The policies of war communism and the New Economic Policy ( NEP ) had a great impact on both the peasantry and the labor. Both policies were a despairing effort to continue the revolution and this is greatly reflects the grounds why some groups were advantaged and why others were disadvantaged.
War communism was implemented as a consequence of the civil war. Historians such as Maurice Dobb. E. H. Carr. and Stephen Cohen — have interpreted war communism as a short-run expedient imposed on the Bolsheviks by the exigency demands of civil war and foreign intercession.
Harmonizing to this version. the system was ne’er intended to last into normal peacetime conditions and had no particular ideological significance. While this has since become “the standard history. ” several intelligent economic experts composing in the 1920s. such as Boris Brutzkus and Leo Pasvolsky. viewed war communism in a much more ideological visible radiation — as an effort to gain Marx’ anti-market socialist or Communist Utopia. The characteristics of war communism were that peasant land was seized and so nationalised.
nevertheless the peasant’s control. As deficient grain was making the metropoliss the authorities introduced grain requisition. extra nutrient was seized with Cheka support. it couldn’t be sold for a net income. Large scale concerns were nationalised without compensation ; this was extended to all concern with more than 10 people by 1918. All private trade was abolished. and the authorities controlled nutrient with ration cards and workers were paid through nutrient rations. Workers were told when and where to work. frequently working up to ten hours a twenty-four hours. and work stoppages became illegal.
The impact of War Communism was great on both the peasantry and the labor. Most provincials were prepared to fire their harvests and kill their farm animal instead than manus them over to the Cheka. nevertheless the dire effects that resulted in making this meant that many provincials did reluctantly manus them over. As the Cheka besides took the seed grain an acute deficit of nutrient and a great dearth occurred during the period 1920-1921. Peasants resented these alterations and there were many great rebellions during this period of clip. This included the provincial revolution led by Antanov and the Tambok part in 1921. Peasants that did non collaborate were sent to concentration cantonments and labour cantonments. The dearth of 1921 caused provincials to fly urban Centres in hunt of nutrient. The impact on the provincials were that their support was destroyed they had no manner of feeding their households and hence dissatisfaction with the authorities grew. A moving ridge of work stoppages in Pertograd demanded the abolition of grain requisitioning. freedom for provincial to run their ain farm. a Soviet based authorities instead than a Bolshevik based authorities and amnesty for political captives.
War communism besides caused dissatisfaction within the labor. They were unhappy about the highly long working hours and the penalty they received merely for being late. Industrial production declined. as natural stuffs were non making the mills. Food deficits occurred and many hungering workers went to the countryside to seek and happen nutrient. Factories had to shut down as natural stuffs and fuel was non making them. The disfavor towards the authorities by the labor was shown as rank of the labor to the Bolshevik party greatly declined during this period of clip. The great figure of illegal work stoppages and presentations caused Lenin to rethink his policy of war communism in order to continue the revolution.
The solution to War Communism was done through the New Economic Policy ( NEP ) . The NEP partially reintroduced capitalist economy as it was a return to little industries. The NEP abolished requisitioning. grants were given to the Kuklas. who were allowed to sell their excess after paying a revenue enhancement. who could lease land for limited periods of clip. engage labor for cultivation and take what they grew. It was a limited return to the hard currency economic system with hard currency given instead than the fining system in topographic point and private ownership of mills were allowed. Small concern proprietors ( Nepman ) could buy natural stuffs and sell their merchandises but the province still had control of big scale heavy industries within its cardinal planning government. Lenin was speedy to recognize that the provincials were really of import stating that “Only the understanding with provincials can salvage the socialist revolution in Russia” hence the policy seemed to profit the provincials more than the labor. whose lives the revolution was supposed to profit.
When foremost introduced in 1921 the NEP had no impact on the provincials as it was introduced excessively subsequently for the 1921 sowing and terrible drouths ruined harvests in Central Russia and Volga country. This led to the great dearth of 1921. However in the period 1922-1923 the crops were so good. mostly due to maize seedlings from the USA. that Russia was able to export a little sum of grain. With the new conditions provincials were able to diversify and bring forth veggies and fruits. As a consequence of this the provincials ; criterion of life began to better. However agribusiness still remained crude and inefficient as provincials did non hold the capital for investing. and provincials had a inclination to stash nutrient until monetary values were higher. This meant that although initial successes had been gained by 1926 production degrees were merely equal to that of 1913. Hence the NEP had initial positive impacts on the provincials. nevertheless this was non so with the labor.
Large industry was much slower to retrieve from the damaging effects of war communism as was the labor. who were supposed to be the donees of the October Revolution. Although major industries was owned by the authorities. ‘Red Mangers’ ( former mill troughs ) were employed to run nationalised industries. They were frequently barbarous and caused ill will by the labor towards the authorities. as their methods seemed to be a reversal for what the revolution stood for. With demobilization there was a excess of labor in town which caused unemployment and low rewards at a clip of lifting agricultural monetary values. Industrial monetary values remained low so there was small net income and accordingly small investing to spread out industry. In the early old ages the labor questioned the NEP more and more and they suffered while the peasantry prospered. The labor saw it as the “New Exploitation of the Proletariat” .
In decision both War Communism and the NEP had a great impact on the lives and support of both the peasantry and the labor as described above. Whilst the NEP caused a bracing new mentality to the peasantry after the enduring under War Communism this was non so for the labor. Both policies were implemented to continue the revolution and although the initial revolution was to profit the labor. the saving of the revolution benefited the provincials.
Cite this War Communism and the New Economic Policy Sample
War Communism and the New Economic Policy Sample. (2017, Jul 21). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/war-communism-and-the-new-economic-policy-essay-sample-4137/