Jain, Sharma and Subramanian mentioned that congestion in the United States has increased dramatically since the last 25 old ages, which is the same as many states that enduring from traffic congestion presently. From the writers ‘ prospective, one of the major causes of traffic jam in the most metropoliss is ‘poor route traffic direction system ‘ .
Increasing of traffic congestion every twelvemonth is doing increasing of air pollution, blowing of clip and productiveness and causes diverse diseases such as, respiratory diseases. Furthermore, the cost of work outing or cut downing traffic congestion is tremendous. However, pretermiting the traffic jam job would increase the societal jobs among citizens.
The following portion of this essay illustrates many causes of traffic congestion in different metropoliss around the universe, and the effects of these causes on the environment. Furthermore, the solutions that solved the traffic jam job, and the suggested solutions that could assist to cut down the congestion in some metropoliss.
Causes and Effectss
This portion of the essay demonstrates many causes, effects and possible solutions of traffic congestion jobs.
1. Los Angeles ( USA ) .
Causes and Effectss:
One of the chief causes of traffic congestion in Los Angeles ( United States of America ) is ‘car civilization ‘ , which means many people in the metropolis or county owned private autos ( Thisdell, 1993 ) . Additionally, the land-use form is an of import ground that makes people in Los Angeles were utilizing private autos widely and made conveyance planning hard. Furthermore, traffic congestion increased due to no belowground railroad and public conveyance in Los Angeles. Furthermore, the high Numberss of vehicles, which are a consequence of overpopulation and the economic growing, and the weak of public transit, have a negative consequence on the environment such as air pollution, which happened on Saturday when commuter traffic is undistinguished. Sorensen ( 2009 ) illustrated many grounds that make Los Angeles have traffic congestion such as ‘Common misconceptions ‘ and ‘high regional population denseness ‘ . As an illustration of common misconceptions, people in Los Angeles love autos ‘ drive, which means the relation between people and their autos is really strong and described as love ‘s relation. As an illustration of ‘high regional population denseness ‘ is drivers were non see roads as a job of traffic congestion. Sorensen said that high population and some of the other factors that aforementioned could besides do the traffic jam worse.
Thisdell ( 1993 ) mentioned that Los Angeles County transit commission said creates more roads for autos will non work out traffic congestion jobs, with increasing Numberss of people and vehicles. Besides, traditional public conveyance such as coachs will be more effectual in limited countries merely. The commission suggested that ‘Metro ‘ system, which is a complete undertaking of public conveyance including belowground railroads, coachs and developing expresswaies. It is clear that, the system has many advantages such as cut downing clip loss, increase productiveness and cut pollution. However, the cost of doing merely the first portion of Metro undertaking was $ 1.35 billion. In add-on, there are some menaces to human life such as, gas and temblors. Sorensen ( 2009 ) mentioned about some short schemes that can work out traffic job in Los Angeles such as, promoting people to utilize ‘ride-sharing ‘ and bikes, better the system of commanding the traffic visible radiation and do it more efficient, which are cheap solutions but really effectual and eco-friendly. The other solution is ‘Peak -hour route pricing ‘ which make people pay some money to drive on specific roads at specific period of the twenty-four hours Downs ( 2004 ) . This solution makes roads expensive and avoids traffic congestion at peak hours.
2. Dhaka ( Bangladesh ) .
Causes and Effectss:
The 2nd cause that makes traffic congestion is deficiency of planning of metropolis roads. Harmonizing to Mahmud et Al. ( 2012 ) , Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh, is one of the most dumbly populated metropoliss in the whole universe. The population exceeded twelve million and still increasing daily ; doing the traffic jams a large issue for Dhaka authorities. Harmonizing to their study, many grounds cause this congestion such as, immense figure of people live in the metropolis and owned their autos and traffic regulation misdemeanor. In add-on, the roads are narrow, deficiency of Planning of the metropolis ‘s roads and bad traffic signalling. It is clear from the study that the metropolis ‘s roads are the most jobs that doing traffic congestion. Due to traffic jam, there are many impacts on the economic system, peoples ‘ wellness and the environment. The economic impact describes as people losing some working hours, autos consumed more fuel and vehicle care cost. Furthermore, people in Dhaka are enduring from incommodiousness, external respiration and oculus jobs which caused by pollution. Additionally, environmental jobs such as, air and sound pollution are endangering people ‘s lives. Dey et Al, ( 2002 ) mentioned that 86 % of the general people who live in Dhaka considered noise pollution are a large issue for them. For case, a high per centum of pupils said they studied in a noisy environment.
Many solutions considered for work outing Dhaka traffic congestion.
Harmonizing to Mahmud et Al. ( 2012 ) study, three different points to control traffic jam were mentioned as follows: the first point is considered occupants point of position [ figure1 ] , which including suggestions such as, increasing people ‘s consciousness about traffic causes and their impact on the environment. In add-on to that, 16 % of people think that bettering public conveyance is an of import solution that can cut down the cost and clip for them. Equally good as, scheduling different times to get down schools and authorities offices to avoid a traffic jam on the roads. The 2nd point is vehicles ‘ considerations [ figure2 ] , which mean vehicle operators, could assist to cut down traffic congestion. It is clear from [ figure2 ] that, 41 % of operators considered doing rigorous regulations of the roads, that every driver should follow these regulations, as an effectual solution to control traffic jam. Furthermore, 16 % of the operators suggested decentalisation solution, which means distribute the chief offices and shopping Centres far from metropolis Centre to avoid a immense traffic on the route traveling at that place.The 3rd point takes the experts point of position, which were classified into three parts. The first portion is the short-run solution ( 5 old ages ) that can cut down roads throng temporarily as bettering traffic light systems and increase the parking monetary values. The 2nd portion is the medium-term solution ( 5-10 old ages ) , such as bettering the railroads and makes it more efficient. The 3rd portion is the long-run solution ( & A ; lt ; 10 old ages ) for illustration, make sustainable conveyance for the metropolis with sing the environment jobs. Mahmud et Al. said, by cut downing traffic congestion on Dhaka, citizen wellness would non impact more by environmental jobs such as, air and noise pollution. Furthermore, people can hold a alleviation about the impact of pollution on the following coevalss.
3. Arab states: ( Iraq, Egypt, Jordan and Oman ) .
Causes and Effectss:
The 3rd factor that causes of traffic congestion is inefficient and unequal public conveyance, chiefly in Arab states such as Iraq, Egypt, Jordan and Oman. Kaysi et Al. ( 2011 ) noticed that, the population of the antecedently mentioned states increased quickly during the last old ages. Furthermore, most of the aforesaid states rich in oil, so the monetary value of gasolene and Diesel fuel is really inexpensive compared to European states, which led to increase the Numberss of private autos. Additionally, traffic congestion has increased dramatically as a effect of deficiency of public conveyance and disregarding it by the authoritiess. Besides that, some grounds contributed to increase traffic congestion such as, inefficient traffic direction systems and deficient public consciousness.As a consequence of all old grounds, the environmental pollution ( air and noise ) was increasing, and a little negative impact on the economic system in general was go oning. Another consequence due to traffic congestion is increasing in decease rates in the above-named states by 38.1, 41.6, 34.2 and 21.3 ( per 100,000 population ) severally, which considered as the highest compared to other states in the universe.
The Arab authoritiess were sing diverse solutions to cut down traffic congestion in their states. Harmonizing to Kaysi et Al. said, the authoritiess understood that the public conveyance is the biggest issue in their states ; so many states lunched undertakings such as belowground railroads. As an illustration of these undertakings, the Egyptian authorities launched a new undertaking that aims to build an belowground tube in Cairo lessening utilizing older autos, which increase air pollution. Another illustration, In United Arab Emirates, precisely in Dubai metropolis, the authorities established an urban rail system that aims to cut down autos ‘ C emanations. Furthermore, due to increasing of pollution, peculiarly air pollution, the bulk of the Arab authoritiess switched from leaded gasolene to leadless one. For case, the aforesaid states and Qatar, Tunisia and Bahrain are utilizing leadless gasolene presently. Whereas, few states such as, Algeria and Iraq still utilizing a double system [ figure 3 ] . Furthermore, Arab authoritiess began to command the import of second-hand autos that consume much gasolene or Diesel and bring forth more C emanations. For illustration, in Egypt, importing a second-hand auto should be less than three old ages old. Equally good as, in Jordan less than five old ages old, while in Oman importing second-hand vehicle demands permission from the Ministry of Industry.
4. Florida ( USA ) and Beirut ( Lebanon ) .
Causes and Effectss:
Harmonizing to Hartgen et Al. ( 2006 ) study, overpopulation and route capacity are the chief causes of traffic congestion in the United States of America, particularly Florida State. As an illustration, Florida has six urbanised countries that already suffer from the traffic jam, because of the addition in population, peak-hour traffic volumes exceed route capacity and people prefer private mobility. Additionally, ‘The Sunshine State ‘ expected to add another 6.4 million people in its urbanised countries by 2030. Consequently, traffic congestion becomes worse than presently, because of route capacities are non plenty to accept increasing of autos. In add-on, traffic congestion has many effects such as clip loss, higher fuel usage, increasing of accidents and loss of productiveness. Similarly, Beirut metropolis in Lebanon has the same job ( overpopulation ) that causes traffic jam. Khaddaj ( 2012 ) mentioned that overpopulation and the high figure of autos Beirut are the most causes of traffic congestion. Besides, Research workers at the American University of Beirut ( AUB ) conducted an environmental survey on air pollution that caused by traffic in congestion. The survey released on 25th of May 2012, the consequences show a immense addition in pollution degree that will impact people wellness and the environment.
Harmonizing to Schrank et Al. ( 2011 ) study, which made a survey on traffic congestion of many metropoliss in the United States of America, noticed that many solutions would assist to cut down traffic jams. For case, utilizing the public conveyance system ( railroads, coachs ) and increasing of bing coach paths. Furthermore, increasing the figure of roads, motorcycle lanes and do a new theodolite route may assist to cut down traffic on the chief roads. The impact of sing the aforesaid solutions would be, salvaging a important figure of hold hours, and cut downing the sum of gasolene that consumed due to traffic congestion. By traveling to Beirut metropolis in Lebanon, Khaddaj ( 2012 ) said, due to overpopulation and increasing in air pollution that affected on the green infinites in the metropolis, the ministry of environment in Lebanon launched a new undertaking called ‘Greener Beirut ‘ that aims to diminish the sum of gas emanations and increase the green countries. This undertaking is concentrating on increasing the figure of Parkss in different countries in the metropolis to increase the per centum of air degrees in the metropolis. In this undertaking, Beirut authorities attempts to cut down the environmental impact of traffic congestion on citizen ‘s wellness.
To sum up, traffic congestion is a planetary job that many metropoliss enduring from it. The most of import causes that increase traffic congestion are overpopulation, deficiency of planning of metropolis route, utilizing private autos widely, route capacity and insufficient and unequal public conveyance. As a consequence of old causes, a immense impact on the environment, human wellness and economic system. As an illustration of environmental consequence, air and noise pollution, which lead people enduring from bosom diseases, asthma and lung malignant neoplastic disease. Furthermore, clip loss, the auto consumes more fuel and cut down productiveness are the popular impact on the economic system. Many solutions are considered to work out traffic jobs.The most suited solutions that some metropoliss constructed are belowground tube, utilizing public conveyance, expand route ‘s capacity, cut downing import second-hand autos and bettering of traffic visible radiation signaling. Each metropolis constructed properly solution to cut down or control traffic jams.
From my perceptual experience, the solutions of traffic congestion are diverse from metropolis to another, depending on the metropolis ‘s substructure and the civilization of the occupants. Some solutions such as tube system, which includes belowground railroads, coachs, and bikes may non success in developing states that suffers from overpopulation and people have ain auto as a civilization. However, get downing with public conveyance ( coachs ) and promoting people to utilize it alternatively of private autos could work out a portion of the traffic job, and altering bit by bit people believing about utilizing private autos every clip.