative & A ; are good in job resolution. McGregor regarded Theory Y as a more accurate and realistic portraiture of human behaviour ( Roos 2009 ) .this theory describes the combination of single individual and organizatioonal ends & A ; aims. McGregor did, nevertheless, acknowledge that the theory does non offer a complete account for motive among employees ( McGregor, 1960 ) .
McClelland ‘s erudite demands theory
McClelland ‘s theory is based on the construct thet people who are focus on accomplishments normally portion 3 major demands which are non natural or built in but is get merely through the procedure of larning & A ; and traveling through experiences ( McClelland, 1987 ) . Our demands are changed and shaped harmonizing to our experiences in lives. Normally they all autumn in three chief classs given by McClelland. He besides gave them peculiar codifications for individuality.
- The Need For Power ( nPow ) the demand for power and authorization to command and command others, act upon their behaviour and be responsible for them ;
- The Need For Affiliation ( nAff ) , the demand for keeping societal dealingss with others
- The Need for Achievement ( nAch ) , need to be successful and to turn prosper. E.g. the publicities of employees. ( Roos 2009 )
Drumhead Motivation theories:
The theories related to the construct of motive were explained supra ; to clear up the relationships of motive with the success of the org. and each theory covered the old and modern attacks and chances of the construct of motive. Theories of demands have direct relationship with the occupation satisfaction and employee motive. And they present one common construct that people are motivated by extremely personal demands and wants that are non natural, but are developed through acquisition and experiences ( Van Niekerk, 1987 ) .
Achievement-orientated individuals are, f0r exp, driven by really stronger demands for authorization, societal dealingss and success than most of the others ( Schultz & A ; Schultz, 1998 ) . By practically implementing the research workers ‘ findings in these, into their direction, the organisations can hold great aid. In this manner they can hold extremely productive & A ; motivated work force. This will finally guarantee their success.
Beginnings of motive & A ; motivational factors ( INIDCATORS )
The beginning of motive is from the interior of the individuals. It ‘s is self motive or ego generated motive. The fact is people are ever motivated but the thing is that there is a difference in the strength of motive, it varies from clip to clip ( state of affairs to state of affairs ) motive is about what the single desire to hold, about emotional province which drives him in the way of accomplishing what he wants ( Freemantle, 2005:56 ) .
A director can non develop or make the intrinsic motive but on the other manus they can merely excite the extrinsic motive. In fact the research workers have acknowledged and proven from their researches that motive that comes from the interior does hold longer consequence on the individual. And is observed that are the true “ incentives ” for the employees. ( Lai, Calista )
There are many indexs of motive, that can increase or diminish employee motive. Every bookman has given different figure of factors they can be classified an extrinsic and intrinsic factors The factors that are included in the research and are the chief focal point of survey are the undermentioned:
- Interpersonal relationship
- Workplace environment
- Career development
- Benefits & A ; compensations:
- Autonomy Empower
The chief focal point will be around these factors that how they are prioritized by different persons. Some individuals have money heads and their chief desire is to hold more and more pecuniary benefits and additions, but some are societal animate beings who merely need good environment around them. And one more sort exists who need to be stimulated to work by regular benefits and wagess ; they need regular supports to be motivated. Some needs power and authorization to be satisfied. It all depends that what that single demands. These were merely some facets of the human nature. Every research worker has ranked these factors otherwise and the chief intent of the research is to happen out that what the ranking on the base of importance among the employees. One of the most common ranking of 10 indexs of motive is shown below.
Reasons behind ‘Lack of Motivation of Employees ‘ in the Today World:
Now a twenty-four hours the direction of all the organisations ca n’t happen a ways out of the job of deficiency of motive among their employees. They ever complain about this job, but the fact is that director and their tactics and patterns are the job, non the workers for them. There are many grounds for the deficiency of motive. Such as ill-defined and good defined ends & A ; aims, weak system of public presentation assessment, wagess system that is non satisfactory, no attractive inducements and benefits on day-to-day footing, inability of the supervisor to pass on decently, and conservative and unfavourable organisational environment. ( Robbins, 2003:36 ) . When there is a difference in the employee ‘s attempts and the org ‘s wagess they get, motive degrees is decreased.
And there is besides a relation of employee ‘s attempt and public presentation that may do deficiency of motive. The directors should maintain this in consideration, that when they perform they must acquire their deserved wagess and their work must be recognized. And 3rd relationship that can do deficiency of motive, is bw the wagess they receive and the wagess they deserve from their difficult work. This must be known to the foremans that what his employees get and deserve. ( Robbins, 2003: 37 & A ; 38 ) . When these 3 relationships are kept good, the employees will stay motivated.
Employee ‘s motive must be for longer clip and can be reinforced by the troughs through praising their work and honoring them as they deserve. For high public presentation and productiveness the directors must make an environment where the employees can develop themselves, they can be committed towards their occupation and where they have positive attitudes. When they employees have a belief that they valued by the organisation and are important, so they will hold a sense of satisfaction that will actuate them.
From the debut and literature reappraisal we have constructed rather valid constructs now. It is already known that the indexs of motive are the factors that can impact the motive among the employee but the chief purpose is to happen out ranking of these indexs harmonizing to the importance to the employees working in the telecom sector in Lahore. This chapter will concentrate on the methodological analysis that was used for carry oning the research to acquire coveted consequences. This was done through the description of the followers: method used for trying, basic information about the selected respondents, informations aggregation instrument ( s ) ( e.g. ( MQ ) questionnaire ) and the statistical techniques which were used to analyse the information.
For the sampling, non-probability type of sampling is used, for the research, known as convenience sampling. This considered because it ‘s easy to manage and is less dearly-won as other methods. It was easy to hold respondents available, without any battle traveling into statistical complexness
Neuman ( 2000 ) defines a research population as the specific pool of instances, persons or group ( s ) of persons which the research worker wishes to look into ( Neuman ) . The selected population of this research consists of all employees working in the telecom sector of Lahore, Pakistan.
A sample is defined as “A subset of the population. It comprises some members selected from the population ” ( Sekaran, 2000 ) . Sample out of the population, taken were of 50 ( N=50 ) from different telecom companies, such as PTCL, UFONE, WARID etc, for informations aggregation.
When the persons, who are most easy accessible and accessible for the intent of the informations aggregation, this refers to trying type known as convenience ( Neuman, 2001 ) . Convenience sampling is an of import tool in the explorative research work. The selected population size was excessively big, so merely 50 employees were taken as sample.60 questionnaires were distributed in the organisations chosen and 50 were selected from them to treat them farther.
Questionnaire is still an appropriate informations piecing instrument, to accomplish the purpose of the survey. there are many advantages of utilizing this instrument for informations aggregation. ( Denzin & A ; Lincoln )
- Relatively less dearly-won
- Near ended inquiries and statements make the questionnaires more straightforward.
- To the respondents Questionnaires give drawn-out clip to set together exact end product.
- This is easy to acquire speedy consequences.
- This have high response rate as comparison to other instruments.
- Questionnaires are a stable, consistent and unvarying method of roll uping informations. ( Denzin & A ; Lincoln )
- Blessing from the caput of the section was taken before the distribution of ( MQ ) . Then after that it was personally given to be filled by the 60 respondents, and was collected by them. It took 3 to 4 yearss sing the organisations for the interest of the ( MQ ) .
MOTIVATION QUESTIONNAIRE ( MQ )
This questionnaire includes seven factors to be analyzed.7 indexs were distributed into 3, 3 inquiry each, doing entire 21 inquiries or positively declared statements.
The dimensions of survey or the indexs of motive MQ included
- Interpersonal relationship Tells that how the relationship with the equals and the directors affect the degree of motive.
- Workplace environment: this dimension is used to demo that the workplace environment has a great impact on the employee motive.
- Career development is surveyed through the questionnaire, that the promotional chances for the employees motivate them.
- Recognition this dimension is to research whether the acknowledgment is the of import factor to increase the motive.
- Benefits & A ; compensations: it shows that whether the benefits and inducements can be the of import factor to actuate the employee to the highest.
- Money/salary: through this dimension it will be examined that whether the employees are satisfied with their wages or non.
- Autonomy Authorization: through this dimension it will be examined that whether the grade of power or authorization has an consequence on the employee ‘s motive
- Near complete statements are used with a Likert graduated table to mensurate the variables.
Likert graduated table is a most effectual evaluation graduated table. They provide infinite for the respondents to give position more positively and negatively. This Likert graduated table consisted of 5 points. In this manner the respondents can state that how strongly they disagree and agree any inquiry related to the indexs of motive.
Dependability refers to the consistence of consequences of a measurement tool, where as cogency refers to whether the instrument has addressed what it was expected to turn to ( Somekh & A ; Lewin, 2005 ) .
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