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Water and Hydrogen Properties Connections

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– мужчина от 50 до 60% воды

-распределение в корпусе, разделенном на 3 отсека:

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2) межклеточная / межклеточная жидкость – 11 литров – 80%

-свойства воды являются результатом ее структуры и молекулярных взаимодействий

-полярные ковалентные связи и асимметричная форма дают ему противоположные заряды на

-электроны проводят больше времени вокруг O, придавая H небольшой положительный заряд

-водородные связи образуются между кислородом одной молекулы и

-сплоченность: вещество удерживается вместе водородными связями

-водородные связи временны, но всегда достаточно удерживаются вместе, чтобы дать

вода более структурирована, чем почти любая другая жидкость

-бусинки и мениск, образованные за счет сцепления (также помогает восходящей транспортировке

-адгезия противодействует нисходящему притяжению

– вода имеет большее поверхностное натяжение, чем большинство жидкостей

-поверхностные молекулы связаны водородными связями с молекулами ниже и вокруг

-поверхностное натяжение может препятствовать жизни (например, образование пузырей в альвеолах легких)

– делает воду «несмачиваемой»

-поверхностно-активные вещества, используемые для противодействия этому

– вода имеет высокую удельную теплоемкость, что позволяет ей противостоять экстремальным температурам

-имеет высокую теплоту испарения, что требует большого количества энергии для

-при потоотделении тепловая энергия используется для изменения состояния с жидкого на газообразное,

– твердая вода менее плотная, чем жидкость, и будет плавать

-заряженные области молекул имеют электрическое притяжение к заряженным ионам

– вода окружает ионы, отделяя и экранируя их друг от друга

-полярные соединения обычно растворимы

-заряженные области воды притягиваются к противоположно заряженным областям воды.

-полярные молекулы смешиваются с другими полярными жидкостями

– большинство молекул воды не диссоциируют (~ 1/554 миллиона)

-атома водорода в водородной связи между двумя молекулами воды может

shift from the oxygen atom it is covalently bonded to the unshared orbitals of

the oxygen that it is hydrogen bonded to

-hydrogen ion is transferred creating a hydronium ion and leaving a

-at equilibrium water is not dissociated

-at equilibrium in pure water at 25oC [H+] = [OH-]

-acids are substances that increase the relative [H+] and remove OH-

because it tends to combine with H+ to form water

– if [H+] * [OH-] , it is acidic and has a pH between 0 and 7

-bases are substances that reduce the relative [H+] in a solution

-if [H+] * [OH-] , it is basic and has a pH greater than 7

-buffers are important in the body to keep the pH range between 6 and 8

-pH of blood is between 7.

34 and 7.44

-mustn’t shift below 7.2 or acidosis will occur

-some body zones may have a pH as low as 0.

5 or as high as 10

-buffers minimize sudden changes and are a combo of hydrogen donors and

-ions are accepted when in excess and donated when in short supply

-in biological systems an example is the bicarbonate buffer

-in response to a rise in pH, the carbonic acid dissociates to form a

-if there is a drop, it is reversed (pH up = to right, pH down = to left)

-equilibrium is established but it is always moving to the left or the right

-other body buffers include protein molecules which donate and accept

-most of the rest of organisms is made up of carbon based compounds like

carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

-carbon compounds are known as organic

-vitalism is the belief in a life force outside the control of chemical laws

-this has been disproved as water, ammonia, hydrogen and methane have

been combined in a lab to form organic substances

-C+H+N = amino acids, urea, proteins, lipids

-carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks

-each has 4 valences where bonds can form

-carbon chains form the skeleton of most organic molecules

-may be straight or branched, long or short, or in closed rings

-hydrocarbons contain only hydrogen and carbon

-they form when organic matter decomposes and functional groups break off

-hydrocarbon chains, branches, and rings can be modified by other

elements which are joined on in a particular matter

-these are components of organic molecules that are often involved in

-they replace 1 or more hydrogens in a hydrocarbon

-nonsugars: plant starch, animal starch, cellulose, chitin

-come from pasta, rice, flour, fruit, syrups

-important source of energy, can be oxidized to release energy, improves

-contain C, H, and O, with generally 2 times as much H as O

-sugar names usually end with -ose, and are named depending on the

number of carbons in them (e.g. triose, pentose)

-6 carbon sugars, hexoses, are most important

-general formula is C6H12O6, and in living systems, the state is aqueous

-solids exist in chains, and liquids as rings

-the molecular formula is the same for different hexoses, but the structural

-other isomers of glucose can be reorganized by cells into alpha glucose,

-glucose is the major nutrient for cells and its carbon skeleton is raw

material for the synthesis of other organics

-2 hexose sugars-most common are: sucrose, lactose and maltose

-glucose + glucose = maltose + water

-glucose + fructose = sucrose + water

-glucose + galactose = lactose + water

-this process is known as condensation or dehydration synthesis

-synthesis of disaccharides doesn’t happen in the human body, but usually

they are eaten and digested, through a process known as hydrolysis or

-these are macromolecules that are made by condensation when

-general molecular formula isC6H12O5

-common polysaccharides are amylose, amylopectin (plant starch),

glycogen (animal starch), cellulose (cell wall material), chitin (leathery

-plants use glucose to grow, and extra is stored in the roots in a soluble form

which is then reactivated in the spring – this reactivates the growing process

-animal starch is stored in special cells (average person has a 24 hour

supply) and can readily be converted into glucose for use

-cellulose and chitin are structural carbohydrates

-amylose is formed when glucose molecules join in a 1-4 linkage pattern

-first carbon of one glucose links to the fourth carbon of another

-this is a covalent bond or a glycosiolic link

-bond is angular and forms a spiral called an alpha helix

-if it branches, amylopectin is formed

-cellulose is a 1-4 linkage of beta glucose

-this creates a straight strand and not a helix

-these bonds are rigid and require special enzymes (cellulase) to break

-the position of the beta glucose molecules alternates

-cell membranes are primarily lipid and lipids can easily enter cells, carrying

-a diet should have less than 30% fat, 55-65% carbs, and 10-15% protein

-lipids are important as a source of energy, insulation (adipose tissue),

cushions for the internal organs, as a lubricant, as an emulsifying agent

(cholesterol in bile), as a structural component of cells (1/6 of brain is fat),

cholesterol as a precursor molecule for vitamin D, cortisone, testosterone,

-lipids are simplest biological molecules and are composed mostly of C, H

-they are energy rich because of the high C to H ratio

-fat consists of a glycerol molecule connected by ester bonds to a 3 fatty

acid molecule (this is a tryglyceride)

-if the bonds between the carbons are single bonds, the fatty acid is

saturated (fat formed is a saturate)

-if they have multiple bonds, it is an unsaturated fat

-a polysaturate is more than one fatty acid held together by single bonds

-multiple bonds can be broken and extra hydrogens added through

-short chained fats of unsaturated fatty acids are soft with a low b.p.

-long chained fats of saturated fatty acids are harder with a high b.p.

-length of chains affects boiling point the most

-to make an oil from a solid, you must hydrogenate it

-saturated fatty acids can be converted to the steroid cholesterol

-triglycerides are monitored more closely in the blood than cholesterol

-the amount of saturates converted to cholesterol is genetic

-abnormal genes can cause excessive production (1 gene = severe heart

-examples are androgens, estrogens, and cortisone

-there are 20 amino acids, 8 of which are essential and can be converted

-protein rich foods are digested into amino acids and the body absorbs them

-liver cells convert them into absent aminos = transaminofication

-proteins are synthesized on ribosomes in the cytoplasms of cells or on

-DNA codes proteins by copying its info onto a shorter strand known as

mRNA (m = a message to synthesize a protein)

-the message is received and a protein is synthesized

-number, sequence and type of amino acids making up the protein is the

primary structure – this is determined by DNA

-secondary structure is the coiling or pleating of amino acid chains, caused

by rigid peptide bonds which are bent by strong intermolecular attraction

between hydrogens and oxygens of every fourth amino – this results in a

regular, repeating twist or an alphahelix

-chains lie parallel to one another and form hydrogen bonds between

themselves – this is a beta sheet but is not very common

-secondary structure is determined by intermolecular bonds

-tertiary structure refers to the folds in the coiled chain

-this is called by a thiol called cysteine – this can form a bridge when it meets

-when 2 cysteines meet, a disulfide link is formed

-insulin has 6 cysteine amino acids and forms 3 bridges and a slightly

-the more cysteine amino acids there are, the more folds or joints that result

and the more globular the protein is

-globular proteins are the “doers” that function because they have a

particular shape due to the cysteine-cysteine sulfur bridges

-some proteins may be a bunch of polypeptide chains close together

-this is quaternary structure, which very few proteins have

-all proteins have a primary and secondary structure, but few have a tertiary

structure, and even fewer a quaternary

-proteins can be 50-50,000 amino acids long

-amino acids are joined by peptide bonds, a covalent bond between the C of

one amino acid and the N of a neighbour

-a polypeptide chain is a string of aminos not long enough to be a protein

-amino acids are so named because of their two functional groups, the

amine group and the carboxylic acid group

-all living cells contain DNA and RNA

-these carry instructions for making proteins and specify the sequence in

which amino acids should be linked together

-DNA and RNA are polynucleotides, polymers of nucleotides

-nucleotides consist of a phosphate group + a pentose + a nitrogenous base

-they can be linked together by condensation to form a polynucleotide

-if a nucleotide contains ribose, it becomes Ribo Nucleic Acid

-these are always just a single strand, but may be looped into 3 dimensional

-if the nucleotide contains deoxyribose, Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid results

-DNA molecules are far longer than RNA molecules, and can never contain

-4 possible bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine

-DNA molecules contain two polynucleotide strands, held together by

-hydrogen bonds can only be formed between specific base pairs:

-a sense strand is a sequence of bases that tells the order in which to string

-a length of DNA coding the sequence for a polypeptide is called a gene

-three bases, a codon, specify an amino acid

-there are 64 possible arrangements of bases in a codon

-polypeptides are made when 2 strands of DNA split up and an RNA

molecule builds up against the sense strand

-base sequence of RNA must match that of the DNA molecule

-a complete RNA molecule then peels off and travels to the location where

-sequence of bases on a DNA molecule is the same for a human or a

-a slightly different version of one of the nucleotides that forms RNA is ATP

-ATP contains ribose, adenine and 3 phosphate groups instead of 1

-phosphate groups may be lost one at a time to make ADP (di) or AMP

-all living cells make ATP as an energy currency, it is produced constantly

-ATP molecules usually last less than a minute before being broken down

-if a cell needs energy, it hydrolyses ATP and releases energy in small

-contains ribose sugar, adenine and 2 nucleotides

-one нуклеотид не содержит ни одного из 5 оснований, но вместо этого

-они могут принимать водород и превращаться в НАДН

-водороды принимаются или передаются во время дыхания или фотосинтеза

Cite this Water and Hydrogen Properties Connections

Water and Hydrogen Properties Connections. (2018, Jul 03). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/biology-molecule-essay/

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