There are several glands that make up the endocrine system which work in conjunction with other tissues and organs that contain cells that secrete hormones. The glands that make up the endocrine system include the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid gland, the adrenal glands, and the pineal gland. The tissues and organs that work in conjunction with the endocrine glands include the ovaries, testes, placenta, pancreas, hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, kidneys, liver, stomach, skin, adipose tissue, small intestine, and heart.
The hormones released by the endocrine glands travel through the bloodstream o reach their intended target. Therefore, the cardiovascular system plays a major role in the disbursement of these hormones. Areas controlled by the release of hormones include: response to stress, growth and development, regulation of metabolism, absorption of nutrients, regulation of blood sugar levels, contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle fibers, balance of water and electrolytes, regulation of the reproduction system, birth, and lactation.
The pituitary gland is known as the “master” endocrine gland because it secretes hormones that control the other endocrine glands. (Tractor & Derricks, 2014, p. 23) The pituitary gland has two separate anatomical parts that serve two separate functions. The anterior pituitary gland (ethnography’s) releases hormones when it is stimulated by releasing hormones from the hypothalamus. Suppression occurs when there is too many hormones released by the anterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus then releases inhibiting hormones to stop or slow the production of hormones released by the anterior pituitary gland.
The posterior pituitary gland (neurophysiology) does not produce hormones but instead stores hormones and releases them when the body requires them. The posterior pituitary gland notation the ends of nerve cells and transmit signals via the nerve impulses triggering the release of hormones. One example is the release of extinction during childbirth to stimulate contractions of the uterus and for the production of breast milk.
Another hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland is (DAD) anti-diuretic hormone, which causes the body to conserve water by decreasing urine production and returning the water to the blood stream as well as decreasing sweating by causing constriction of the arterioles which raised blood pressure. There are a number of disorders that can occur due the homeostasis imbalances of the endocrine system. These occur due to either hypertension, when too many hormones are produced and released, or, hypertension, in which not enough hormones are produced and released.
Pituitary gland disorders include, pituitary dwarfism, giants, and creamily. Thyroid gland imbalances can cause hyperthyroidism, graves disease (autoimmune induced hyperthyroidism), and hypothyroidism. Disorders of the parathyroid gland consist of Cunning’s syndrome and Addition’s disease. Diabetes is a pancreatic islet disorder that occurs as a result of an endocrine imbalance. Homeostasis & Homeostasis Imbalances of the Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system is responsible for disbursing blood to tissues in the body and removing waste.
The heart and blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins) make up the cardiovascular system. Within the blood, oxygen, hormones, and nutrients are transported to their intended targets. The left side of the heart pumps the blood which is transported via blood vessels to various body tissues and then returns to the heart through this closed circulatory system. The right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs where oxygen is picked p and carbon dioxide is unloaded. Waste is unloaded via capillary exchange.
This process is known as diffusion in which blood and interstitial fluid meet and gases, nutrients and waste are exchanged. Cardiovascular disorders that occur form homeostasis imbalances include coronary artery disease (CAD), in which plaque builds up in the arteries of the heart causing a reduction in blood flow. Congenital heart defects are defects that are present at birth. Coronation of the aorta, patent ducts arterioles (PDA), septa defects, and teratology fallout are examples of congenital heart defects.
Arrhythmias are a result of a default in the conduction system of the heart causing the heart to beat too rapidly (tachycardia) or too slowly (brickyard). Types of arrhythmias include, supercritical tachycardia (SW), heart block, trial premature contraction (APPC), trial flutter, trial fibrillation (OAF), ventricle premature contraction, ventricle tachycardia (VT), and ventricle fibrillation. Congestive heart failure (CHEF) is when the heart no longer pumps efficiently due to a prolonged underlying condition such as CAD, previous myocardial infarction, congenital defects, or high blood pressure.