Functional Anatomy of Endocrine Glands Essay
Print Form Functional Anatomy of the Endocrine Glands Gross Anatomy and Basic Function of the Endocrine Glands 1. Both the endocrine and nervous systems are major regulating systems of the body; however, the nervous system has been compared to an airmail delivery system and the endocrine system to the pony express. Briefly explain this comparison. The nervous system employs electrochemical impulses to bring about rapid control, whereas the endo system is more slowly acting with hormones.
Substance secreted by the endrocrine tissues into the blood that acts to target tissue to produce 2. Define hormone. specific response 3. Chemically, hormones belong chiefly to two molecular groups, the and the amino acid-bases steroids . 4. What do all hormones have in common? 5. Define target organ. organs that respond to a particular hormone Ability of the target tissue to 6. If hormones travel in the bloodstream, why don’t all tissues respond to all hormones? respond depends on the ability of the hormone to bind with specific receptors on cells plasma membrane or within the cell 7.
Identify the endocrine organ described by each of the following statements. thyroid adrenal pancreas testes parathyroid gland ovary thymus pineal gland 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. located in the throat; bilobed gland connected by an isthmus found close to the kidney a mixed gland, located close to the stomach and small intestine paired glands suspended in the scrotum ride “horseback” on the thyroid gland found in the pelvic cavity of the female, concerned with ova and female hormone production found in the upper thorax overlying the heart; large during youth found in the roof of the third ventricle 179
8. For each statement describing hormonal effects, identify the hormone(s) involved by choosing a number from key A, and note the hormone’s site of production with a letter from key B. More than one hormone may be involved in some cases. For example: Key A: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ACTH ADH aldosterone calcitonin cortisone epinephrine estrogens FSH glucagon insulin 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. LH oxytocin progesterone prolactin PTH T4 /T3 testosterone 16 , L basal metabolism hormone Key B: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l.
adrenal cortex adrenal medulla anterior pituitary hypothalamus ovaries pancreas parathyroid glands pineal gland posterior pituitary testes thymus thyroid gland 18. thymosin 19. TSH 18 , 4 k g 1. programming of T lymphocytes and and and 15 , 6 b b , 5 a 2. regulate blood calcium levels 3. released in response to stressors 4. drive development of secondary sexual characteristics , 7 e , 17 j , , , 1 , 19 c ; c 8 c 11 ; , c ; and , 6 b 5. regulate the function of another endocrine gland 6. mimics the sympathetic nervous system and and and and , 9 f 10 , 13 f e , 7 e 7.
regulate blood glucose levels; produced by the same “mixed” gland 8. directly responsible for regulation of the menstrual cycle 9. maintenance of salt and water balance in the extracellular fluid 10. directly involved in milk production and ejection , 2 d , 3 a , 12 d , 14 c , , 9. Although the pituitary gland is often referred to as the master gland of the body, the hypothalamus exerts some control over the pituitary gland. How does the hypothalamus control both anterior and posterior pituitary functioning? The hypothalmus controls anterior pituitary functioning by neuro secretions.
These hormones are liberated into hypophyseal portal system and carried to cells of the anterior pituitar where they control the release of anterior pituitary hormones. and controls posterior pituitary functioning by storing the ones transported by the axons of neurons in the 180 Review Sheet 27 10. Indicate whether the release of the hormones listed below is stimulated by (A) another hormone; (B) the nervous system (neurotransmitters, or neurosecretions); or (C) humoral factors (the concentration of specific nonhormonal substances in the blood or extracellular fluid).
C A B 4. insulin 7. T4 /T3 1. ADH B A C 5. norepinephrine 8. testosterone 2. aldosterone C B A 6. parathyroid hormone 9. TSH, FSH 3. estrogens 11. Name the hormone(s) produced in inadequate amounts that directly result in the following conditions. (Use your textbook as necessary. ) Low amount of PTH 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. tetany excessive diuresis without high blood glucose levels loss of glucose in the urine abnormally small stature, normal proportions low BMR, mental and physical sluggishness Low ADH Low insulin Low growth hormone low amounts of thyroid gland 12.
Name the hormone(s) produced in excessive amounts that directly result in the following conditions. (Use your textbook as necessary. ) to much growth hormone 1. 2. 3. large hands and feet in the adult, large facial bones nervousness, irregular pulse rate, sweating demineralization of bones, spontaneous fractures to much thyroid hormone to much PTH Microscopic Anatomy of Selected Endocrine Glands 13. Choose a response from the key below to name the hormone(s) produced by the cell types listed. Key: a. b. c. A calcitonin GH, prolactin glucagon 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
d. e. f. glucocorticoids insulin mineralocorticoids D g. h. i. PTH T4 /T3 TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH parafollicular cells of the thyroid follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid beta cells of the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) alpha cells of the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) basophil cells of the anterior pitu 6. zona fasciculata cells 7. zona glomerulosa cells 8. chief cells 9. acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary H E F G B C I Review Sheet 27 181 14. Six diagrams of the microscopic structures of the endocrine glands are presented here.
Identify each and name all structures indicated by a leader line or bracket. Thyroid gland basophils (a) chromophobe ant. pituitar acidophil follicle cells (d) blood celss colloid filled follicles / thryoid gland connective tissue capsule zona blomerulosa zona fasciulata zona reticularis medulla (b) nerve fibers (e) pituicytes adrenal gland posterior pituitar Anterior pituitary exocrine tissue of pancreascells beta (c) alpha cells chief cells (f) oxyphil cells pancreatic islet parathyroid gland 182 Review Sheet 27