The autocratic leader dominates team members and makes decisions on their own without seeking or allowing input from group members. Autocrats set timelines, tasks and then asks for suggestions. This approach has limitations but it can be effective in certain situations (Dunn, 2007). The advantages can be more group productivity while leader watches, the group can make quicker decisions, and sometimes the group will task themselves as it is quicker and will push the group (Heath, 1994).
The disadvantages of the Autocratic leader can make more group hostility, more dependence on leader, more apathy in group, and slower execution of decisions (Heath, 1994).
Paternalistic Paternalistic managers make decisions in best interests of workers after consultation (Dunn, 2007). A good example of paternalistic management would be if you have ever watched David Brent or Michael Scott running the business in the fictional television show The Office. The leader explains most decisions to the employees and ensures that their social and leisure needs are always met.
This style can be highly advantageous when it engenders loyalty from the employees, leading to a lower labor turnover; staff feels their social needs are being met thanks to the emphasis on social needs, a more of a two-way communication so motivation increases (Vroom, & Jago, 1988).
It shares disadvantages with an autocratic style, such as employees becoming dependent on the leader. Another disadvantage of the paternalistic management is it can slow down decision making, and it still can be quite a dictatorial or autocratic style of management (Vroom, & Jago, 1988).
Democratic The democratic leader makes decisions by consulting a team, while still maintaining control of the group. The leader and group jointly analyze the problem, and decide together on a course of action (Dunn, 2007). Advantages of the democratic leader can be authority that is delegated to workers which are motivating; useful when complex decisions are required that needs specialist skills. Other advantages can be more individual responsibility, more friendliness, better implementation, more personal growth, more motivation, and greater production (House, 1997).
Disadvantages of a democratic leader are mistakes or errors that can be made if workers are not, slower decision making, less initial production, and leaders can be unsure which could make everything a matter for group discussion (House, 1997). Laissez-faire The laissez faire leadership style allows individuals to have complete freedom and to make decisions concerning the completion of their work or ask questions of the leader (Dunn, 2007).
The advantage of this style brings out the best in highly professional and creative groups of employees, however in many cases it is not deliberate and is simply a result of poor management (Vroom, & Jago, 1988). The disadvantage is the communication is horizontal, meaning that it is equal in both directions, however very little communication occurs in comparison with other styles. This leads to a lack of staff focus and sense of direction, which in turn leads to much dissatisfaction, and a poor company image (Vroom, & Jago, 1988). Contingency In Contingency style of management there is an assumption of no simple one right way.
Contingency takes a broader view that includes contingent factors about leader capability and other variables within the situation (Smith, 1984). Advantages include one-way communication in the what, how, why, when, and where to do the task; shared decision making about aspects; leader stays involved to monitor progress (Barney, 1985). A disadvantage of this style is that leaders who are very effective at one place and time may become unsuccessful either when transplanted to another situation or when the factors around them change. This helps to explain how some leaders who seem for a while to have the ‘Midas touch’ suddenly appear o go off the boil and make very unsuccessful decisions (Barney, 1985). The best management style is situational but it goes beyond motivation. I’ve had nurses who need only a broad outline of the objective we are trying to reach; I can manage them with little direction. Others need more supervision and I’ve managed some people who require micro management. I think the best managers strike a balance between the needs of the employee and the managers own tendencies. The best managers view their role as not only getting the job done but also developing their employees and treating them with respect.
Barney, J. B. (1985,). Dimensions of Informal Social Network Structure: Toward a Contingency Theory of Informal Relations in Organizations. Social Networks, 7(), 1-46. Retrieved from http://www. rpi. edu/dept/advising/management_styles. htm Dunn, R. T. (2007). Leadership. In Haimanns (Ed. ), Healthcare Management (pp. 434-443). Heath, L. R. (1994). Management of corporate communication. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hersey, P. , & Blanchard, K. H. (1993). Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing human resources (6th Ed. ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. House, R. (1997). Path-goal theory of Leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory. Leadership Quarterly, 7, 323-352. Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/management styles Smith, M. J. (1984). Contingency rules theory, context, and compliance behaviors. Human Communication Research, 10, 489-512. Retrieved from http://www. rpi. edu/dept/advising/free_enterprise/business_structures/management_styles. htm Vroom, V. H. , & Jago, A. G. (1988). The new leadership: Managing participation in organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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