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Brazil Female Infanticide

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With that mindset, male infants are seen as having more financial potential than arils. Therefore making male babies more desirable than females, leading to abortion based on gender discrimination and post-birth killing of infants.. Female babies have twice as high of a chance of not surviving in the first week of birth than males Often times this social standard is tied to cultural ideals, specifically in areas with high poverty rates or with strong bias against women on a community level.

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These cultural ideals mainly involve dowry cases and pensions. In some cultures and religions, the family of a bride must pay a dowry to the groom’s family, consisting of money or valuable items. Poverty tricked families are unable to pay this dowry in their respective communities, and instead choose to kill their female child when she is born. The death rate of girls is approximately three times higher in rural areas than urban ones. In India, both female infanticide and female fetid, the intentional abortion of a child- are common.

As reported by the UN News center, the ratio of females to males in proportionally smaller in India now, compared to pasterns. In 201 2, there were about 914 girls for every 1000 boys. In China, the one child policy states that a family with more than one child cannot receive certain social services or can have their income deducted, increasing the likelihood of infanticide, leaving cause for concern on both international policy and national rights. II.

Lignite Nations Involvement In 1993, The United Nations General Assembly created the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, which stated the injustice of violence on women in any form, including female infanticide. In 1 994, the UN more specifically addressed the issue in the “Plan of Action for the Elimination Of Harmful Traditional practices Affecting the Health Of Women and the Girl Child” (Resolution 2005/28). This plan directly stated that “female fetid and Female infanticide” are human rights violations.

The United Nations Population Fund’s (UNAPT) State of the World Population Report helped to identify the extent of the issue and to draw statistics in countries such as India, The Republic of Korea, and China. For example, The UNAPT reported that about 60 million girls have gone missing in Asia alone, with the possible cause of female infanticide. In the UN drafted Millennium Development Goals of 201 5 (Megs), female infanticide is addressed in goal four; reduce child mortality.

This international effort helped reduce child mortality by 47% n 2012. The UNAPT also helped establish the Infant Focused MEG Fund which helps provide financial assistance to child mortality reduction projects established by national governments. UN Women and the Office of High Commissioner for Human Rights (OCCUR) have also addressed female infanticide. In the World MEG Summit with the topic ‘Every Women Every Child’, these UN agencies and organizations addressed the urgency of the issue and outlined different methods of approaching it.

The General Assembly Resolution 61/43 created in 2007, reinstated that countries cannot use customs, traditions, or religious beliefs to subject women and girls to lenience. It also urges country governments to develop a comprehensive approach to the issue by regulating laws or preparing amendments. Not only that, but The United Nations Children’s Fund (EUNICE) enacted the Renewed Commitment on Child Survival which established three secretariats towards infant survival; evidence-based country plans, transparency and mutual accountability, global communication and social manipulation.

Ill. Country Policy and Solutions The country of Brazil is strongly against female infanticide and is a firm follower of the UN General Assembly Resolution 61/43, against violence of NY kind to women and female children. Brazier’s main issues with the topic involve passive not direct female infanticide; meaning that these babies are neglected not directly killed through usual means such as head trauma or suffocation. This issue is prevalent mainly because of socio-economic factors, which is why Brazil has focused on those areas of reform.

To address the financial catalysts that lead to female infanticide, Brazil strongly encourages the integration of micro financial loans. These are administered through country specific providers or institutions such as Kava International and will CT as an incentive to avoid the intentional infanticide of girls. Many of these cases are caused because of the financial instability of the family to be able to support their daughter, or through more cultural issues such as dowry distribution.

The micro loans are given to the women figurehead of the family, because they are the primary caregiver for children. The amount of money allocated with the loans is just enough for the basic needs Of the family, but can also be used to start local home-run businesses and enterprises such as basket weaving. This will provide economic stability for families in impoverished nations and will allow them to be able to carry out fundamental development for their health and welfare.

Not only will this increase the role and financial potential of women within the family but it will also decrease the need for only having male members of the family as money providers. These loans have been used in nations such as Bangladesh, Chad, and Nigeria and have a near one hundred percent pay back rate. For the actual distribution of these micro loans, Brazil turns to the establishment of self help groups focused on mother to child goals, which allow poverty-stricken men and omen to form organized groups to discuss current economic, educational, and health care status. Utilizing the Rural Educational Education and Action Development program, specialists will be provided to teach these groups how to use the loans to benefit their households and even help alleviate the gender discrimination and common misconceptions about females through therapeutic sessions and group talks.. This will act as a way to improve the micro-enterprises that help sustain individual families. By combating the poverty that is attached to this issue, Brazil believes that the international immunity will be better equipped to dealing with the issue as a whole.

In countries with high rates of female infanticide, this will be particularly beneficial. China’s case is very specific, because it is affected by its “one child” policy; meaning that the rates of both abortion and infanticide increase to avoid losing social services or face decreased wages as stated in the law. The micro-financial loans will be able to counteract the discrimination against female babies when couples have their first child, directly combating the issue of fetid. Also, the financial benefits will help towards avoiding the intentional killing of the couple’s child (post-birth). Sing initiatives similar to Community-Based Rural Livelihoods Programmer in Afghanistan and Employment and Livelihood for Adolescents Centers in Bangladesh as precedents for next-in line countries, the Brazil aims establish a Youth- Inclusive Financial Se;CE Linkage Program (YAPS-Link) that can provide young girls (12-25 age) with issue discussions, livelihood trainings, and financial products. Besides providing young girls with the basic loan, YAPS- Link also arranges members into Village Organizations, where young girls are arranged n “safe spaces” or meetings that allow for girls to connect outside of home.

Village Organization leaders also engage young women in income-generating activities, including household tailoring and crop cultivation. Increasing the importance of girls in households will decrease the amount of female infanticide and fetid. This is also why Brazil encourages national health care sectors to adopt a media engagement strategy which allows all awareness campaigns and programs to be run through both UN and country officials before being implemented into educational curriculums, public seminars, or sent to the news media.

The adoption Of this strategy will ensure there is no overlap of awareness campaigns which in turn, will save international resources such as funding. The actual implementation of this strategy will be done through the establishment of direct-access information services, such as call centers, websites, transitional health clinics, and even refugee camps, as implemented through the country’s private media sector. This strategy works in with organizations such as CARE and ZINNIA to raise awareness on female infanticide.

To address is government regulation of female infanticide, Brazil supports the distribution of the SPECTRUM software cage by the Future Institute in partnership with international donors. The package contains a maternal mortality unit that focuses on prevention strategies on issues that increase child mortality. It estimates the impact of such Issues, in this case being female infanticide, Maternal-Neonatal Program Index (MAPI), which acts as an index for national efforts to improve conditions against child mortality.

The index is supported by 81 indicators and resources and is used as a national reference tool for countries when taking policy decisions or emergency action against female infanticide. The cage gives program coordinators and voluntary collaborators a better understanding of policies, budgets, and service delivery improvements to the govern meets private sectors. Works Cited 1. “2. 3. 5 Changes in Overall, Infant, Child, and Maternal Mortality. ” United Nations Population Fund. UNAPT, n. D. Web. 23 Jan. 2014. . 2. Paid, Throaty. “UN Agency Deplores Infanticide of Girls in India; Praises Government for Study. I’ KIN News Center. I-IN, 28 Cot. 2003. Web. 22 Jan. 2014. . 4. “Infanticide, Abortion Responsible for 60 Million Girls Missing in Asia. ” Fox News. FOX News Network, n. D. Web. 21 Jan. 2014. . 5. “Infanticide Statistics All Girls Allowed. ” Infanticide Statistics All Girls Allowed. N. P. , n. D. Web. 22 Jan. 2014. . 6. “International Policy Instruments. ” International Policy Instruments. UN Women, n. D. Web. 22 Jan. 2014. . 7. “Kava – Loans That Change Lives. ” Kava. Kava International, n. . Web. 22 Jan. 2014. . 8. “MEG Momentum I UN Women – Headquarters. ” MEG Momentum I UN Women – Headquarters. LLC, n. D. Web. 22 Jan. 2014. . 9. Podia, Narrate. “Narrate Podia: Female Infanticide – Indian’s Unspoken Evil. ” The Huffing Post ELK. Huffing Post, n. D. Web. 22 Jan. 2014. . 11. “Son Preference” Perpetuates Discrimination and Violations of Women’s Rights – It Must and Can End I UN Women – Headquarters. I’ “Son Preference” Perpetuates Discrimination and Violations of Women’s Rights – It Must and can End I UN women – Headquarters. UN women, n. D. Web. 22 Jan. 2014. < http://www. unwomen. org/en/news/stories/201116/son-preferen ce- perpetua tes-discrimination-and-violations-of-women-s-rights-it-must-and- can-end/>. 12. “Youth-Inclusive Financial Services Linkage Program (YAPS-Link. Promoting Inclusive Markets and Financial Systems.

YAPS-Link, n. D. Web. 22 Jan. 2014. . Committee Topic: Natural Disaster Relief Country Name: Federative Republic Of Brazil Brazier’s Position on Natural Disaster Relief An annual average of 107,000 people die from natural disaster caused deaths, and 268 million become victims. Natural disasters can affect areas of high or low income, according to the World Bank’s income classifications. The top ten countries with the most natural disasters account for 68. Of the global disaster mortality. Over the past decade, China, the Philippines, Indonesia, India and the United States have become the top five countries that are most frequently hit by a natural disaster. In 2012, China experienced the fourth highest number of natural disasters including 13 floods and landslides, 8 storms, and 7 earthquakes. The most recent disaster to hit the Philippines was Typhoon Hanna, which struck on November 7th 2013, and was the largest tropical cyclone ever recorded. The typhoon impacted about 25 million people and was a Category 5 super storm.

Indonesia was extremely susceptible to disasters and hit was hit with an onslaught of medium to low level storms and floods in 2012, but has slowly decreased in annual death rate since then. India has a more specialized problem to natural disasters because of its high population density. For instance, on October 12th 2013 a cyclone hit India at approximately 124 miles per hour, and only 800,000 civilians were able to be evacuated by authorities. The United States, being a high-income country has numerous disaster preparedness initiatives; however it is still extremely vulnerable to natural disasters.

In 2012, the most expensive disaster that cost about $60 billion IIS dollars in economic damage was Hurricane Sandy. This affected both the Mid-West and South-Western part of the US that faced reconstruction for years after. Natural Disaster Relief is an issue that involves both international cooperation and national relief specifically in countries that are at extreme risk for disasters. II. United Nations Involvement In the forty-sixth session of the General Assembly, the United Nation’s drafted a framework of natural disaster relief.

This was stated in resolution A/46/1 94 and 46/92 under “Strengthening of the coordination of humanitarian emergency assistance of the United Nations. ” When the General Assembly reconvened at its sixtieth session it expanded on the framework and upgraded the Central Emergency Revolving Fund into the Central Emergency Response Fund to include a grant based system of contributions and voluntary collaborators. This action helped strengthen the global disaster relief infrastructure, specifically on financial relief and funding for recovery projects.

This issue was again addressed by the General Assembly at its sixty-second session that created a report (resolution 60/1 24) which quested effort from the Emergency Relief Coordinator and encouraged UN organizations and relative Nags to strengthen collaboration and disaster risk monitoring. All humanitarian and natural disaster relief programs and efforts are regulated by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (COCA), which is led by the Emergency Relief Coordinator.

One of the main contributions of COCA to global disaster relief is comprehensive research and data on emergencies worldwide, and also financing provisions for specific disaster situations. COCA also oversees the IAC or Inter-Agency Standing Committee, which brings together both UN and Non-governmental agencies to combat humanitarian crisis, specifically natural disasters. The UN has also sponsored the World Humanitarian Day on August 1 9th, to increase public awareness about humanitarian assistance and UN involvement, as drafted in resolution 63/139. Ill.

Country Policy and Solutions According to a study conducted by the World Bank, state governments, and the National Secretariat of Civil Defense, Brazil has spent a total of 39 billion US dollars on recovery from four recent natural disasters such as the falsehoods and landslides in ROI De Jeanine in 201 1. The country of Brazil firmly supports the creation of disaster management plans, and even launched the National Plan for Disaster Risk Management (2012-2014). A total of $11 billion was set aside for the new initiative, of which 83% is specifically allocated for construction projects aimed at avoiding the effects of natural disasters.

Brazil strongly encourages nations to first strengthen their national protocols and frameworks for disaster response and recovery before focusing on a global level. For instance, Brazier’s own national plan consists of humanitarian assistance, rehabilitation, and reconstruction. The nation’s government created a separate advisory Cabinet for the purpose of monopolizing institutions for immediate relief to affected communities and offering rehabilitation to disaster survivors that have faced trauma.

Brazil also utilized National Civil Defense Teams, civil society organizations, and voluntary collaborators to establish a task force that helps victims directly and coordinates all donations for relief projects throughout Brazil. Brazier’s National Bank for Social and Economic Development (BINDERS) helps to finance these recovery projects, and also integrates micro financing to implies affected by disasters. The National Bank works in conjunction with the World Bank to reach all parts of Brazil and ensure there are sufficient funds for both immediate relief and post-disaster recovery.

If all nations were to adopt a similar approach, they could decrease their susceptibility to major losses and destruction in the event of a disaster. On a global scale, Brazil supports the World Food Program’s three step approach that includes preparedness, responding, and recovering. An important component of disaster relief is having preparedness plans ready for a natural disaster. The iris step would be to utilize global detection methods such as the World Food Program’s (PM) Early Warning Systems, which collect and analyze data on both natural and man-made disasters.

The detection system uses Rapid Impact Analysis to help keep track of weather patterns and sudden climate changes. Rapid Impact Analysis uses satellite imagery to show the situation on a ground level and computerized modeling to predict damage or changes to the area. By predicting the disaster beforehand, WFM can then order extra supplies and have the distributed in advance. This is all overseen by Wop’s Emergency Preparedness team. When a disaster finally strikes an area, phase two of Brazier’s plan is enacted; responding. WFM creates an Emergency Operation (MOP) which is an action plan and budget to respond to a disaster.

This is done by accessing the severity of the damage, drafting lists Of people who are in need of food assistance, preparing rationing techniques, transportation methods, and establishing crisis zones in need of immediate relief. The Program then gathers donations from international donors to help fund for disaster relief methods that are not covered by WFM. The actual distribution of basic supplies such as food and water, are done through striation networks. These can range from refugee camps, therapeutic feeding centers, and other emergency shelters.

Both the Word Food Program and the Red Cross distribute food aid by collaborating with communities on a local level and with national governments on a wider scale. The fast response is aided by the Fast Information Technology and Telecommunications Emergency and Support Team (FITTEST) which help WFM obtain necessary equipment and establishes communication sites to help order supplies faster. In terms Of rapid response, Brazil also strongly supports the United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDEAD) as part of the international response system for sudden disasters.

The UNDEAD focuses on assessment, coordination, and information management. UNDEAD teams establish and oversee On-Site Operations Coordination Center (SOC) which then deploys international Serbian Search and Rescue (SARA) teams to respond to the disaster. The SARA teams are essential components of the COCO, which is stressed by the General assembly in resolution 57/150. The UNDEAD consists of expert emergency managers that are country-specific and specially trained for the designated task. The systems and procedures of the UNDEAD are proven to have a specialized team arrive within 12 to 48 hours of the disaster on request.

This, along with self sufficient equipment and technology and pre- defined methods for facilitating disaster assessments, increase the effectiveness of the Socks. Brazil also recognizes that there are two methods to initiate recovery and reconstruction. The first would be to utilize the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction’s (UNIONS) Pre-Disaster Recovery Planning (PDP) in order to help communities with reconstruction and building of infrastructure. This would be a pre-set plan that countries would evolve using research from the International Recovery Platform (RIP) to prepare for the possible outcome of a severe natural disaster.

Its purpose is to help government officials working with small communities to create and follow a process to pre plan for disaster recovery, and in doing so, strengthen future recovery efforts and outcomes. PDP has been utilized in countries such as Japan, the US, Latin America. The planning process has been proven to be more effective when it is used in partnership between national and state governments, private sectors, civil society organizations, and local institutions to provide all around access to the benefits of the recovery plan.

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Brazil Female Infanticide. (2018, Apr 05). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/brazil-female-infanticide/

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