Motivation can be defined as the psychological forces within a individual that determine the way of a individual ‘s behaviour in an organisation, a individual ‘s degree of attempts and a individual ‘s degree of continuity in the face of obstructions ” ( Kanfer, 1990 ) . In simple words, the drive force behind an action of person is called motive. Over the old ages direction bookmans have presented different position sing motive, in fact harmonizing to George and Jones, over 140 definitions of have been provided, and noted bookmans of work motive have said that seeking to specify motive frequently gives them a sever stomach ache ( George & A ; Jones, 2008 ) .
In this paper attempts will be made to clear up two theories of motive. First we are traveling to research the well known Maslow ‘s Theory of Motivation and so we will discourse the theory of motive.
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs theory
Maslow ‘s divide human needs into five distinguishable degrees including: self-actualization and regard at the top of the heirarchy, to societal, safety, and physiological at the underside. Maslow call the first two mentioned demands ( self-actualization and regard ) as higher order demands and the last three mentioned demands ( physiological, safety, and societal demands ) lower order demands ( Robbins & A ; Judge, 2007 ) . Once the lower order demands are satisfied by an single giving more of the same will hold no consequence on his motive. Individual so progress up the hierarchy to another and that need serves as a motive factor. Consequently, in order to actuate employee and convey approximately positive alteration in their behaviour, director must direct concentration to the following higher degree need that seeks satisfaction.
Maslow is of the sentiment that these demands can be arranged in a hierarchy in a hierarchy of importance, with the most basic or obliging need physiological demands ( demand for nutrients, shelter, apparels etc ) at the underside. In order to travel up to the following class the proceedings demands must be satisfied first ( George & A ; Jones, 2008 ) . For illustration safety needs must be satisfied before the societal demands.
Harmonizing to Maslow ‘s theory, unsated demands are the premier incentives of behaviour. Once a degree of demand is satisfied, it no longer motivates the person to actuate him, so the organisation must so concentrate on the following degree of demands in order to actuate the person ( George & A ; Jones, 2008 ) . Organizations around the universe have successfully used the Maslow theory for actuating its work force by placing the current needs class of the workers and so planing its wage bundle that are targeted towards the satisfaction of that terminal.
Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demand was really popular around the universe. Its popularity was due to the fact that organisation is able to implement the theory with comparative easiness ( George & A ; Jones, 2008 ) . However, research workers around the universe have criticized the Maslow hierarchy of demands due to the undermentioned grounds.
Empirical research did non back up Maslow ‘s position. Research workers are of the position that in the existent universe there is no stiff hierarchy of human demands and it operates in a flexible hierarchy.
Employee in the existent universe does non fulfill their higher degree demands in the work state of affairs entirely. Most of the upper degree demands are satisfied by employee in other work puting. Therefore director non merely necessitate to cognize employee behaviour at work but besides need to hold complete apprehension of employee ‘s private and societal life.
Employees have different penchants in fulfilling their demands, based on the civilization to which the employee belongs. For one employee the beginning of motive may be physiological demands, while for his pear the motive may be provided by societal demands.
Some wagess satisfy more than one demand at clip. For illustration Bonus or high wage paid to a peculiar employee may fulfill both lower and upper degree demands.
Harmonizing to Maslow, satisfaction is the chief motivational result of behaviour. However occupation satisfaction is merely one pillar of work public presentation and it may non take to improved work public presentation.
Despite the above cited unfavorable judgments, and restrictions, Maslow theory has had a momentous impact towards direction apprehension of motive and in the appropriate designing of the company to run into employee demands ( Robbins & A ; Judge, 2007 ) . The theory is a suited construction for testing the different demands and mentality that employees have and the different motivation factors that might be utile to people at different degrees.
Clayton Alderfer revised Maslow ‘s hierarchy theory is known as ERG Theory. Harmonizing to Alderfer human demands can be grouped into three groups called being, relatedness and growing demands. As the above Figure shows, Alderfer have divided human demands into three distinguishable classs called demand for being, need for relatedness and demand for growing. These three demands are as follow:
The being Needs
Over here material being demands are mentioned. This group is the same as what has been called by Maslow physiological and safety demands. In an organisational context the being demands are satisfied by money earned in a occupation and passing them to obtain nutrients, vesture, shelter etc.
An employee desire to keep of import interpersonal relationships with pears, higher-ups and subsidiaries in work context can be termed as relatedness demands. Relatedness for an employee in an organisation context includes the demand to interact with equals, receive acknowledgment from the organisation in the signifier of congratulations and awards, and experiencing secure around people. Organization satisfies employee relatedness by making a work environment that supports relationship between assorted degrees and section by advancing endocrine and coaction. Organizations besides create the relatedness when it gives wagess, fillip etc to those employees who have achieve their mark.
These need correlative with Maslow ‘s 4th and 5th degrees of demands. These demands seeks to carry through an employee desires to by giving them an chance to finish the allotted in a originative and productive manners, thereby construct and heighten an employee ‘s self-pride through personal acknowledgment and accomplishments ( Robbins & A ; Judge, 2007 ) . By authorising employee the freedom to take some hazards, the organisation non merely profit by availing an chance of more net income but besides employee direction and leading accomplishments are polished.
Differences to the Maslow Theory of Motivation
Alderfer have refined the Maslow theory and do it more practical by fall ining Maslow five hierarchal demands into three demands and holding no hierarchy. Perversely to Maslow ‘s thought, that concentrate on pure hierarchy between the demands, harmonizing to Alderfer there is hierarchy between these demands, and these demands are non stepped in any manner.
Harmonizing to Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands, one degree of demand will rule an employee ‘s motive more than others ( George & A ; Jones, 2008 ) . For illustration when physiological demands are satisfied security demands will be more dominant. Unlike Maslow ‘s theory, Alderfer ‘s theory contain a frustration-regression procedure that take topographic point within an employee, the failure to fulfill a elevated demand causes perturbation and a falling off to the following lower demand degree.
The frustration-regression construct has profound impact on an organisation motive at the clip of altering state of affairs. For illustration, if growing chances are non present, employees will regress to relatedness demands, and socialise more with equals, subsidiary, and higher-ups, which in a alteration fortunes can make a proliferation land for chitchat, guess, and opposition.
Deduction for Manager
Empirical research in the country of organisational behaviour has proved that ERG theory provides a feasible deduction for director sing the kineticss of human demands. Alderfer ERG theory that employee may hold different demands and recognizes that the order of significance of the three classs may change from employee to employee depending on the alone features experienced by the employee and besides how the personality perceives the state of affairs. Therefore a director should concentrate on the three demands of an single employee in order to optimise the effectivity and efficiency of the motive. Management and leading across the organisation should acknowledge that employee have multiple demands that need to be satisfy at the same time.
The theory proposed by Alderfer is non stiff like the theory presented by Maslow, and human demands bunch more neatly around the three groups proposed by ERG theory. Furthermore the acknowledgment of the development of satisfaction-progression and frustration-regression provide a suppler and reasonable elucidation of why and how employee demands can alter due to alter in employee ‘s personal fortunes, perceptual experiences refering the environment, and the leader framing and communicating of those state of affairs