Violence And Media Research Paper Television Essay
Violence And Media Essay, Research Paper
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Television programming today can be a powerful influence in developing value systems and determining behaviour ( Bee, 1998: 261-262 ) . Unfortunately, much of today & # 8217 ; s telecasting scheduling is violent. For case, the degree of force during Saturday forenoon sketchs is higher than the degree of force during premier clip. There are about six to eight violent Acts of the Apostless per hr during premier clip, versus 20 to thirty violent Acts of the Apostless per hr on Saturday forenoon sketchs ( & # 8220 ; Killing Screens, & # 8221 ; 1994 ) . Besides, good before kids finish their grade school, they will witness up to 8,000 slayings and 100,000 violent Acts of the Apostless on telecasting ( Levine, 1995: 143 ) .
Furthermore, kids spend more clip larning about life through media than in any other mode. The mean child spends about 27 hours per hebdomad watching telecasting, which means that kids spend most of their clip merely watching telecasting and sleeping ( Minow & A ; LaMay, 1995: 32-33 ) . Besides, it has been proven by many surveies that there is a positive relationship between telecasting force and behavioural jobs in kids. For illustration, research by Wood, Wong, and Chachere ( 1991:378 ) have shown that & # 8220 ; exposure to media force addition viewing audiences & # 8217 ; aggression. & # 8221 ;
This paper will discourse that perennial exposure of immature kids and striplings can negatively consequence kids & # 8217 ; s behaviour. This negative behaviour can be acted out by imitation of violent Acts of the Apostless observed on telecasting, by accepting force as a manner to work out jobs, and by desensitisation to the sum of force seen on telecasting. Besides, it will discourse how parents and instructors can forestall inordinate screening of telecasting force in kids and striplings.
Children between the ages of one to four can non ever distinguish world from phantasy. Television plans for people of all ages is more frequently than non a fantasy universe, yet immature kids do non understand that their favourite character does non be in the existent universe. For illustration, because immature kids do non understand the line between phantasy and world, one may happen kids & # 8220 ; creeping down storm drains looking for them [ Adolescent Mutant Ninja Turtles ] & # 8221 ; ( Minow & A ; LaMay, 1995: 33 ) . This illustration clearly represents that kids do non understand that their favourite characters are merely made-up characters and that they do non be in world. However, many kids may move upon their favourite film or movie character in such manner, that they will seek to copy them.
Young kids instinctively imitate actions, or instead exemplary human behaviour by observation without ever possessing the mind or adulthood to find if such actions are appropriate. For illustration, in Bandura & # 8217 ; s patterning surveies kids expressed more aggressive behaviour toward the blow-up doll called Bobo, when they observed an grownup theoretical account & # 8220 ; verbally and physically assail the doll in existent life, on movie, or in a sketch ( Westen, 1996: 206 ) . Therefore, due to the telecastings & # 8217 ; plans role-model capacity to advance existent universe force, there is a deep concern that watching violent plans on telecasting will do kids to go more aggressive. As a consequence of sing violent plans on telecasting, kids may go more aggressive toward other kids, usage force and aggressiveness in their drama, and utilize force to work out their jobs ( Buckingham, 1997: 33 ; Abbot, 1997: 112 ) .
Besides, it has been suggested that immature kids will more likely imitate violent Acts of the Apostless seen on telecasting and theoretical account themselves to the character they like, if & # 8220 ; the culprit of the force is rewarded or at least non punished and when force is presented as justified & # 8221 ; ( Ledingham et al. , 1993:4 ) . A survey has shown that kids will more likely & # 8220 ; feign & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; copy & # 8221 ; the attacker from a violent telecasting plan, when the attacker is presented as the & # 8220 ; good cat, & # 8221 ; who is frequently the individual in the show that punishes the & # 8220 ; bad cat & # 8221 ; ( Cantor, 1998: 98 ) . Therefore, it may be that kids may frequently construe a violent behaviour of a character on telecasting as a positive behaviour, if the character was rewarded for his or her aggressive behaviour.
Children may besides be more aggressive toward other kids or even their parents, in order to acquire what they want. In most violent plans, as noted earlier, the attacker is frequently rewarded for his or her violent and aggressive behaviours towards others. Besides, in many telecasting plans & # 8220 ; force & # 8230 ; is typically shown as a successful manner of work outing jobs and & # 8230 ; people who are violent acquire what they want & # 8221 ; ( Bee, 1998: 262 ) . Therefore, one may propose that kids will show more aggressive behaviour toward others, if they are denied a specific plaything or an activity, such as traveling to the menagerie.
Possibly the most revealing illustration of kids & # 8217 ; s aggression can be seen after kids see an advertizement on a desirable plaything which is, more frequently than non, seen during kids & # 8217 ; s programming. Indeed, in one twelvemonth the advertizers entirely will pass over $ 470 million & # 8220 ; on broadcast sponsorship aimed at kids [ who are ] one of the hottest and fastest-growing consumer markets & # 8221 ; ( Minow & A ; LaMay, 1995: 55-56 ) . About $ 168 billion is spent by parents in one twelvemonth on kids & # 8217 ; s ware ; a ware kids have seen on telecasting and would wish to hold ( Minow & A ; LaMay, 1995: 56 ) .
Children by and large do non understand that advertised playthings or other merchandises cost money, and many of which may be good over household budget. However, editorialist in Advertising Age said that & # 8220 ; when you sell a child on a merchandise [ and ] if he can & # 8217 ; t acquire it, he will throw himself on the floor, stomp his pess and call & # 8221 ; ( as cited in Minow & A ; LaMay, 1995: 45 ) . Therefore, if kids learn from violent telecasting plans that aggressive behaviour may acquire them what they want, most of them will, hence, seek aggression to do their parents purchase them a desirable plaything.
As noted earlier, kids are exposed to tremendous sum of force before they finish their grade school, which can hold a negative consequence on their behaviour as kids and besides as grownups. Leonard Eron, a professor of Psychology at the University of Michigan, followed kids from eight old ages of age into their maturity. These male childs had been exposed to a big sum of force on telecasting during their childhood and subsequently in their maturity. As a consequence of the sum of the exposure to the violent scheduling on telecasting, the grownups had the possible to perpetrate more serious offenses by the age of 30. Besides, the same grownups may & # 8220 ; [ have ] more aggressive behaviour when imbibing, and [ the more telecasting force they watched ] the harsher the penalty they inflicted on their ain kids & # 8221 ; ( Levine, 1995: 145 ) . Therefore, the grounds suggests that there is a positive relationship between sing violent telecasting plans and aggressive behaviour in kids and grownups.
However, non merely make violent plans increase aggression and force, but besides kids, who are already aggressive, will prefer watching violent plans on telecasting in order to run into their gustatory sensation. It has been proven that all kids are born with & # 8220 ; temperamental qualities [ that are ] carried in their cistrons & # 8221 ; ( Bee, 1998: 145 ) . Besides, kids who are & # 8220 ; cranky, temperamentally hard babes continue to demo many of the same temperamental qualities ten old ages subsequently & # 8221 ; ( Bee, 1998: 147 ) . Likewise, aggressive kids may prefer violent plans on telecasting because & # 8220 ; the fact that aggressive behaviour leads to peer rejection means that aggressive kids have fewer options for alternate activities & # 8221 ; ( Ledingham et al. , 1993: 7 ) .
On the contrary, kids may frequently non watch the violent telecasting plans for the force itself, but will more likely ticker it for the action that is portrayed in most violent plans. For illustration, in a 1986 survey research workers found that kids would still be interested in watching telecasting plans even with the absence of force, and & # 8220 ; extinguishing violent content reduces the likeliness of exciting aggressive behaviour & # 8221 ; ( Cantor, 1998: 92 ) . However, non many surveies have been conducted in this mode, hence & # 8220 ; it would be premature to pull any decisions about the effects of force on kids & # 8217 ; s enjoyment & # 8221 ; ( Cantor, 1998: 92 ) .
Earlier in this essay we have seen that the more kids watch violent telecasting plans, the more aggressive they may go. However, in many instances kids, who are exposed to frequent screening of force on telecasting, may go emotionally & # 8220 ; desensitized & # 8221 ; or less sensitive toward existent life force. For case, kids, who were exposed often to force on telecasting may accept and digest aggressive behaviour in others more, than kids who were non exposed to violent plans on telecasting. This may, nevertheless, have a negative impact on the kids
’s life because “the kid may act in a mode which is inappropriate in existent life settings” ( Ledingham et al. , 1993: 8 ) .
Most violent telecasting plans show us that & # 8220 ; force is a societal relationship & # 8221 ; ( & # 8220 ; Killing Screens, & # 8221 ; 1994 ) . Violence frequently tells us who can acquire off with it and who deserves to be the victim. For case, for every 12 adult females involved in a violent act there are 10 male attackers and adult females are half the clip more likely to be the victim than the attacker in many violent telecasting plans. Besides, minority adult females are twice every bit likely to go the victims than to go the attackers ( & # 8220 ; Killing Screens, & # 8221 ; 1994 ) . Besides, violent telecasting plans frequently portray & # 8220 ; members of racial minorities as less powerful and poorer than the bulk & # 8221 ; ( Greenfield, 1984: 43 ) . Therefore, kids from assorted minority groups, such as female kids, black kids, or Latino kids, may grow-up experiencing more governable by the bulk of people in the society ( frequently white work forces ) . They besides may grow-up more cultivated to accept their 2nd topographic point in society, as it has been portrayed on violent telecasting plans ( & # 8220 ; Killing Screens, & # 8221 ; 1994 ) . This portraiture of minorities as powerless and hapless may besides impact the kids and grownups of minority groups as going the victims of racism, which may frequently ensue in force, inability to hold a occupation, or other negative facets racism may convey upon people ( Greenfield, 1984: 43 ) .
Other grounds suggests that repeated screening of violent telecasting plans can take to & # 8220 ; a average universe syndrome & # 8221 ; ( & # 8220 ; Killing Screens, & # 8221 ; 1994 ) ; a belief for many kids and grownups that the & # 8220 ; universe [ is ] a more unsafe topographic point than it really is because force is more outstanding and frequent on telecasting than it is in most life experiences & # 8221 ; ( Ledingham et al. , 1993: 9 ) . Therefore, kids and grownups with fewer chances in society due to poverty, deficiency of instruction, wellness jobs or other societal facets may end-up watching more telecasting ( Rosengren et al. , 1994: 146 ) . As a consequence, these people may experience more likely to go the victims of force, to experience more in danger, to experience more insecure in the existent universe. Therefore, they will demand protection from people who tell them they will protect them, and whom they will swear ( & # 8220 ; Killing Screens, & # 8221 ; 1994 ) .
Although there are many behavioural jobs with kids who watch inordinate sums of force, telecasting plans can besides hold a positive consequence on kids of all ages. For illustration, kids who watched the telecasting plan called Sesame Street & # 8220 ; gained in cultural pride, assurance, and interpersonal cooperation [ and ] white kids & # 8230 ; developed more positive positions toward kids of other races & # 8221 ; ( Greenfield, 1984:43 ) . This positive attitude in kids towards each other, without the barriers of aggression or racism, was due to the fact that Sesame Street frequently & # 8220 ; portrays characters from assorted minority groups in a positive, nonstereotyped manner & # 8221 ; ( Greenfield, 1984: 42 ) , and force is frequently absent in such kids & # 8217 ; s plans.
As noted earlier, kids frequently learn how to act from what they see on telecasting, and the impact of telecasting force may be apparent instantly in the kids & # 8217 ; s behaviour or it may come up subsequently in life. However, parents can protect their kids from inordinate telecasting force in many ways. First, parents should pay attending to the plans their kids are watching and they should besides watch with them. This would give the parents a opportunity to pass some clip with their kids and a opportunity to explicate that what they see on telecasting is non existent. Particularly, a opportunity to indicate out that although the histrion has non been really hurt or killed such force in existent life will ensue in hurting or even decease ( & # 8220 ; Killing Screens, & # 8221 ; 1994 ; Minow & A ; LaMay, 1995: 161 ) .
Second, parents should put bounds on the sum of clip they spend watching telecasting and besides parents should dispute telecasting & # 8217 ; s power with other options, such as reading or playing with friends. Reading would enable the kids to utilize their ain imaginativeness, which is frequently oppressed by telecasting. Besides, playing with friends may enable the kid to pattern his or her verbal communicating, which is besides oppressed by sing inordinate sum of telecasting ( Greenfield, 1984: 85-89 ) .
Third, parents should frequently disapprove of a violent plan in forepart of their kids, emphasizing the belief that such behaviour is non the best manner to work out a job. Besides, parents should decline to allow their kids watch telecasting plans known to be violent by altering the channel or turning the telecasting set off, with the account of what is incorrect with the plan ( Ledingham et al. , 1993: 10-13 ) .
Fourth, parents should retrieve that they besides are citizens, and together with other parents should demand the installing of a device called the v-chip into every telecasting set. This v-chip is & # 8220 ; a programmable computing machine bit that would let parents lock out plans they deemed unsuitable for their kids & # 8221 ; ( Minow & A ; LaMay, 1995: 109-110 ) . Therefore, a v-chip in a telecasting set will enable the parents to watch their ain plan without the fright of exposing their ain kids.
Last, parents should demand critical thought be taught in all schools. Children should be able to discourse with their instructors in school and parents at place what they see on telecasting and in what manner the kids perceive it. This type of instruction should be enhanced in every school in order to & # 8220 ; promote the kids to watch critically and thoughtfully ( Greenfield, 1984: 93-94 ) .
In decision, extended screening of violent telecasting by kids has the possible to do greater aggressiveness. Children who view plans in which force is really realistic, often repeated, and unpunished are more likely to copy what they see. It is due to their inability to separate world signifier phantasy and their inability to understand right behaviour from incorrect. Parents and instructors should take steps to forestall harmful effects their kids are susceptible from telecasting force, such as aggression, racial and sexual stereotyping. The sum of clip kids spend watching telecasting and what they watch should be moderated, because telecasting prevents kids from other more utile activities, such as playing outside, reading a book, or merely disbursement clip with their parents.
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