Bacterias are a group of procaryote beings and the most ancient life signifiers on Earth, able to last in every home ground, from comeuppances to stop deading conditions in Antarctica. They come in a really broad scope of forms and sizes. Certain types of bacteriums can do diseases and can be lethal to the worlds, animate beings, workss and the environment while other bacteriums can be good that we could non populate without. ( Madigan et al, 2009 )
I will be composing about the bacteria Serratia marcescens, a human pathogen which has a high frequence around the universe, impacting really vulnerable people, particularly in infirmaries.
With the aid of scientific diaries and text editions, I will be speaking about the history of S. marcescens, how it has played a large portion in spiritual divinity, what diseases it causes, how it is transmitted between persons and how it can be treated, and finally how unsafe and of import this bacteria is.
Serratia marcescens is a bacteria, portion of the Enterobacteriaceae household. It is Gram-negative, bacillar and a human pathogen which causes nosocomical infections, including urinary infections. It is a motile, facultative anaerobiotic being and is found in dirt, H2O and in ‘sterile environments ‘ such as infirmaries ( Madigan et al, 2009 ) It is capable of bring forthing a dark ruddy to blanch tap pigment called prodigiosin, which can assist to insulate and observe infections. This can turn on nutrient, such as staff of life and throughout history, has been easy mistaken for beads of blood.
Due to this, S.marcescens has played a major function in world for the past 2000 old ages. In ancient history, when the bacteriums produced the reddish pigment on starch-based nutrients, the Greeks and Romans perceived this as a mark from the Gods, a devine fate. ( Greenberg, 1978 ) The visual aspect of this pigment is mentioned in the Miracle of Bolsena, where in Bolsena, Italy in 1263 a priest appeared to shed blood onto a little fabric upon the staff of life and wine remainder during Mass. The manifestation of blood was seen as a miracle to corroborate the Roman Catholic belief of transubstantiation, which denotes the transmutation of staff of life and vino into the substance of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ in the ‘The Last Supper ‘ . ( Digital Learning Center for Microbial Ecology, 1999 )
In the Middle Ages, the divinity of transubstantiation was finally developed into church philosophy and led to upseting events. The S.Marcescens infection in staff of life was perceived as an act of blasphemy and led in the mass slaughter of Jews, who were “ accused of destructive efforts against the Holy sacrament ” ( Greenberg, 1978 )
Bartolomeo Bizio, a druggist from Padua, Italy, discovered and named S. marcescens in 1819 when he identified it as the cause of the bloody pigment in polenta. It was named Serratia after an Italian physicist named Serrati, who invented the steamboat, and marcescens from the Latin word for disintegrating because the pigment weakened fast. ( Basilio, 2010 )
Up until the mid twentieth century, S. marcescens was thought to be non-pathogenic and because of it characteristic characteristic of ruddy pigment production, it was used as a biological marker by scientists and in schools, in analyzing and tracking bacterial infections. For illustration, a common experiment was to show the importance of manus lavation by which a individual would put their manus in a beaker of S. marcescens and so agitate custodies with another individual and so on, and the bacteria was tracked down. ( Buchholz 2004 )
However the perceptual experience that S. marcescens was harmless was changed. In 1951 and 1952, the US Army carried out a series of experiments to see whether US port metropoliss could be marks for biological warfare and the consequence of air current dispersion. ( Buchholz, 2004 ) The experiment “ Operation Sea Spray ” was conducted in San Francisco and S. marcescens was used because it was easy tracked, due to bring forthing ruddy settlements on samples, and it was assumed harmless. S. marcescens atoms were released over the metropolis, exposing 100s and 1000s of people. After the exposure, there was a major addition in instances of urinary piece of land infections and pneumonia and one individual, Edward J. Nevin died due to an S.marcescens infection that attacked his bosom valves. ( Tansey, 2004 ) Due to this incident, S. marcescens has been classified as a human pathogen.
S. marcescens have now been recognised as of import nosocomial pathogens, ensuing in urinary and respiratory infections, and “ responsible for endemic and epidemic infections, particularly in neonates and patients submitted to invasive processs ” ( Carbonell, 2003 )
As an of import timeserving pathogen in neonatal and pediatric intensive attention units. Raymond ( 2000 ) states that S. marcescens was responsible for 15 % and 5 % of all culture-positive nosocomial infections in neonatal and in pediatric, severally and in a instance control survey ( Foglia et al, 2007 ) , S. marcescens was the causative pathogen in 8 % of all bacterial nosocomial infections in a pediatric unit, including eruptions of meningitis.
For urinary piece of land infections, most patients are symptomless but some patients may endure frequent micturition, pyuria, febrility and in 90 % of instances, patients have had recent surgery of the urinary infection ( Basilio, 2010 ) , bespeaking the bacteria has high opposition.
The bacteria besides colonise the respiratory piece of land and ensuing in infections of the lower respiratory, blood stream and surgical lesions.
The bacteria infection can do infections in the oculus, such as keratitis, pinkeye and these can be linked by contact lens wear and old oculus surgery. ( Eyeround.org, 2008 )
Besides, S. marcescens have known to hold caused endocacarditis and osteomyelitis among people addicted to heroin. ( Basilio, 2010 ) Around the universe, the annual incidence rate 1.03 per 100,000 populations with most eruptions happening in infirmaries.
Harmonizing to Engel et Al, ( 2009 ) the 7 twenty-four hours and 6 month mortality rates were 5 % and 37 % severally and 68 % instances of S. Marcescens infection show up in males.
As S.marcescens is a nosocomial infection, it can be transmitted easy in infirmaries, normally by direct contact and on dirty infirmary equipment.
In 2007, a callback of Pre-Filled Heparin lock flower panpipes and normal saline IV flower panpipes was initiated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The panpipes had been contaminated with S. marcescens, which resulted in blood stream infections in patients. There were studies of growing of S. marcescens settlements from several unopened panpipes, by the Center for Disease Control. ( U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2009 )
The bacterial infection was seen as a serious wellness effect that could attest to dangerous hurts or decease.
The infection can besides be transmitted by dirty catheters and the usage of contaminated endovenous extracts. A high eruption of infection was traced back to contaminated endovenous Mg sulfate distributed in the USA by a pharmaceutics. ( Sunenshine et al, 2007 )
To handle S. marcescens infection, antibiotic therapy is largely used. S. marcescens is of course immune to ampicillin, and Mefoxins. Harmonizing to Mlynarczyk, ( 2007 ) 92 % of strains were immune to cefotaxime, nevertheless 99 % were susceptible to ceftazidime.
The bacteria can be treated with “ an aminoglycoside plus an antipseudomonal beta-lactam, as the individual usage of a beta-lactam can choose for immune strains. ” ( Basilio, 2010 )
However, intervention should be based on consequences of susceptibleness testing because multi-resistant strains are common.
Antibiotics used to handle S. marcescens, include levofloxacin, cefepime, ertapenem, and aztreonam.
For farther bar of the infection, recommendations include, in infirmaries, avoid re-using endovenous lines and do certain they are removed every bit shortly as possible. Make certain that infirmary employees clean their custodies exhaustively and hospital equipment, including surgical tools, are ever cleaned between usage and kept sterile.
S. marcescens is a bacteria that is extremely infective to worlds if left untreated and can do considerable harm. It has affected world for 1000s of old ages, due to its features, being indirectly mentioned in sanctum books and transcripts, with celebrated bookmans associating its activities to Acts of the Apostless of divination. It can be easy transmitted between persons which adds to the deadliness of the infection and it largely infects the most vulnerable people, patients in infirmaries, including yearlings and new-born babes.
S. marcescens has proven to be immune to several antibiotics and certain strains can develop opposition, doing it difficult to handle in patients.
All these factors make this bacteria really of import and unsafe, which with simple bar techniques such as rinsing custodies, infections can be deterred. This nosocomial infection demands to hold a higher profile, due to the mark population, high frequence and the diseases it causes, so farther instances can be avoided.