Water and Environmental Engineering Coursework

  1. Explain the affects that Urbanization can hold on the hydrology of a catchment. Sketch how SuDs can extenuate these impacts and explicate the function and characteristics of the undermentioned systems:
  • Permeable pavings
  • Swale
  • Detention Ponds

Urbanization affects the hydrology of a catchment in assorted ways, it causes issues with the natural drainage of the environment by barricading watercourse channels and taking trees which help interrupt the impulse of rain. Urbanisation creates a batch of surfaces that are impermeable which causes H2O construct up, the H2O picks up pollutants and chemicals and these are dispersed into watercourses and rivers. Roads and pavings collect rainwater and impart it into waterways instead than allowing it disperse into the land, like it would if it had non had any human intercession.

Soapsudss have been introduced within building undertakings now in order mimic the natural drainage form of a specific country, these SuDs that are now being introduced are helping urban developments in leting surface H2O to be managed good without doing any impact on other sites.

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Permeable paving comes in a scope of stuffs, it was designed to let H2O through a surface that would hold normally be impermeable, they are by and large used on tracts, lawns and roads that merely take light vehicle motions. They basically cut down surface H2O run-off, which traps solids and filters some pollutants from the H2O, they besides give urban trees the opportunity to turn to full size by giving them equal infinite for the roots to turn.

Swales are shallow vegetated channels designed specifically to hive away run off H2O and cut down pollutants, they are truly easy to integrate into landscaping and they are truly effectual in taking urban pollutants. They provide impermanent storage for storm H2O and cut down extremum flows, swales can besides be used to transport H2O throughout a site.

Detention pools are countries excavated on or following to rivers, feeders, watercourses or lakes, they are in topographic point to protect against implosion therapy and sometimes against downstream eroding. They do this by hive awaying a big sum of H2O for a restricted period of clip, around 6-12 hours after the storm. These pools are used to pull off H2O measure but are uneffective at covering with H2O quality.

  1. The 10mm 1Hr TUH ordinates for the Rabid Badger River is shown in Table 1.

T, Hr










Q, M3/s










Calculate the extremum flow from a storm where 25 millimeter of effectual rain falls in the first hr followed by

33 millimeter in the 2nd hr and 6 millimeter in the 3rd hr, by plotting the storm hydrograph on graph paper.

For storm hydrograph see appendix 9.

Table of computations for storm hydrograph.

Question 2

  1. Identify the differences in design, operation and intervention public presentation between Slow Sand Filters and Rapid Gravity Filters for imbibing H2O intervention and utilize a diagram to exemplify your reply. Remark on where each system is typically most frequently used and why they are appropriate for these state of affairss.

Rapid gravitation filters


This type of filter utilizations comparatively harsh sand or another class type of farinaceous stuff in order to take drosss or atoms trapped, through the usage of flocculation chemicals. Water flows through the farinaceous stuff under force per unit area and the flocculated stuff gets trapped within the sand.

Marco Bruni ( n.d ) . Rapid sand filtration. States: “Operation of a rapid sand filter consists of flow control, regular backwashing and cleansing. The period between slipstreams depends on the quality of the inflowing H2O and usually lies between 24 – 72 hours ( UNEP 1998 ) .The cleaning procedure requires an break of the purification procedure of 5 – 10 proceedingss per filter bed. Several parallel filter units are required to vouch changeless H2O supply. The slipstream procedure must be observed carefully ; in peculiar the rate of flow must be controlled to avoid eroding of the filter medium. Periodic repacking of the filter bed may be required at infrequent intervals to guarantee efficient operation ( UNEP 1998 ) . Operation and care therefore requires skilled and extremely dependable workers.”

This filtering procedure is conducted utilizing two basic physical rules. The first one involves comparatively big suspended atoms acquiring stuck between the sand grains as they pass the filter medium, this is besides known as mechanical straining. The 2nd rule is when smaller atoms stick to the surface of the sand grains caused by the consequence of the new wave der Waals forces, besides known as physical soaking up.

Slow sand filters


This type of filter is used in the H2O purification of natural sewerage to supply a merchandise that is equal to imbibe. These armored combat vehicles vary in size harmonizing to the desired flow rate of the filters.

Harmonizing to solutions library ( n.d ) :“A slow sand filtration system consists of a combination of the undermentioned parts: beginning H2O storage armored combat vehicles, an aerator, pre-filters, slow sand filters, disinfection phases, and filtered H2O storage armored combat vehicles. The figure of filters and filter types that are used in a given slow sand filtration system will depend on the quality of the beginning H2O and will be different for each community. A site appraisal is required to find the appropriate filtration solution.”

These types of filters use biological procedures that are non under force per unit area in order to clean the H2O.

  1. State the impacts that natural sewerage can hold on rivers. Explain how 3-stage conventional sewerage intervention reduces these impacts, place the systems typically used in the 3 phases and pollutants removed in each system.

Natural sewerage impacts a rivers ecosystem drastically, it introduces all kinds of chemicals, pesticides and heavy metals which have an consequence on the fish, the workss and the river itself. Introducing an increased sum of organic affair into the river means that the O within the H2O organic structure is being used up in the decomposition procedure the organic affair goes through, this causes jobs for the fish and other aquatic life within the river that need the O dissolved in the H2O organic structure to last.

Natural sewerage being released in rivers can increase the sum of suspended deposits in the H2O organic structure, this addition in suspended deposits causes a lessening in light available for works growing due to it non being able to perforate the deposits and making the works life below the H2O surface. It besides causes big sums of harm to angle gills and the respiratory systems of the other marine wildlife within the location of where the natural sewerage is being released. The sediment atoms can surround home grounds within the river doing wildlife to free places and making strain on the ecosystem.

Using 3-stage conventional sewerage intervention removes the chemicals that cause harm to this type of ecosystem it does this by utilizing a series of phases to take chemicals and pollutants within the natural sewerage in order to let go of it into such river systems without let go ofing tonss of chemicals that cause harm at the same clip, it besides aims to take the larger of the solid atoms that may barricade visible radiation it does this by directing it to another intervention works that trades with sludge. Three chief phases are used in the remotion of pollutants, these are known as the Primary, Secondary and Tertiary phases, each of these phases have specific systems and methods that remove certain pollutants and chemicals from the natural sewerage.

Within the primary phase sewerage flows through big armored combat vehicles that are used to settle sludge, in making this lubricating oil and oils are allowed to lift to the surface, this lubricating oil and the oils that rise are so skimmed off, and sometimes recovered for other intents. The armored combat vehicles that are used in this primary procedure are by and large equipped with automatically goaded scrapers that work nonstop in taking the sludge from the armored combat vehicles and distributing someplace else for it to be farther treated.

Secondary phase intervention is designed to degrade the biological content of the sewerage, which come from human waste, nutrient waste, and certain soaps and detergents. Within this phase biological intervention methods are used to take up to 90 per cent of the organic affair. This can be done with affiliated growing processes or suspended growing processes. Assorted types of bacteriums are used to handle the effluent at this point, each one is supposed to take something different, for illustration, phosphates and nitrates.

Third phase intervention is basically the concluding intervention phase before the sewerage is released into the receiving environment, this can be anyplace from the wetlands to the sea. There are assorted types of third phase sewerage intervention and more than one of them could be used at any individual intervention works. Sand filtration is used to take any residuary affair that may be left after the old phases, nevertheless filtration can besides be done over activated C, this nevertheless removes any residuary toxins instead than residuary affair. Nutrient remotion is used to take N and P. The N is removed by biologically oxidizing the N from ammonium hydroxide to nitrate, and so followed by a procedure called DE nitrification, which is the decrease of nitrate to nitrogen gas the N gas will so be released into the ambiance and hence removed from the H2O. The third phase besides involves disinfection to cut down the sum of micro-organisms within the H2O, and besides odor control which treats the sewerage with C reactors in an effort to pull off H sulfide degrees.

Question 3

For inquiries 3a, 3b and 3c, see appendix’s 1,2 and 3

Question 4

For inquiries 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d and 4e see appendix’s 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8


Bruni, M. ( no day of the month )Rapid Sand Filtration,Sustainable sanitation and H2O managment. Rapid Sand Filtration. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sswm.info/category/implementation-tools/water-purification/hardware/semi-centralised-drinking-water-treatme-14 ( Accessed: 4 December 2014 ) .

Solutions Library( no day of the month )Engineering for Change. ( degree Celsius ) 2010 – Blast Radius. Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.engineeringforchange.org/solution/library/view/detail/Water/S00025 ( Accessed: 4 December 2014 ) .

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