Translating goes good beyond the mere unequivocal transition of footings between two linguistic communications. A translator’s art is to permute intending from one civilization to another. with a adept pick of lingual tools. A translator’s aptitude is strictly measured on the footing of cognition of the capable affair. ability to place with the contents. truth and attachment to the beginning text. Translation memories. glossaries and manner ushers are indispensable work tools and are tailored for each client.
Trans-Edit Group has formalized and certified the interlingual rendition procedure with the authorization of its ISO 9001:2008 enfranchisement.
forming it into the undermentioned consecutive stairss: Pre-translation layout. interlingual rendition by mother-tongue linguistic communication experts. specializer redacting. proofreading. post-translation layout and concluding quality control. Depending on the type of text. farther services include post-editing and stylistic revising. scientific reappraisal. localisation. typesetting. printing or supply of multimedia supports.
Translation as a merchandise is a written text in a mark linguistic communication as the terminal consequence of a interlingual rendition procedure for a source-language text.
The transcriber is chiefly a “message conveyer. ” Therefore a interlingual rendition may be understood as the procedure whereby a message which is expressed in a peculiar beginning linguistic communication is linguistically transformed in order to be understood by readers of the mark linguistic communication. Actually. the transcriber is conveying the significance expressed by the original author so the terminal reader gets a translated text that is faithful to the beginning text in significance.
Sometimes the transcriber finds it necessary to reconsider the original diction for better apprehension of the beginning text in order to render it in the mark linguistic communication. When covering with a interlingual rendition. one of the procedures included in the work is the analysis of the ST. This analysis. called TOSTA ( Translation Oriented Source Text Analysis ) . helps us detect the map of the text. the mark readers ( with different degrees of cognition and different ages ) . every bit good as “ST elements that need to be preserved or adapted in translation” ( Nord 1991: 21 ) . The interlingual rendition procedure is of twofold:
1. The transcriber needs to observe possible alterations and defects in the original text and understand the significance they intend to convey. To make this. the transcriber frequently needs to be familiar with the contents of the text in order to clear up the ambiguities he has come across. 2. The transcriber will undo the syntactic construction of the original text and so explicate the corresponding message in the mark linguistic communication. therefore giving the original text added value in footings of both diction and impact. Phases of Translation: The First Phase: Analysis of the beginning text.
The Second Phase: Transportation of the text into the mark linguistic communication. The Third Phase: Revision of interlingual rendition. Analysis of the beginning text: The end of this phase is complete apprehension of the SL text. This may include a figure of stairss: 1. General Reading of the beginning text. 2. Underscoring the hard words. 3. Looking up the hard words in a dictionary. 4. Close reading of the beginning text after understanding the hard words. Transportation of the text into the mark linguistic communication: At this phase. the transcriber tries to compose a bill of exchange interlingual rendition following certain stairss:
1. Writing a bill of exchange interlingual rendition of the text in the mark linguistic communication. 2. Paying particular attending to the grammar and spelling of the mark text. 3. Including all the inside informations mentioned in the beginning text. 4. Trying to do the mark text as original as possible and sound natural non translated. Revision of the interlingual rendition: This phase aims at giving a correct and concluding interlingual rendition as a mark text. Rewriting of the interlingual rendition when it is completed and seeking to do it better by redacting it: 1. Make certain that all the inside informations of the beginning text are found in the mark text.
2. Check the spelling and grammar of the mark text. 3. Try to do the translated version sounds natural in its mark linguistic communication signifier. 4. Read the interlingual rendition after completing the corrections without mentioning to the beginning text to stress the naturalness of the mark text. Levels of the Process of Translation In fact. Newmark asserts that the procedure of interlingual rendition operates in four degrees: beginning text degree: the beginning text itself and its immediate feeling on the transcriber. referential degree: the degree of content of the text ( technically the degree of the conceptual representation ) .
Cohesive degree: the degree where you aim at doing a cohesive mark text ( and analyze the coherence of the beginning text ) . degree of naturalness: the degree of building a natural mark text in an appropriate linguistic communication. 1. The textual degree: At this degree. you translate. or transpose. the syntactic constructions of the beginning text into matching constructions in the mark text. Often you will happen that. for a assortment of grounds. you will hold to alter these constructions into something rather different farther down the line to accomplish mark linguistic communication naturalness.
2. The referential degree: As mentioned above. this is the degree of content. so here you operate chiefly with the message ( or information ) or semantics of the text. This is where you decode the significance of the beginning text and construct the conceptual representation. This is where you disambiguate polysemantic words and phrases and where you decode parlances and nonliteral looks. This is where you figure out whether what the saying ( s ) and illocution ( s ) of the beginning text are and what the perlocution might be.
Once you have decoded the word or look in inquiry. you encode it into an appropriate mark linguistic communication look. Note that there will be instances. like parlances and metaphors. in which you will hold to utilize actual looks in the mark linguistic communication. because it does non hold any corresponding parlances or metaphors. The referential degree and the textual degree are. of class. closely intertwined. as the nature and texture of the beginning text convey the message. and. of class. you besides encode the message. utilizing linguistic communication. into the mark text. 3. The cohesive degree:
The cohesive degree links the textual and the referential degrees in that it deals with the structure/format of the text and information every bit good as with what Newmark calls the temper of the text. At the structural sublevel. you investigate how assorted connections. such as concurrences. numberings. repeats or reduplications. definite articles and clinchers. general class labels. equivalent word. punctuation Markss. simple or complex conjuncts. nexus sentences and construction the text and what Newmark calls its train of idea – which is fundamentally its implicit in information construction.
You set up its tone by happening alleged value-laden and value-free transitions. such as subjective and nonsubjective spots. euphemisms. and other framing devices. bordering being the scheme of linguistically showing something in the position of one’s ain values and worldview. in a manner advancing these. All of this will hold to be someway transferred into the mark text so you achieve maximum equality at this degree. 4. The degree of naturalness:
This degree is target text oriented. concentrating entirely on the building of the mark text. Random. unpredictable things that merely seem unnatural in the mark linguistic communication makes things more complicated as naturalness frequently depends on the state of affairs. such that something might look natural in one context but unnatural in another. Possibly. the lone manner. to guarantee naturalness is to read through your interlingual rendition and topographic point unnaturally sounding parts and alter them into something that sounds more natural.
This is something that most people skip when they do interlingual renditions. Mentions: Kim Ebensgaard Jensen. Basicss of Translation. The procedure of translating– spring 09. Newmark. Peter. 1988. A text edition of interlingual rendition. Prentice-Hall International ( New York ) . Nord. C. ( 1991 ) . Text analysis in interlingual rendition: Theory. methodological analysis and didactic application of a theoretical account for translation-oriented text analysis.
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