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This is seen mostly in cases of prolonged uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, where high load sugars, derivative proteins and metabolites accumulate and damage the nervous system. The patients are usually unaware of any trauma or wounds, mainly due to loss of sensation in the affected area. Medical illness: When chronic and uncontrolled for long periods (such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, AIDS, malignancy, morbid obesity, hepatitis C virus, etc. , medical illnesses can lead to impairment of the immune system functions, diminishing the circulation and damaging other organs and systems.

External Wounds External wounds can either be open or closed. In cases of closed wounds, the kin is intact and the underlying tissue is affected but not directly exposed to the outside environment. The following are the most common types of closed wounds: Contusions: These are a common type of sports injury, where a direct blunt trauma can damage the small blood vessels and capillaries, muscles and underlying tissue, as well the internal organs or bone.

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Contusions present as a painful bruise with reddish to bluish disconsolation that spreads over the injured area of skin. Hemostat: These include any injury that damages the small blood vessels and capillaries resulting in blood collecting and pooling in a limited space. Hemostat typically present as a painful, spongy rubbery lump-like lesion. Depending on the severity and site of the trauma, hemostat can be small or large, deep inside the body or just under the skin. Crush injuries: These are usually caused by an external high-pressure force that squeezes part of the body between two surfaces.

The degree of injury can range from a minor bruise to a complete destruction of the crushed area of the body, depending on the site, size, duration and power of the trauma. In cases of open wounds, the skin is cracked open, leaving the underlying tissue exposed to the outside environment. The following are the major types of open wounds: Abrasions: These are shallow irregular wounds of the upper skin layers, due to brushing against either a rough surface or a smooth surface at high speed. Abrasions usually present with minor to no bleeding, and some pain that subsides shortly after the initial injury.

Lacerations: These wounds are tear-like wounds with irregularly torn edges that are usually deeper than abrasions and cause more pain and bleeding. Lacerations are generally caused by trauma or contact with an object, as might result from hard blows, collusions or accidents. Incisions: These are most likely the result of a surgical procedure or skin cut with a sharp object such as a scalpel or knife. Incisions are mostly linear in shape with smooth, even edges. Depending on the depth and site of the wound, an incision can be life threatening and cause serious damage, especially if it involves vital organs, major blood vessels or nerves.

Punctures: These are small rounded wounds that result from objects with thin pointed tips, such as needles, nails or teeth (in cases of human or animal bites). The wound size, depth, bleeding and pain are directly related to the size and force of the causative object. Penetrating: This type of wound can be caused by any object or force that breaks through the skin to the underlying organs or tissue. A penetrating wound has variable sizes, shapes and presentations depending on the cause. Penetrating wounds can be life threatening, causing serious injury, especially if involving vital organs, major blood vessels or nerves.

Gunshot wounds: These are considered to be penetrating wounds that are exclusively caused by bullets from firearms. The wounds at the entrance site of a bullet are regular, rounded, and smaller than the bullet size. Entrance wounds may have burn marks or soot on the edges ND surrounding tissue, depending on the distance from which the bullet was fired. If the bullet goes all the way through the body, the exit wound will have an irregular shape that is larger than the entrance wound and usually bleeds more.

Aside from the risk of hitting vital organs or major blood vessels, the fast, spinning movement of the bullet may cause serious damage to the surrounding tissue it passes through. 1. 3 Complications Internal wound complications: Impaired circulation: In cases of both schema and stasis, the supply of blood, oxygen and nutrients, as well as flushing of extra waste products, is impaired. This results in tissue death and wound formation that may develop later to venous and arterial ulcers, or gangrene.

Enumerator may give rise to: Diabetic foot ulcers: The part of nervous system responsible for sweating and moisturizing the skin is impaired, leaving the skin on the feet dry and vulnerable to cracks and injuries. Due to the reduced sensation of that area, many skin cuts, cracks or injuries can go unnoticed and progress to ulcers. Chariot or neurotic joints: The part of nervous system that controls the muscle of the leg and foot is damaged, leading to improper distribution of force and pressure hill performing routine activities. This can eventually cause joint dislocation, deformity, fracture and injury.

Medical illness: A weakened immune system and other malfunctioning or diseased systems decrease the ability of the human body to defend itself against infections, inflammations, ulcers or wounds. A weakened immune system can also delay or prevent wound healing. Externally caused closed wounds can be complicated by: Severe bleeding Large bruises Nerve damage Bone fractures Internal organ damage Compartment syndrome: This syndrome involves the lower and/or upper limbs especially the legs and forearms), where the damage causes swelling and increased pressure in the fascia that surrounds the muscles, nerves and blood vessels in that area.

The increased pressure can block the blood supply to the affected limbs, causing severe damage to the muscles and nerves. The damage can be permanent, leading to loss of function, and may necessitate amputation. Externally caused open wounds can be complicated by: Infections: Except for surgical incisions, most open wounds are caused by dirty, contaminated objects that carry different types of bacteria and organisms. An infected wound may present with a foul odor, pus or yellowish drainage, fever and pain.

Inflammation: This can result from the body’s immune response to a foreign material that caused a wound. Inflammation can make the wound area red, hot, swollen and painful. Loss of function: Whether because of the pain or the trauma itself, loss of function can be temporary or permanent, depending on the extent of the wound and the damage to the affected limb or area. Scarring: Many open wounds will leave a scar after healing, and some may even cause a deformity of the affected area, especially with penetrating, gunshot or deep laceration wounds. 4 Risk Factors Which Causes Developing Of Wounds Having one or more of the following can increase the risk of developing wounds: Heavy smoking, alcohol consumption and increased age: These factors can reduce the elasticity of blood vessels and increase the probability of blood clots, leading to vascular related disease and improper healing. Immobility: Whether standing, sitting or lying down for long periods, as in cases of severe burns, multiple surgeries or car accidents, immobility can cause stasis and increase the risk of developing bed ulcers, venous ulcers, deep vein thrombosis and varicose veins.

Unhealthy lifestyle: These risk factors include limited exercise, poor diet, obesity and poor hygiene. Weakened immune system: Patients taking corticosteroids, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or receiving a transplantation History of chronic medical illnesses or vascular disease: These illnesses include cancers, diabetes, high cholesterol, AIDS, heart disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, anemia, varicose veins or deep venous thrombosis. 1. 5 Motivation The motivation of this proposal is to help humans to heal their wounds at a faster rate without going through operation and suffering from any side effects.

This product is convenient because it is small and easy to carry. It can be applied to any wounds no matter how serious the wound is. It can prevent excessive bleeding by just applying this spray to the wound because the product contains blood clotting factor. As a result, this can reduce the risk of fatality caused by excessive bleeding. 1. 6 Justification Wound healing is an intricate process whereby the skin (or another organ- tissue) repairs itself after injury. So, we need to increase the rate of mitosis of skins.

Mitosis is the process in which a eukaryotic cell nucleus splits in two, allowed by division of the parent cell into two daughter cells. The word “mitosis” means ‘threads,” and it refers to the threadlike appearance of chromosomes as the cell prepares to divide. Early microscopic were the first to observe these structures, and they also noted the appearance of a specialized network of misconstrues during mitosis. These tubules, collectively known as the spindle, extend from structures called contractors ? with one cumbersome located at each of the opposite ends, or poles, of a cell.

As mitosis progresses, the misconstrues attach to the chromosomes, which have already duplicated their DNA and aligned across the center of the cell. The spindle tubules then shorten and move toward the poles of the cell. As they move, they pull the one copy of each chromosome with them to opposite poles of the cell. This process ensures that each daughter cell will contain one exact copy of the parent cell DNA. Mitosis consists of five morphologically distinct phases: proposes, Promethean, metaphors, anapest, and telephone. Each phase involves characteristic steps in the process of chromosome alignment and separation.

Once mitosis is complete, the entire cell divides in two by way of the process ladled cytokines. Proposes is the first stage in mitosis, occurring after the conclusion of the GO portion of enterprise. During proposes, the parent cell chromosomes ? which were duplicated during S phase condense and become thousands of times more compact than they were during enterprise. Because each duplicated chromosome consists of two identical sister chromatics joined at a point called the centimeter, these structures now appear as X-shaped bodies when viewed under a microscope.

Several DNA binding proteins catalyst the condensation process, including cohesion and condensed. Cohesion forms rings that hold the sister chromatics together, whereas condensed forms rings that coil the chromosomes into highly compact forms. The mitotic spindle also begins to develop during proposes. As the cell’s two contractors move toward opposite poles, misconstrues gradually assemble between them, forming the network that will later pull the duplicated chromosomes apart. When proposes is complete, the cell enters Promethean ? the second stage of mitosis .

During Promethean, physiotherapist of nuclear laminas by M-CDC causes the nuclear membrane to break down into numerous small vesicles. As a result, the spindle misconstrues now have direct access to the genetic material of the cell. Each microcircuit is highly dynamic, growing outward from the cumbersome and collapsing backward as it tries to locate a chromosome. Eventually, the misconstrues find their targets and connect to each chromosome at its eigenvector, a complex of proteins positioned at the centimeter.

The actual number of misconstrues that attach to a eigenvector varies between species, but at least one microcircuit from each pole attaches to the eigenvector of each chromosome. A tug-of-war then ensues as the chromosomes eve back and forth toward the two poles. As Promethean ends and metaphors begins, the chromosomes align along the cell equator. Every chromosome has at least two misconstrues extending from its eigenvector ? with at least one microcircuit connected to each pole. At this point, the tension within the cell becomes balanced, and the chromosomes no longer move back and forth.

In addition, the spindle is now complete, and three groups of spindle misconstrues are apparent. Eigenvector misconstrues attach the chromosomes to the spindle pole;interpolator misconstrues extend from the spindle pole across he equator, almost to the opposite spindle pole; and astral misconstrues extend from the spindle pole to the cell membrane. Metaphors leads to anapest, during which each chromosome’s sister chromatics separate and move to opposite poles of the cell. Enzymatic breakdown of cohesion ? which linked the sister chromatics together during proposes ? causes this separation to occur.

Upon separation, every chromatic becomes an independent chromosome. Meanwhile, changes in microcircuit length provide the mechanism for chromosome movement. More specifically, in the first part of anapest ? onetime called anapest A ? the eigenvector misconstrues shorten and draw the chromosomes toward the spindle poles. Then, in the second part of anapest ? sometimes called anapest B? the astral misconstrues that are anchored to the cell membrane pull the poles further apart and the interpolator misconstrues slide past each other, exerting additional pull on the chromosomes .

During telephone, the chromosomes arrive at the cell poles, the mitotic spindle disassembles, and the vesicles that contain fragments of the original nuclear membrane assemble around the two sets of chromosomes. Phosphates then depilatories the laminas at each end of the cell. This depopulation’s results in the formation of a new nuclear membrane around each group of chromosomes. Cytokines is the physical process that finally splits the parent cell into two identical daughter cells. During cytokines, the cell membrane pinches in at the cell equator, forming a cleft called the cleavage furrow.

The position of the furrow depends on the position of the astral and interpolator misconstrues during anapest. The cleavage furrow forms because of the action of a contractile ring of overlapping acting and myosin filaments. As the acting and myosin filaments move past each other, the contractile ring becomes smaller, akin to pulling a drawstring at the top of a purse. When the ring reaches its smallest point, the cleavage furrow completely bisects the cell at its center, resulting in two separate daughter cells of equal size .

To increase the rate of mitosis, the number of chromosomes and the amount of DNA which needed to be replicated and separated have to increase. Therefore, we can produce different types of healing sprays of different organs such as skin by inserting different types of chromosome. For example, a skin healing spray only consists of chromosomes and DNA that codes for skin cells. Advantages of The Instant Spray For its Wound Healing Spray forming offers certain advantages over both conventional instrumentality and more specialized techniques such as powder metallurgy.

Firstly, it is a flexible process and can be used to manufacture a wide range of materials, some of which are difficult to produce by other methods, e. G. AY-AWT% Lie alloys or AY-SiC, AY-Mentally matrix composites (Macs). The atomization of the melt stream into droplets of 10-500 pr diameter, some of which, depending on diameter, LOL quickly to the solid and semi-solid state provide a large number of nucleates for the residual liquid fraction of the spray formed material on the billet top surface.

The combination of rapid cooling in the spray and the generation of a large population of solid nucleates in the impacting spray leads to a fine equated macrostructure, typically in the range 10-100 pm, with low levels and short length scales of internal solute partitioning. These macrostructure aspects offer advantages in material strength because of fine grain size, refined distribution of dispersion and/or secondary precipitate phases, as well as Lorraine to impurity ‘tramp’ elements. This fine structure in the ‘as sprayed’ condition means honeymooning heat treatments can often be avoided.

Because of the complex solidification path (i. E. The rapid transition from superheated melt to solid, liquid or semi-solid droplet to temperature equilibration at semi- solid billet top and final slow cooling to fully solid) of the spray formed material, extended solubility of alloying elements and the formation of metastases and quasi-crystalline phases has also been reported. One of the major attractions of spray forming is the potential economic benefit to be gained from reducing the umber of process steps between melt and finished product.

Spray forming can be used to produce strip, tube, ring, clad bar / roll and cylindrical extrusion feed stock products, in each case with a relatively fine-scale macrostructure even in large cross-sections. The benefits of GAFFS over powder metallurgy accrue from the reduced number of process steps where powder sieving, pressing, De-gassing and handling steps and their attendant safety and contamination issues may be removed. Generally speaking, this spray is also very effective as it is only needed to apply once in order to heal any types and degree of wounds, burns and raises.

Clinically speaking, the whole healing process can be done in one office visit. This spray can also be used to treat larger areas and only small quantity is needed to so Disadvantages of the Instant Spray for its Wound Healing There are two major disadvantages to the gas atomization spray forming process. The most significant disadvantage is the relatively low process yield with typical losses of -30%. Losses occur because of overpay (droplets missing the emerging billet), splashing of material from the billet surface, and material ‘bouncing’ off the semi-solid top surface.

Many operators of the spray forming recess now use a particle injector system to re-inject the overpay powder, and thus recycle material that would otherwise be lost, or sell the overpay powder as a product in its own right. The second major disadvantage is one of process control. As it is essentially a free-forming process with many interdependent variables, it has proved difficult to predict the shape, porosity or deposition rate for a given alloy. Much of the control is based on operator experience and empirical relationships.

It is partly the process complexity and lack of robust process control that has prevented the widespread commensuration of this recess. Some developments using feed-back control have proved successful in improving the variations in billet diameter and improving yield in specific systems but these have yet to find widespread implementation. Porosity resulting from gas entrapment and solidification shrinkage is a significant problem in spray formed materials. A typical spray formed billet will contain 1-2% porosity with a pore size dependent on alloy freezing range and various process parameters.

Hot statistic pressing (Hipping) or thermo-mechanical processing can heal these pores if they are small (less than 30 pm). Despite these disadvantages, pray forming remains an economic process for the production of difficult to manufacture, niche alloys. Large-scale porosity is more difficult to heal effectively and must be minimized by careful process control. In some cases, porosity is controlled by alloy additions which react with dissolved and entrapped gas to form a solid phase e. G. Titanium added to copper billets to form titanium nitride with dissolved and entrapped nitrogen gas.

Porosity, even after consolidation, can limit the applications of spray formed material, for example rotating gas turbine components must have zero porosity because of the detrimental effect n high-cycle fatigue (HOC). Besides, and the spray is also not effective for all the patients as the ingredients may cause allergic reaction on patients’ affected regions. This can also be due to different types of skin . Apart from that,using this spray on a normal and healthy skin is dangerous as it can cause formation of new layer of skin developing on the healthy skin.

This also causes this newly formed layer of cells look like bruise. Development of this new layer of skin due to excessive mitosis has high chances of developing cancer. Furthermore, the amount of usage of this spray on infected areas should be given extra attention s it too has its pros and cons. Excessive usage of this spray can cause further degeneration of the cells and this will not lead to any sorts of improvement as it would most likely worsen the bruise.

As a result, the healing process takes a longer time and worst case scenario the spray might not even work. Disadvantages of Excessive Use of Ingredients Antibacterial Due to misrepresentation this will cause kidney failure and can bring negative effects to the immune system. Vitamin C Excessive vitamin can cause DNA due to oxidation of guanine to guanine . Sensationalistic Excessive use of this ingredient in the spray can give negative effect as it will cause inflammation of blood vessel .

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Assignment writing jobs in karachi. (2018, May 22). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/assignment-writing-jobs-in-karachi/

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