Aristotle was born in 384 BC and lived until 322 BC. He was a Grecian philosopher and scientist, who portions with Plato being considered the most celebrated of ancient philosophers. He was born at Stagira, in Macedonia, the boy of a doctor to the royal tribunal. When he was 17, he went to Athens to analyze at Plato s Academy. He stayed for about 20 old ages, as a pupil and so as a instructor.
When Plato died in 347 BC, Aristotle moved to Assos, a metropolis in Asia Minor, where a friend of his named Hermias was the swayer. He counseled Hermias and married his niece and adopted girl, Pythias ( wierd names, huh). After Hermias was captured and executed by the Persians, Aristotle went to Pella, Macedonia s capital, and became the coach of the male monarch s immature boy Alexander, subsequently known as Alexander the Great.
In 335, when Alexander became king, Aristotle went back to Athens and established his ain school, the Lyceum.Since a batch of the lessons happenned when instructors and pupils were walking, it was nicknamed the Peripatetic school ( Aristotelian agencies walking ) . When Alexander died in 323 BC, strong anti-Macedonian feeling was felt in Athens, and Aristotle went to a household estate in Euboea. He died there the followingyear.
Aristotle, like Plato, used his duologue in his beginning old ages at the Academy. Apart from a few fragments in the plants of ulterior authors, his duologues have been entirely lost. Aristotle besides wrote some short proficient Hagiographas, including a lexicon of philosophic footings and a sum-up of the “philosophies of Pythagoras” ( the cat from the Pythagorean Theorem ) . Of these, merely a few short pieces have survived. Still in good form, though, are Aristotle s talk notes for carefully outlined classs handling about every type of cognition and art. The Hagiographas that made him celebrated are largely these, which were collected by other editors.
Among the Hagiographas are short enlightening talks on logic, called Organon ( which means “instrument” ) , because “they provide the agencies by which positive cognition is to be attained” ( They re non my words, I m citing him ) . His composing on natural scientific discipline include Physics, which gives a immense sum of information on uranology, weather forecasting, workss, and animate beings.
His Hagiographas on the nature, range, and belongingss of being, ( I know what one of them means! ) which Aristotle called First Philosophy ( to him it was “Prote philosophia” ) , were given the rubric Metaphysics in the first published version of his plants ( around 60 BC ) , because in that edition they followed Physics. His belief of the “Prime Mover”, or foremost cause, was pure mind, perfect in integrity, changeless, and, as he said, “the idea of idea,” is given in the Metaphysics. Other celebrated plants include his Rhetoric, his Poeticss ( which we merely have uncomplete pieces of ) , and his Politicss ( besides incomplete ) .
Because of the influence of his male parent s medical profession, Aristotle s doctrine was chiefly stressed on biological science, the antonym of Plato s accent on mathematics. Aristotle regarded the universe as “made up of persons ( substances ) happening in fixed natural sorts ( species )” ( more confusing quotation marks, yippey! ) . He said “each person has its constitutional specific form of development and grows toward proper self-fulfillment as a specimen of its type. Growth, intent, and way are therefore built into nature.” Although scientific discipline surveies many things, harmonizing to Aristotle, “these things find their being in peculiar persons. Science and doctrine must therefore balance, non merely take between, the claims of empiricist philosophy ( observation and sense experience ) and formalism ( rational tax write-off ) .”
One of the most celebrated of Aristotle s parts was a new impression of causality. “Each thing or event,” he thought, “has more than one ground that helps to explicate what, why, and where it is.” Earlier Greek minds thought that merely one kind of cause can explicate itself; Aristotle said four. ( The word Aristotle uses, aition, “a responsible, explanatory factor” is non th same as the word cause now.
- These four causes are the “stuff cause”, ( the affair out of which a thing is made );
- the “efficient do”, ( the beginning of gesture, coevals, or alteration );
- the “formal cause”, ( the species, sort, or type );
- and “the concluding cause”, ( the end, or full development, of an person, or the intended map of a building or innovation. )
Although I don t know what these mean, they sound philosiphical.an illustration he gave is “a immature king of beasts is made up of tissues and variety meats, its stuff cause; the efficient cause is its parents, who generated it; the formal cause is its species, king of beasts; and its concluding cause is its constitutional thrust toward maturity.” Another illustration he gave is “the stuff cause of a statue is the marble from which it was carved; the efficient cause is the sculpturer; the formal cause is the form the sculpturer realized Hermes, possibly and the concluding cause is its map, to be a work of all right art. ”
In each Wyoming, Aristotle says that something can be better understood when its causes can be said in specific footings instead than in general footings. So it is more enlightening to cognize that a “sculpturer” made the statue than to cognize that an “creative person” made it and even more enlightening to cognize that “Polycleitus” chiseled it instead than merely that a “sculpturer” did so.
In uranology, Aristotle proposed a finite, spherical existence, with the Earth at its centre. The centre is made up of four elements: Earth, air, fire, and H2O. In Aristotle s natural philosophies, all of thesefour elements has a right topographic point, determined by its comparative weightiness, its “specific gravity.” Each moves of course in a consecutive line. Earth goes down, fire up toward its proper topographic point, where it will be at remainder.
So Earth s gesture is ever in a line and ever comes to a arrest. The celestial spheres, though, move “of course and infinitely in a complex handbill gesture”. The celestial spheres, harmonizing to, must be made of a fifth, and different component, which he called “aither.” The strongest component, aither can t alter other than alteration of topographic point in a circle motion. Aristotle s theory that additive gesture ever takes topographic point through a resisting medium is really true for all planets that we can see gestures.
Honestly, to me it seems like Aristotle was brainsick. Many of his theories were wholly false, and I don t truly understand why he is so celebrated. If I started stating the things he says now, I d be thrown into a mental infirmary.